<head><foreign>Passus quartus decimus</foreign></head>
<l> I Haue but one<note>Bx.14.1: <hi>one</hi>: L and alpha. Other mss. (including M) add <hi>hool</hi>, which KD (but not Schmidt) adopt on the basis that this is Haukyn's <hi>best cote</hi> (<ref><hi>Bx</hi>.13.329</ref>). With the exception of the b-verse of l. <ref>32</ref>, lines 1-42 have no parallel in <hi>C</hi>.</note> hatere quod haukyn · I am þe lasse to blame</l>
<l> Þough it be soiled and selde clene · I slepe þere-inne on niȝtes</l>
<l> And also I haue an houswyf · hewen and children</l>
<l> <foreign>Vxorem duxy & ideo non possum venire</foreign></l>
<l> Þat wolen bymolen it many tyme<note>Bx.14.5: <hi>tyme</hi>: G and alpha have <hi>tymes</hi>. See note to <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.11.387</ref> where there is the same variation.</note> · maugre my chekes</l>
<l> ¶ It hath ben laued in lente · and oute of lente bothe</l>
<l> With þe sope of sykenesse · þat seketh wonder depe</l>
<l> And with þe losse of catel · loth forto agulte</l>
<l> God or any gode man · bi auȝte þat I wiste<note>Bx.14.9: F rewrites to repair the alliteration.</note></l>
<l> And was shryuen of þe preste · þat gaue me for my synnes</l>
<l> To penaunce pacyence · and pore men to fede</l>
<l> Al for coueitise of my crystenedome · in clennesse to kepen it</l>
<l> ¶ And couthe I neuere<note>Bx.14.13: <hi>neuere</hi>: Alpha has <hi>nouȝt</hi>.</note> by cryste · kepen it clene an houre</l>
<l> Þat I ne soiled it with syȝte · or sum ydel speche</l>
<l> Or þorugh werke or þorugh worde<note>Bx.14.15: <hi>þorugh worde</hi>: CGO omit <hi>þorugh</hi>, but it motivates alpha's non-alliterating <hi>thouȝt</hi>. F has <hi>þoruh</hi> in the b-verse.</note> · or wille of myn herte</l>
<l> Þat I ne flober it foule · fro morwe tyl eue</l>
<l> ¶ And I shal kenne þe quod conscience · of contricioun to make</l>
<l> Þat shal clawe þi cote · of alkynnes filthe</l>
<l> <foreign>Cordis contricio &c</foreign></l>
<l> Dowel wasshen<note>Bx.14.20: <hi>wasshen</hi>: Beta2 and O supply <hi>shal</hi> (added by the M corrector) on the basis of ll. <ref>18</ref> and <ref>22</ref>.</note> it and wryngen it · þorw a wys confessour</l>
<l> <foreign>Oris confessio &c</foreign></l>
<l> Dobet shal beten it and bouken it · as briȝte as any scarlet</l>
<l> And engreynen it with good wille · and goddes grace to amende þe</l>
<l> And sithen sende þe to satisfaccioun · for to so[nn]en<note>Bx.14.24: <hi>sonnen</hi>: "dry in the sun" after dyeing it, rather than beta's much easier <hi>sowen</hi>, "sew". Alpha's verb is sparsely cited in <title>MED</title>, but it is more appropriate for the process of cleaning.</note> it after</l>
<l> <foreign>Satisfaccio</foreign> dobest<note>Bx.14.25: Following this F has two extra lines. KD adopt the first on the grounds that it is "pre-archetypal" (p. 172).</note></l>
<l><note>Bx.14.26: <hi></hi>: The paraph is in beta only. In R the line is at the top of the page.</note> Shal neuere myste<note>Bx.14.26: <hi>myste</hi>: Presumably a <hi>Bx</hi> error for <hi>myske</hi>, "dirt" (<title>MED</title> <hi>mix</hi>). Beta2 alters to <hi>chyste / cheeste</hi>, "quarrelling".</note> bimolen it · ne moth after biten it</l>
<l> Ne fende ne false man [·] defoulen it in þi lyue</l>
<l> Shal none heraude ne harpoure · haue a fairere garnement</l>
<l> Þan haukyn þe actyf man · and þow do by my techyng</l>
<l> Ne no mynstral be more worth · amonges pore & riche</l>
<l> Þan Haukynnes wyf þe wafrere · w[hic]h is<note>Bx.14.31: <hi>which is</hi>: KD accept that alpha's reading is archetypal, but argue that "from the poor sense of <hi>wif</hi> (why should her clothes be compared with those of heralds and harpers?) this is unoriginal" (p. 187), and so emend <hi>wif</hi> to <hi>wil</hi>. Like beta, which reads <hi>with his</hi>, KD miss the significance of ll. <ref>3-4</ref>, where Hawkin's wife is an aspect of <hi>activa vita</hi>.</note> <foreign>actiua vita</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ And I shal purueye þe paste quod pacyence · þough<note>Bx.14.32: <hi>þough</hi>: Alpha reads <hi>þouȝ þow</hi>, but beta is supported by the b-verse in <hi>Cx</hi> (RK.15.234).</note> no plow erie</l>
<l> And floure to fede folke with · as best be for þe soule</l>
<l> Þough neuere greyne growed · ne grape vppon vyne</l>
<l> Alle<note>Bx.14.35: <hi>Alle</hi>: Indirect object of <hi>fynde</hi>; WF supply prepositions.</note> þat lyueth and loketh · lyflode wolde I fynde</l>
<l> And þat ynough shal none faille · of þinge þat hem nedeth</l>
<l> We shulde nouȝt be to busy · abouten owre lyflode</l>
<l> <foreign>Ne solliciti sitis &c [·] volucres celi deus pascit &c [·] pacientes vincunt &c<note>Bx.14.38: We separate the three quotations by punctuation. MR separate the first two by punctuation and the second and third by a line-break, but L runs the line on without punctuation. F ends with <hi>scitis</hi>.</note></foreign></l>
<l> ¶ Þanne laughed haukyn a litel · and liȝtly gan swerye</l>
<l> Who-so leueth ȝow<note>Bx.14.40: <hi>ȝow</hi>: R has <hi>ȝow noþer</hi>; F in a revised line has <hi>eyþir of ȝow</hi>. Perhaps alpha had <hi>ȝow either</hi>, i.e. either Conscience or Patience. Schmidt (1995) adopts <hi>yow either</hi> from alpha as "more precise" (p. 393). We retain copy-text.</note> by owre lorde · I leue nouȝte he be blissed</l>
<l> ¶ No quod pacyence paciently · and out of his poke hente</l>
<l> Vitailles of grete vertues · for al manere bestes</l>
<l> And seyde lo here lyflode ynough · if owre byleue be trewe</l>
<l> For lente neuere was [þere]<note>Bx.14.44: <hi>þere</hi>: Supported by R alone, since F rewrites the line and beta drops the word, but <hi>C</hi> mss. have either <hi>here</hi> or more commonly <hi>þere</hi> (RK.15.238).</note> lyf · but lyflode were shapen</l>
<l> Wher-of or wherfore · [and]<note>Bx.14.45: <hi>and</hi>: Beta has <hi>or</hi>, though O reads <hi>&</hi>. F loses the line, but R's <hi>and</hi> is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> where-by to lybbe</l>
<l> ¶ Firste þe wylde worme · vnder weet erthe</l>
<l> Fissch to lyue in þe flode · and in þe fyre þe crykat</l>
<l> Þe corlue by kynde of þe eyre · moste clennest flesch of bryddes</l>
<l> And bestes by grasse and by greyne · and by grene rotis</l>
<l> In menynge þat alle men · myȝte<note>Bx.14.50: <hi>myȝte</hi>: Misunderstanding the syntax (<hi>þe same</hi>, "similarly"), scribes add <hi>do</hi> (MCrGOF) or <hi>se</hi> (C), but LWHmR are supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> þe same</l>
<l> Lyue þorw lele byleue and loue · as god witnesseth</l>
<l> <foreign>Quodcumque pecieritis<note>Bx.14.52: <hi><foreign>pecieritis</foreign></hi>: Beta adds <hi>a patre</hi>. The P family of <hi>C</hi> reads <hi>patrem</hi>, the X family omits as does alpha. Biblical texts vary; see Alford (1992), 87.</note> in nomine meo &c & alibi</foreign></l>
<l> <foreign>Non in solo pane viuit homo set in omni verbo quod procedit de ore dei</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ But I loked what lyflode it<note>Bx.14.54: <hi>lyflode it</hi>: Beta is supported by <hi>Cx</hi> (though in a b-verse) against alpha's <hi>þat liflode</hi>.</note> was · þat pacience so preysed</l>
<l> And þanne was<note>Bx.14.55: <hi>was</hi>: LWCG read <hi>was it</hi>, as in <hi>Cx</hi>, supplying a <hi>Bx</hi> omission preserved in MO before correction and in alpha. Cr has <hi>it was</hi> and Hm <hi>þat was</hi>.</note> a pece of þe pater noster · <foreign>fiat voluntas tua</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ Haue haukyn quod pacyence · and ete þis whan þe hungreth</l>
<l> Or whan þow clomsest for colde · or clyngest for dr[outh]e<note>Bx.14.57: <hi>drouthe</hi>: The alpha reading is supported by <hi>Cx</hi> against beta's <hi>drye</hi>. However, the latter is a good reading (cf. <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.5.549</ref>), and it is possible that the alpha reading is a revision.</note></l>
<l> [And]<note>Bx.14.58: <hi>And</hi>: R (=alpha?) is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>, though beta omits and F has <hi>Þere</hi>.</note> shal neuere gyues<note>Bx.14.58: <hi>gyues</hi>: "shackles". <hi>Cx</hi> supports beta. Alpha substitutes non-alliterating <hi>feytoures</hi>, "deceivers"; presumably this was a misreading of a gloss <hi>feteres</hi>, "fetters" in <hi>Bx</hi>. For another case of a gloss being included in the text, cf. note to <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.15.25</ref>.</note> þe greue · ne grete lordes wrath</l>
<l> Prisone ne peyne · for <foreign>pacientes vincunt</foreign></l>
<l> <note>Bx.14.60: L's paraph is unsupported except for the line-space in M.</note>Bi so þat þow be sobre · of syȝte and of tonge</l>
<l> In etynge and in handlyng · and in alle þi fyue wittis</l>
<l> Darstow neuere care for corne · ne lynnen cloth ne wollen</l>
<l> Ne for drynke ne deth drede · but deye as god lyketh</l>
<l> Or þorw honger or þorw hete · at his wille be it</l>
<l> For if þow lyuest after his lore · þe sho[r]ter lyf þe better<note>Bx.14.65: <hi>better</hi>: Alpha has <hi>leuere</hi>, perhaps by alliterative attraction; beta is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note></l>
<l> <foreign>Si quis amat cristum mundum non diligit istum</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ For þorw his breth bestes wexen<note>Bx.14.67: <hi>wexen</hi>: L's forms are inf. <hi>wax(en)</hi>, pr. 3 sg. <hi>wexeth</hi>, <hi>waxeth</hi>, pr. pl. <hi>wexeth</hi>, pa. sg. <hi>wex</hi>, pa. pl. <hi>wexen</hi>, <hi>woxen</hi>, ppl. <hi>waxen</hi>, <hi>woxen</hi>. The readings of other beta mss. confirm that <hi>wexen</hi> is here past tense, as is <hi>ȝeden</hi>. R has the present; the most authoritative <hi>C</hi> mss. have the past.</note> · and abrode ȝeden</l>
<l> <foreign>Dixit & facta sunt &c ·</foreign></l>
<l> <foreign>Ergo</foreign> þorw his breth mowen · men & bestes lyuen</l>
<l> As holywrit witnesseth · whan men segge her graces<note>Bx.14.70: <hi>graces</hi>: Beta's plural is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note></l>
<l> <foreign>Aperis tu manum tuam · & imples omne animal benediccione</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ It is founden þat fourty wynter · folke lyued with-outen tulying</l>
<l> And oute of þe flynte spronge þe flode · þat folke & bestes dronke</l>
<l> And in Elyes tyme · heuene was yclosed</l>
<l> Þat no reyne ne<note>Bx.14.75: <hi>ne</hi>: Omitted by MHmF and the P family of <hi>C</hi>.</note> rone · þus rede men<note>Bx.14.75: <hi>rede men</hi>: This word-order is supported by <hi>Cx</hi> against the reversal in MF. </note> in bokes</l>
<l> Þat many wynt[er]<note>Bx.14.76: <hi>wynter</hi>: There is the usual variation between the marked and unmarked forms of the plural. Here <hi>Cx</hi> supports CrR.</note> men lyueden · and no mete ne tulyeden</l>
<l> [¶]<note>Bx.14.77: <hi></hi>: WHmR have a paraph here which in L has slipped to the next line.</note> Seuene slepe as seith þe boke · seuene hundreth wynter</l>
<l> And lyueden with-oute lyflode · and atte laste þei woken</l>
<l> And if men lyued as mesure wolde · shulde neuere-more<note>Bx.14.79: <hi>more</hi>: Although in alliterative position, this is omitted by all <hi>C</hi> mss. as well as by beta4 and F presumably by coincidence in a revised b-verse.</note> be defaute</l>
<l> Amonges cristene creatures · if crystes wordes ben trewe</l>
<l> Ac vnkyndnesse <foreign>carestia</foreign> maketh · amonges crystene peple</l>
<l> And ouer-plente maketh pruyde · amonges pore & riche</l>
<l> Ac mesure is so moche worth · it may nouȝte be to dere</l>
<l> For þe meschief and þe meschaunce · amonges men of sodome</l>
<l> Wex þorw plente of payn · & of pure sleuthe</l>
<l> <foreign>Ociositas & habundancia panis peccatum turpissimum nutriuit<note>Bx.14.86: R ends the quotation at <hi>panis</hi>, and F omits altogether. Lines 81-110 have no parallel in <hi>C</hi>.</note></foreign></l>
<l> For þei mesured nouȝt hem-self · of þat þei ete and dronke</l>
<l> Diden dedly synne [·] þat þe deuel lyked</l>
<l> So vengeaunce fel vpon hem · for her vyle synnes</l>
<l> Þei sonken in-to helle · þo<note>Bx.14.90: <hi>þo</hi>: So LM and F, but R joins the others with <hi>þe</hi>. Either could be a substitution for the other.</note> citees vchone</l>
<l> ¶ For-þi mesure we vs wel · and make owre faithe owre scheltroun</l>
<l> And þorw faith cometh contricioun · conscience wote wel</l>
<l> Whiche dryueth awey dedly synne · and doth it to be venial</l>
<l> And þough a man myȝte nouȝte speke · contricioun myȝte hym saue</l>
<l> And brynge his soule to blisse · by<note>Bx.14.95: <hi>by</hi>: LCr + alpha; MW substitute <hi>for</hi> and others drop. For the idiom <hi>by so</hi>, "provided that", cf. <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.11.76</ref>.</note> so þat feith bere witnesse</l>
<l> Þat whiles he lyued he bileued · in þe lore of holycherche</l>
<l> <foreign>Ergo</foreign> contricioun feith and conscience · is kyndelich dowel</l>
<l> And surgienes for dedly synnes<note>Bx.14.98: <hi>synnes</hi>: Apparently beta, though CrHm agree with alpha on the sg. We follow copy-text.</note> · whan shrifte of mouth failleth</l>
<l> ¶ Ac shrifte of mouth more worthy is · if man be i[n]liche<note>Bx.14.99: <hi>inliche</hi>: R reproduces alpha, as shown by F's error <hi>with</hi> (for <hi>within</hi>). MO also have <hi>ynlich</hi>, presumably a scribal restoration since other beta mss. have <hi>iliche</hi>.</note> contrit</l>
<l> For shrifte of mouth sleeth synne · be it neuere so dedly</l>
<l> <foreign>Per confessionem</foreign> to a prest · <foreign>peccata occiduntur</foreign></l>
<l> Þere contricioun doth but dryueth it doun · in-to a venial synne</l>
<l> As dauid seith in þe sauter · <foreign>et quorum tecta sunt peccata</foreign></l>
<l> Ac satisfaccioun seketh oute þe rote · and bothe sleeth and voideth</l>
<l> And as it neuere had ybe · to nouȝt bryngeth dedly synne</l>
<l> Þat it neuere eft is seen ne sore · but semeth a wounde yheled</l>
<l> ¶ [Ȝe]<note>Bx.14.107: <hi>Ȝe</hi>: Alpha only, but an opening discourse-marker that is characteristically Langlandian; cf. l. <ref>113</ref> below, <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.11.145</ref> etc.</note> where woneth charite quod haukyn · I wiste neuere in my lyue</l>
<l> Man þat with hym spake · as wyde as I haue passed</l>
<l><note>Bx.14.109: <hi></hi>: The paraph at the start of the speech is in beta and F. Cf. l. <ref>107</ref> above, and l. <ref>111</ref> below.</note> Þere parfit treuthe and pouere herte is · and pacience of tonge</l>
<l> Þere is charitee þe chief chaumbrere<note>Bx.14.110: <hi>chaumbrere</hi>: The form <hi>chambre</hi> in MHmCG and alpha could represent <hi>Bx</hi>, corrected by other scribes. See note to <hi>laborere</hi> in l. <ref>338</ref>.</note> [·] for god hym-selue</l>
<l> ¶ Whether pacien[c]e pouerte<note>Bx.14.111: <hi>pacience pouerte</hi>: This, rather than <hi>paciente pouerte</hi> in LCrWO, is likely to be the beta reading, as in CG and MHm before correction. Scribes were understandably puzzled, not realising that Pacience is a term of address (as in l. <ref>292</ref>). Evidence that W's exemplar may have read <hi>pacience</hi> is that W nowhere else spells <hi>paciente</hi> with final /e/. On this analysis, alpha, equally puzzled, added <hi>and</hi>, to read <hi>pacience and pouerte</hi>. Yet alpha's reading has support from <hi>Cx</hi>, <hi>pouerte and pacience</hi> (RK.15.277).</note> quod haukyn · be more plesaunte to owre driȝte<note>Bx.14.111: <hi>driȝte</hi>: The difficult word is misread by C and glossed by G and alpha. <hi>Cx</hi> has instead "plese more god almyhty".</note></l>
<l> Þan ricchesse riȝtfulliche ywonne · and resonablelich yspended<note>Bx.14.112: <hi>yspended</hi>: Beta2 alters to <hi>dispended</hi>.</note></l>
<l> ¶ Ȝe <foreign>quis est ille</foreign> quod pacience · quik <foreign>laudabimus eum</foreign></l>
<l> Þough men rede of richchesse · riȝt to þe worldes ende</l>
<l> I wist neuere renke þat riche was · þat whan he rekne sholde</l>
<l> Whan it<note>Bx.14.116: <hi>it</hi>: L's agreement with R against the easily adopted <hi>he</hi> (as in the b-verse) in the other beta mss. would be secure for <hi>Bx</hi> except that <hi>Cx</hi> reads <hi>he drow to þe deth</hi>. F omits the pronoun. See Introduction <xref>V.3.2</xref>.</note> drow to his deth-day · þat he ne dred hym sore</l>
<l> And þat<note>Bx.14.117: <hi>þat</hi>: The beta reading, but easily lost as in MGR.</note> atte rekenyng in arrerage fel · rather þan oute of dette</l>
<l> ¶ There þe pore dar plede · and preue by pure resoun</l>
<l> To haue allowaunce of his lorde · by þe lawe he it cleymeth</l>
<l> Ioye þat neuere ioye hadde · of riȝtful iugge he axeth</l>
<l> And seith lo briddes and bestes · þat no blisse ne knoweth</l>
<l> And wilde wormes in wodes · þorw wyntres þow hem greuest</l>
<l> And makest hem welnyegh meke · and mylde for defaute</l>
<l> And after þow sendest hem somer · þat is her souereigne Ioye</l>
<l> And blisse to alle þat ben · bothe wilde and tame</l>
<l> Þanne may beggeres as<note>Bx.14.126: <hi>as</hi>: So L, corrected M, CrW. Certainly a more meaningful reading than <hi>and</hi> in beta4 and alpha, and supported by the X family of <hi>C</hi>, though some of the P family also have <hi>and</hi>.</note> bestes · after bote waiten</l>
<l> Þat al her lyf han lyued · in langour and in defaute</l>
<l> But god sent hem some-tyme · some manere ioye</l>
<l> Other here or elles-where · kynde wolde it neuere</l>
<l> For to wrotherhele was he wrouȝte · þat neuere was ioye<note>Bx.14.130: <hi>was ioye</hi>: The word-order is supported by alliteration and <hi>Cx</hi>, against the reversal in Hm and alpha.</note> shaped</l>
<l> ¶ Angeles þat in helle now ben · hadden ioye some-tyme</l>
<l> And diues in deyntees lyued · and in <foreign>douce vye</foreign></l>
<l> Riȝte so resoun sheweth · þat þo<note>Bx.14.133: <hi>þo</hi>: Beta2 has, less appropriately, <hi>þe</hi>. Lines 133-40 are not in <hi>C</hi>.</note> men þat were riche<note>Bx.14.133: <hi>þat were riche</hi>: The phrase is lost in alpha. F repairs.</note></l>
<l> And her makes also · lyued her lyf in murthe</l>
<l> ¶ Ac god is of a wonder wille · by þat kynde witte sheweth</l>
<l> To ȝiue many men his mercymonye · ar he it haue deserued</l>
<l> Riȝt so fareth god by some riche · reuthe me it þinketh</l>
<l> For þei han her hyre here · an<note>Bx.14.138: <hi>an</hi>: "and". The fact that the form is also in M may indicate that it is beta's.</note> heuene as it were</l>
<l> And is<note>Bx.14.139: <hi>is</hi>: "it is". Dropped by beta2 and F, and erased in M.</note> gret lykyng to lyue · with-oute laboure of body</l>
<l> And whan he deyeth ben disalowed · as dauid seith in þe sauter</l>
<l> <foreign>Dormierunt & nichil inuenerunt</foreign></l>
<l> And in an other stede also · <foreign>velud sompnum surgencium domine in ciuitate tua & ad<note>Bx.14.142: <hi><foreign>& ad</foreign></hi>: Scribes have corrected this familiar quotation (Psalm 72.20). F reads <hi>sompnium</hi>, "dream", in place of <hi>sompnum</hi>, "sleep", and adds <hi>ymaginem</hi>, both as in the Vulgate. Alpha's <hi>ad</hi> for beta's <hi>& ad</hi> is probably a similar correction. <hi>Cx</hi> ends the quotation at <hi>surgencium</hi>.</note> nichilum rediges</foreign></l>
<l> Allas þat ricchesse shal reue · and robbe mannes soule</l>
<l> Fram þe loue of owre lorde · at his laste ende</l>
<l> ¶ Hewen þat han her hyre afore<note>Bx.14.145: <hi>afore</hi>: Alpha has <hi>to-fore</hi> and <hi>Cx</hi> <hi>byfore</hi>. See note to <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.5.12</ref>.</note> · aren euermore nedy</l>
<l> And selden deieth<note>Bx.14.146: <hi>deieth</hi>: Beta adds the pronoun <hi>he</hi>, but R (F rewrites) is supported by <hi>Cx</hi> in postponing the subject until the b-verse.</note> out of dette · þat dyneth ar he<note>Bx.14.146: <hi>he</hi>: Beta supported by the X group of <hi>C</hi>, while alpha's plural has support from the P group. The plural is probably prompted by the previous line.</note> deserue it</l>
<l> And til he haue done his deuor · and his dayes iourne</l>
<l> For whan a werkman hath wrouȝte · þanne may men se þe sothe</l>
<l> What he were worthi for his werke · and what he hath deserued</l>
<l> And nouȝt to fonge bifore · for drede of disalowynge</l>
<l> ¶ So I segge by ȝow riche · it semeth nouȝt<note>Bx.14.151: <hi>nouȝt</hi>: Lost by alpha making nonsense; F rewrites the b-verse to improve the sense.</note> þat ȝe shulle</l>
<l> Haue [two] heuene[s]<note>Bx.14.152: <hi>two heuenes</hi>: Alpha is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>. Probably beta misunderstood the sense of a line which causes scribes problems in other respects also. It involves an unusual disjuncture after the first stress: "(You shall not) have two heavens: (one) in your present existence and (another) in heaven afterwards". In <hi>Cx</hi> the line is simplified by dropping the b-verse: "(You shall not) have two heavens in return for your present existence" (RK.16.9).</note> in<note>Bx.14.152: <hi>in</hi>: Though R's <hi>for</hi> is shared with <hi>Cx</hi>, it makes no sense in the context of the line as in <hi>Bx</hi>.</note> ȝowre here-beyng<note>Bx.14.152: <hi>here-beyng</hi>: Only recorded here and in <hi>C</hi> by <title>MED</title>, <hi>her</hi> adv. 7(a). Beta2 and G corrupt to <hi>here beryng</hi> (? <title>OED</title> <hi>harbouring</hi>), prompting W to guess at <hi>here dwellyng</hi>.</note> · and heuene her-after<note>Bx.14.152: <hi>her-after</hi>: This is perhaps <hi>Bx</hi>, though it could have been prompted by <hi>here</hi> in the a-verse. WGR have <hi>þere-after</hi>.</note></l>
<l> Riȝt as a seruaunt taketh his salarye bifore · & sitth wolde clayme more<note>Bx.14.153: R (reproducing alpha) divides the line at the end of the unusually heavy a-verse, but is left with an impossibly short line. F therefore expands freely. Hm divides at the same point as alpha, and then fills out the following line independently. Alpha's <hi>huire</hi> for beta's <hi>more</hi> anticipates <hi>Bx</hi> <hi>huyre</hi> in l. <ref>154</ref>. The passage up to l. <ref>169</ref> is dropped in <hi>C</hi>.</note></l>
<l> As he þat none hadde · and hath huyre<note>Bx.14.154: <hi>huyre</hi>: Alpha's <hi>heuene</hi> is a consequence of its muddle in the previous line.</note> atte laste</l>
<l> It may nouȝt be ȝe riche men · or matheu on god lyeth</l>
<l> <foreign>De delicijs ad delicias · deficile est transire<note>Bx.14.156: <hi><foreign>transire</foreign></hi>: Alford (1992), 89, quotes Jerome in support of this reading rather than <hi>ascendere</hi> in alpha, who still has his eye on <hi>heuene</hi>.</note></foreign></l>
<l><note>Bx.14.157: <hi></hi>: The paraph, following the Latin line, is in beta and F.</note> Ac if [ȝ]e<note>Bx.14.157: <hi>ȝe</hi>: LMCrGF <hi>þe</hi> is an easy misreading. It may, however, represent <hi>Bx</hi>, with WHmCOR making an obvious correction.</note> riche haue reuthe · and rewarde wel þe pore</l>
<l> And lyuen as lawe techeth · done leute to alle<note>Bx.14.158: <hi>alle</hi>: All beta mss. except L have <hi>hem alle</hi> (referring to the poor) but <hi>alle</hi> is probably the alpha reading, as in R, with F expanding a short b-verse to <hi>his brothir</hi>. On M's agreement with beta1, see Introduction <xref>III.2</xref>.</note></l>
<l> Criste of his curteysie · shal conforte ȝow atte laste</l>
<l> And rewarde alle dowble ricchesse · þat reuful hertes habbeth</l>
<l> And as an hyne þat hadde · his hyre ar he bygonne</l>
<l> And whan he hath done his deuor wel · men doth hym other bounte</l>
<l> Ȝyueth hym a cote aboue his couenaunte · riȝte so cryst ȝiueth heuene</l>
<l> Bothe to riche and to nouȝte riche · þat rewfullich<note>Bx.14.164: <hi>rewfullich</hi>: Cf. l. <ref>160</ref>. Alpha adopts the easier reading <hi>riȝtfullich</hi>.</note> lybbeth</l>
<l> And alle þat done her deuor wel · han dowble hyre for her trauaille</l>
<l> Here forȝyuenesse of her synnes · and heuene blisse after</l>
<l> <note>Bx.14.167-71: These five lines are lost in alpha, jumping from <hi>Ac</hi> to <hi>Ac</hi> and paraph to paraph.</note> ¶ Ac it nys but selde yseyn · as by holy seyntes bokes<note>Bx.14.167: <hi>bokes</hi>: M shares the error <hi>liues</hi> with O.</note></l>
<l> Þat god rewarded double reste · to any riche wye</l>
<l> For moche murthe is amonges riche · as in mete and clothyng</l>
<l> And moche murthe in Maye is · amonges wilde bestes</l>
<l> And so forth whil somer lasteth · her solace dureth</l>
<l> [¶]<note>Bx.14.172: <hi></hi>: An appropriate paraph, recorded by WHm and alpha.</note> Ac<note>Bx.14.172: <hi>Ac</hi>: Alpha must have had this reading, though R omits it. F has (as usual) <hi>But</hi>.</note> beggeres aboute Midsomer · bredlees þei soupe</l>
<l> And ȝit is wynter for hem worse · for wete-shodde þei gange</l>
<l> Afyrst sore and afyngred · and foule yrebuked</l>
<l> And arated of riche men · þat reuthe is to here</l>
<l> Now lorde sende hem somer · and some manere ioye</l>
<l> Heuene after her hennes-goynge · þat here han suche defaute</l>
<l> For alle myȝtest þow haue made · none mener þan other</l>
<l> And yliche witty & wyse · if þe wel<note>Bx.14.179: <hi>þe wel</hi>: In L the scribe has first written <hi>þi</hi> followed by five letters; the /i/ has been altered to /e/ followed by <hi>wel</hi> and a punctus. There can be little question that L's original reading was <hi>þi wille</hi> as in MCGOF. Rather doubtfully we follow L's corrected reading, supported by beta2 (CrWHm) and R, on the grounds that <hi>þe wel</hi> was more likely to have been mistaken for <hi>þi wille</hi> than vice versa. <hi>Cx</hi> revises the b-verse and offers no guide.</note> hadde lyked</l>
<l> <note>Bx.14.180: Alpha's paraph is not appropriate.</note>And haue reuthe on þise riche men · þat rewarde nouȝte þi prisoneres<note>Bx.14.180: <hi>prisoneres</hi>: For R's form <hi>prisones</hi>, see note to <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.3.138</ref> and l. <ref>186</ref> below. Here and elsewhere we follow copy-text. Lines 180-209 are not in <hi>C</hi>.</note></l>
<l> Of þe good þat þow hem gyuest · <foreign>ingrati</foreign> ben manye</l>
<l> Ac god of þi goodnesse · gyue hem grace to amende</l>
<l> For may no derth ben hem dere · drouth ne weet</l>
<l> Ne noyther hete ne haille · haue þei here hele</l>
<l> Of þat þei wilne and wolde · wanteth hem nouȝt here</l>
<l> ¶ Ac pore peple þi prisoneres · lorde<note>Bx.14.186: <hi>lorde</hi>: R has <hi>lore</hi>, either as a spelling of <hi>lorde</hi> as at <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.5.407</ref>, <ref>18.61</ref>, or as the ppl. "lost". Perhaps the form represents alpha, since F supposes it to be a verb, reading <hi>lyȝn</hi>, "lie". Note also the addition of final /d/ in O's <hi>lord</hi>.</note> in þe put of myschief</l>
<l> Conforte þo creatures · þat moche care suffren</l>
<l> Þorw derth þorw drouth · alle her dayes here</l>
<l> Wo in wynter tymes<note>Bx.14.189: <hi>wynter tymes</hi>: Alpha has <hi>wyntres tyme</hi>. In the same a-verse in <hi>C</hi> at RK.9.78, the X family has beta's reading, the P family has <hi>wynter tyme</hi>. Cf. <hi>somer tyme</hi> in the next line.</note> · for wantyng of clothes</l>
<l> And in somer tyme selde · soupen to þe fulle</l>
<l> Conforte þi careful [·] cryst in þi ryche<note>Bx.14.191: <hi>ryche</hi>: Beta2 corrupts to <hi>rychesse</hi>, and M is altered to that reading.</note></l>
<l> For how þow confortest alle creatures · clerkes bereth witnesse</l>
<l> <foreign>Conuertimini ad me & salui eritis</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ Þus <foreign>in genere</foreign> of his genitrice<note>Bx.14.194: <hi><foreign>in genere</foreign> of his genitrice</hi>: "by the very nature of his nobility". Alpha must have had <hi>alle his</hi>, as R, but beta copies apart from L have neither word.</note> · Ihesu cryst seyde</l>
<l> To robberes and to reueres · to riche and to pore</l>
<l> [To hores to harlotes . to alle maner poeple]<note>Bx.14.196: The line is in alpha only, beta missing the second line beginning <hi>To</hi>. For <hi>to</hi> (2) F has <hi>& to</hi>, possibly correctly, since R uniquely drops <hi>&</hi> in the parallel position in the line above. F's b-verse is, however, rather meaninglessly inclusive.</note></l>
<l> Þow tauȝtest hem in þe Trinitee · to take baptesme</l>
<l> And be clene þorw þat crystennynge · of alle kynnes [synnes]<note>Bx.14.198: <hi>synnes</hi>: Dropped by L after <hi>kynnes</hi>. W alone has the sg.</note></l>
<l> And<note>Bx.14.199: <hi>And</hi>: "if". Alpha underlines the sense with <hi>And if</hi>, adopted also by CrW. In M a word is first inserted and then erased.</note> vs fel þorw folye · to falle in synne after</l>
<l> Confessioun and kne[w]lechyng<note>Bx.14.200: <hi>Confessioun and knewlechyng</hi>: Reversed in alpha.</note> [·] & crauyng þi mercy</l>
<l> Shulde amende vs as many sithes · as man wolde desire</l>
<l> Ac<note>Bx.14.202: <hi>Ac</hi>: Beta2, C and alpha have <hi>And</hi>.</note> if þe p[ouke]<note>Bx.14.202: <hi>pouke</hi>: Beta's <hi>pope</hi> is an odd error, especially in view of l. <ref>205</ref>. KD, p. 147 suggest "a preferred villain substituted".</note> wolde plede here-aȝeine<note>Bx.14.202: <hi>here-aȝeine</hi>: Alpha has <hi>þere-aȝeine</hi>, adopted also by G.</note> · and punyssh vs in conscience</l>
<l> He<note>Bx.14.203: <hi>He</hi>: Either Christ, or more probably "the one affected". R's <hi>Ho</hi> is perhaps an alpha error, altered by F to <hi>We</hi> for the sense.</note> shulde take þe acquitance as quik · and to þe qued schewe it</l>
<l> <foreign>Pateat &c per passionem domini</foreign></l>
<l> And putten of so þe pouke · and preuen vs vnder borwe</l>
<l> Ac þe perchemyn of þis patent · of pouerte be moste</l>
<l> And of pure pacience · and parfit bileue</l>
<l> <note>Bx.14.208: The paraph in W and alpha is not adopted.</note>Of pompe and of pruyde · þe parchemyn decorreth</l>
<l> And principaliche of alle peple · but þei be pore of herte</l>
<l> Ellis is al an ydel · al þat euere we writen</l>
<l> Pater nostres<note>Bx.14.211: <hi>Pater nostres</hi>: CrCGOR have the singular. <hi>Cx</hi> has <hi>preyeres</hi> (RK.16.38).</note> and penaunce<note>Bx.14.211: <hi>penaunce</hi>: Here and elsewhere, romance loans ending in a sibilant may be unchanged in the plural, hence frequent variations between <hi>penaunce</hi> and <hi>penaunces</hi>, e.g. <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.P.25</ref>, <ref>7.132</ref>, <ref>15.153</ref>, <ref>16.39</ref>. Here Hm and alpha have the marked plural, as does the X family of <hi>C</hi>. It is worth observing that of 44 instances of <hi>penaunce</hi> from the <hi>C</hi> text in Wittig's <title>Concordance</title>, 16 are emendations of <hi>penaunces</hi> in the X family.</note> · and pilgrimage<note>Bx.14.211: <hi>pilgrimage</hi>: CrWG have the plural, as do most <hi>C</hi> mss. See <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.15.189</ref> and <ref>19.387</ref> for a similar situation.</note> to Rome</l>
<l> But<note>Bx.14.212: <hi>But</hi>: "unless". Beta is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>. R has <hi>And</hi>; F begins <hi>With</hi> in a rewritten a-verse.</note> owre spences and spendyng<note>Bx.14.212: <hi>spendyng</hi>: R has <hi>oure spendynge</hi>, as the X family of <hi>C</hi>.</note> sprynge ·<note>Bx.14.212: The punctuation follows <hi>sprynge</hi> (aaa/xx) in LR and probably in original M, though there another punctus appears before <hi>springe</hi>, as in other mss. (aa/ax).</note> of a trewe welle<note>Bx.14.212: <hi>welle</hi>: The obviously superior reading is supported by <hi>Cx</hi> over <hi>wille</hi> in CrWCO (G corrects).</note></l>
<l> Elles is al owre laboure loste · lo how men writeth</l>
<l> In fenestres atte freres · if fals be þe foundement</l>
<l> For-þi crystene sholde ben in comune riche · none coueitouse for hym-selue</l>
<l> ¶ For seuene synnes þat<note>Bx.14.216: <hi>þat</hi>: Dropped in CO, and postponed to the b-verse in WGF. <hi>Cx</hi> has <hi>þat</hi> in both positions.</note> þere ben · assaillen vs euere</l>
<l> Þe fende folweth hem alle · and fondeth hem to helpe</l>
<l> Ac wiþ ricchesse þ[o] ribaude[s]<note>Bx.14.218: <hi>þo ribaudes</hi>: Alpha, supported by <hi>Cx</hi>, referring to the sins. Beta has <hi>þat Ribaude</hi> referring to the devil.</note> · rathest men bigyleth</l>
<l> For þere þat richesse regneth · reuerence[s]<note>Bx.14.219: <hi>reuerences</hi>: i.e. expressions of deference. Alpha has the plural, as do the best <hi>C</hi> mss. Beta's form might be construed as plural without ending, as often with romance loans ending in a sibilant. See note to l. <ref>211</ref>.</note> folweth</l>
<l> And þat is plesaunte to pryde · in pore and in riche</l>
<l> And<note>Bx.14.221: <hi>And</hi>: Beta supported by the X family of <hi>C</hi> against alpha's <hi>Ac/But</hi>. The P family has no conjunction.</note> þe riche is reuerenced · by resoun of his richchesse</l>
<l> Þere þe pore is put bihynde [·] and par-auenture can more</l>
<l> Of witte and of wysdom · þat fer [w]ey<note>Bx.14.223: <hi>fer wey</hi>: R only, since the line is lost in F, but supported by <hi>Cx</hi> against beta's <hi>fer awey</hi>. Neither phrase occurs elsewhere in the poem.</note> is better</l>
<l> Þan ricchesse or reaute · and rather yherde in heuene</l>
<l> For þe riche hath moche to rekene · and riȝte softe<note>Bx.14.225: <hi>riȝte softe</hi>: Corruption in beta2 leads CrW to invent and Hm to correct. Perhaps beta2 read <hi>ofte</hi>, and lost the word in the next line.</note> walketh</l>
<l> Þe heigh<note>Bx.14.226: <hi>heigh</hi>: Alpha and G repeat <hi>riȝt</hi> from the previous line. Beta's a-verse is as in <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> waye to heuene-ward · oft ricchesse<note>Bx.14.226: <hi>ricchesse</hi>: Beta against alpha's <hi>riche</hi>. The b-verse is rewritten in <hi>C</hi>.</note> letteth</l>
<l> <foreign>Ita possibile<note>Bx.14.227: <hi><foreign>possibile</foreign></hi>: "It is as (<hi>ita</hi>) possible for a rich man etc." Quoted in this form also in RK.11.201a. MW alter to <hi>impossibile</hi>, in view of Matt. 19.23 which has "quia dives difficile ...".</note> diuiti &c</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ Þere þe pore preseth<note>Bx.14.228: <hi>preseth</hi>: Beta is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>. Alpha has <hi>precheth</hi> (R) or <hi>procheth</hi> (in both cases <p> with abbreviation).</note> bifor þe riche<note>Bx.14.228: <hi>þe riche</hi>: Certainly <hi>Bx</hi>, though <hi>Cx</hi> omits, as does F by contamination or coincidence.</note> · with a pakke at his rugge</l>
<l> <foreign>Opera enim illorum sequntur illos</foreign></l>
<l> Batauntliche as beggeres done · and baldeliche he craueth</l>
<l> For his pouerte and his<note>Bx.14.231: <hi>his</hi> (2): Omitted by MCGO, as in the P family of <hi>C</hi>. (F loses ll. 229-31). </note> pacience · a perpetuel blisse</l>
<l> <foreign>Beati pauperes · quoniam ipsorum est regnum celorum</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ And<note>Bx.14.233: <hi>And</hi>: Alpha has <hi>Ac</hi> (F <hi>But</hi>); <hi>C</hi> mss. have <hi>And</hi> or <hi>Also</hi>. Cf. l. <ref>221</ref>.</note> pryde in ricchesse regneth · rather þan in pouerte</l>
<l> [Or] in þe Maister [or]<note>Bx.14.234: <hi>Or ... or</hi>: Beta has <hi>Arst ... þan</hi>, but alpha is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>. Beta supposes that the master would have more pride than his man, but Skeat (1886), ii, 211 explains that by <hi>man</hi> Langland refers to "the arrogant manners of the retainers in a great household".</note> in þe man · some mansioun he<note>Bx.14.234: <hi>he</hi>: Omitted by R, but supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> hath</l>
<l> Ac in pouerte þere pacyence is · pryde hath no myȝte</l>
<l> Ne none of þe seuene synnes · sitten ne mowe þere longe</l>
<l> Ne haue powere in pouerte · if pacyence it folwe</l>
<l> For þe pore is ay prest · to plese þe riche</l>
<l> And buxome at his byddyng · for his broke loues</l>
<l> And buxomenesse and boste · aren euer-more at werre</l>
<l> And ayther hateth other · in alle manere werkes</l>
<l> <note>Bx.14.242: A paraph might be expected here, as for the other sins, but only WCF have one.</note>If wratthe wrastel with þe pore · he hath þe worse ende</l>
<l> For if þey bothe pleyne · þe pore is but fieble</l>
<l> And if he chyde or chatre · hym chieueth þe worse</l>
<l> <note>Bx.14.245-55: These eleven lines are lost in beta, probably by eyeskip from <hi>And if</hi> 244 to <hi>¶ And if</hi> (in beta only) 256. <hi>Cx</hi> is closely parallel except for the last two lines, and generally supports R over F.</note> [For lowelich he loketh · and loueliche is his speche</l>
<l> Þat mete or money · of other men mote asken</l>
<l> <note>Bx.14.247: The paraph in F marks the introduction of gluttony.</note>And if glotonye greue pouerte · he gadereth þe lasse</l>
<l> For his rentes wol<note>Bx.14.248: <hi>wol</hi>: R has <hi>ne wol</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> has neither <hi>ne</hi> in the a-verse nor <hi>no</hi> in the b-verse.</note> nauȝte reche · no riche metes to bugge</l>
<l> And þouȝ his glotonye be to gode ale · he goth to cold beddynge</l>
<l> And his heued vnhiled · vnesily ywrye</l>
<l> For whan he streyneth hym to strecche · þe strawe is his shetes<note>Bx.14.251: <hi>shetes</hi>: <hi>Cx</hi> supports R's plural.</note></l>
<l> So for his glotonye and his grete sleuthe · he hath a greuous penaunce</l>
<l> Þat is welawo whan he waketh · and wepeth for colde</l>
<l> And sum-tyme for his synnes · so he is neuere merye</l>
<l> Withoute mornynge amonge · and mischief<note>Bx.14.255: <hi>mischief</hi>: The b-verse in <hi>Cx</hi>, "so meschief hym folleweth" (RK.16.78) offers no support to F's <hi>myche myschef</hi>.</note> to bote]</l>
<l> ¶ And [þouȝ]<note>Bx.14.256: <hi>þouȝ</hi>: Alpha is supported by <hi>Cx</hi> against <hi>if</hi> in beta.</note> coueitise wolde<note>Bx.14.256: <hi>wolde</hi>: Only L + alpha, but supported by <hi>Cx</hi> "wolde with þe pore wrastle".</note> cacche þe pore · þei may nouȝt come togideres</l>
<l> And by þe nekke namely · her none may hente other</l>
<l> For men knoweth wel þat coueitise · is of a kene wille</l>
<l> And hath hondes and armes · of a longe lengthe</l>
<l> And pouerte nis but a petit þinge · appereth nouȝt to his naule</l>
<l> And louely layke was it neuere · bitwene þe longe and þe shorte</l>
<l> And þough auarice wolde angre þe pore · he hath but litel myȝte</l>
<l> For pouerte hath but pokes · to putten in his godis</l>
<l> Þere auarice hath almaries · and yren-bounde coffres</l>
<l> And whether be liȝter to breke · lasse boste it<note>Bx.14.265: <hi>lasse boste it</hi>: M alters its reading to agree with CrW; <hi>Cx</hi> supports the other mss.</note> maketh</l>
<l> A beggeres bagge · þan an yren-bounde coffre</l>
<l> ¶ Lecherye loueth hym nouȝt · for he ȝeueth but lytel syluer</l>
<l> Ne doth hym nouȝte dyne delycatly · ne drynke wyn oft</l>
<l> <note>Bx.14.269-70: The lines are in beta only, but supported by <hi>Cx</hi>. Perhaps alpha censored them, though KD, p. 68, suggest eyeskip from <hi>A...stuwes</hi> 269 to <hi>And...suwe</hi> 271.</note> A strawe for þe stuwes · it stode nouȝt I trowe</l>
<l> Had þei none<note>Bx.14.270: <hi>none</hi>: <hi>Cx</hi> has alliterating <hi>noen haunt</hi>. We suppose that <hi>Bx</hi> or beta lost <hi>haunt</hi>, with L preserving the reading <hi>none</hi>, beta1 altering to <hi>no þing</hi> for sense, and G further altering to <hi>noght</hi>. If so, then M is perhaps dependent on beta1.</note> but of pore men · her houses were<note>Bx.14.270: <hi>were</hi>: All beta mss. except L read <hi>stoode</hi>, perhaps repeated from the previous line. <hi>Cx</hi> loses the b-verse.</note> vntyled</l>
<l> ¶ And þough sleuthe suwe pouerte · and serue nouȝt god to paye</l>
<l> Mischief is his maister · and maketh hym to thynke</l>
<l> Þat god is his<note>Bx.14.273: <hi>his</hi>: Omitted by R and misplaced by F, but supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> grettest helpe · and no gome elles</l>
<l> And [he is]<note>Bx.14.274: <hi>he is</hi>: The reading of R alone, but supported by <hi>Cx</hi> (RK.16.97). The beta reading, as in L, original M, and HmGOC, appears to have been <hi>his</hi>. CrWF make an obvious correction to <hi>he his</hi>, and this is followed by the M corrector. The sense is that Poverty is a servant in God's retinue.</note> seruaunt as he seith · and of his sute bothe</l>
<l> And where<note>Bx.14.275: <hi>where</hi>: "whether", the spelling of LR.</note> he be or be nouȝte · he bereth þe signe of pouerte</l>
<l> And in þat secte owre saueoure · saued al mankynde</l>
<l> For-thi al pore<note>Bx.14.277: <hi>pore</hi>: CrCGO have <hi>pouertie</hi>, influenced by l. <ref>275</ref>. <hi>Cx</hi> supports <hi>pore</hi>.</note> þat paciente is · may claymen and asken<note>Bx.14.277: <hi>may claymen and asken</hi>: The b-verse does not alliterate. <hi>Cx</hi> has instead <hi>of puyr rihte may claymen</hi>.</note></l>
<l> After her endynge here · heuene-riche blisse</l>
<l> ¶ Moche hardier may he axen · þat here myȝte haue his wille</l>
<l> In londe<note>Bx.14.277: <hi>In londe</hi>: F's reading suggests that R's <hi>In lorde</hi> is an alpha error.</note> and in lordship · and likynge of bodye</l>
<l> And for goddis loue leueth al · an lyueth as a beggere</l>
<l> And as a mayde for [a]<note>Bx.14.282: <hi>a</hi> (2): R is supported by <hi>Cx</hi> against omission in all other <hi>B</hi> mss.</note> mannes loue · her moder forsaketh</l>
<l> Hir fader and alle her frendes · and folweth hir make</l>
<l> Moche is suche a mayde<note>Bx.14.284: <hi>suche a mayde</hi>: LMHmCO are supported by <hi>Cx</hi> (RK.16.107). Alpha reads <hi>þat mayde</hi>, G drops <hi>suche</hi>, and CrW reflect a corrupt exemplar anticipating <hi>more</hi> in the following line.</note> to louie · of hym<note>Bx.14.284: <hi>hym</hi>: <hi>Cx</hi> has <hi>a man</hi> to carry the alliteration.</note> þat such one taketh</l>
<l> More þan a mayden is · þat is maried þorw brokage</l>
<l> As bi assent of sondry partyes · and syluer to bote</l>
<l> More for coueitise of good · þan kynde loue of bothe</l>
<l> ¶ So it fareth bi eche a persone · þat possessioun forsaketh</l>
<l> And put hym to be pacient · and pouerte weddeth</l>
<l> Þe which<note>Bx.14.290: <hi>Þe which</hi>: Supported by <hi>Cx</hi> against R <hi>Which</hi> and Cr <hi>Such</hi>.</note> is sybbe to god hym-self · and so [neighe is pouerte]<note>Bx.14.290: <hi>so neighe is pouerte</hi>: This is the reading of R and presumably of alpha, which F attempts to clarify by altering <hi>pouerte</hi> to <hi>þat persone</hi>. Beta is quite different, <hi>so to his seyntes</hi>, which makes superficial but inappropriate sense and can hardly have given rise to alpha. The readings of this b-verse and that of the next line suggest that <hi>Bx</hi> was damaged or unclear. <hi>Cx</hi> has a rather feeble repair: "The whiche is syb to Crist sulue and semblable bothe" (RK.16.113), and drops the next line.</note></l>
<l> ¶ Haue god my trouthe quod Haukyn · ȝe preyse faste pouerte<note>Bx.14.291: <hi>ȝe preyse faste pouerte</hi>: Beta's b-verse at least makes sense but it lacks alliteration. R, presumably representing alpha, is nonsense, and F skilfully rewrites. It may be that <hi>Bx</hi> read <hi>ȝe herie faste pouerte</hi>, with <hi>preyse</hi> as a gloss to avoid confusion with "hear", a gloss then incorporated by the scribes. It may be also that <hi>Bx</hi> was only partly legible; see previous note.</note></l>
<l> What is pouerte pacience<note>Bx.14.292: <hi>pacience</hi>: R only, but supported by <hi>Cx</hi>, where Actyf is addressing Patience. F drops the word and beta has <hi>with pacience</hi>.</note> quod he · proprely to mene</l>
<l><note>Bx.14.293: <hi></hi>: The paraph in LWHm introduces four Latin lines.</note> <foreign>Paupertas</foreign> quod pacience · <foreign>est odibile bonum</foreign></l>
<l> <foreign>Remocio curarum · possessio sine calumpnia · donum dei · sanitatis<note>Bx.14.294: <hi><foreign>sanitatis</foreign></hi>: CrWC and original M have erroneous <hi>sanitas</hi>, as again at l. <ref>326</ref>; R anticipates <hi>semita</hi>.</note> mater</foreign></l>
<l> <foreign>Absque solicitudine<note>Bx.14.295: <hi><foreign>solicitudine</foreign></hi>: O and Alpha have the error <hi>solitudine</hi>, as again at l. <ref>331</ref>. Many <hi>C</hi> manuscripts have the same error.</note> semita · sapiencie temperatrix · negocium sine dampno</foreign></l>
<l> <foreign>Incerta fortuna · absque solicitudine felicitas ·</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ I can nouȝt construe al<note>Bx.14.297: <hi>al</hi>: Dropped by Hm and beta4, but supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> þis quod haukyn · ȝe moste kenne<note>Bx.14.297: <hi>kenne</hi>: Scribes add <hi>me</hi> (WR) or alter to <hi>telle</hi> (Hm) or <hi>say</hi> (beta4).</note> þis on englisch</l>
<l> <note>Bx.14.298: MWHmCF mark the start of Patience's speech with a paraph or line-space.</note>In englisch quod pacyence it is wel harde · wel<note>Bx.14.298: <hi>wel</hi> (2): Lost by CrHmG who move the punctuation to follow <hi>pacyence</hi>. F also loses the word and expands the b-verse.</note> to expounen</l>
<l> Ac somdel I shal seyne it · by so þow vnderstonde</l>
<l> Pouerte is þe first poynte · þat pryde moste hateth</l>
<l> Thanne is it good by good skil · al þat agasteth pryde</l>
<l> Riȝte as contricioun is confortable þinge · conscience wote wel</l>
<l> And a sorwe of hym-self · and a solace to þe sowle</l>
<l> So pouerte propreliche [·] penaunce and ioye</l>
<l> Is to þe body [·] pure spiritual helthe</l>
<l> <foreign>Ergo paupertas est odibile bonum</foreign></l>
<l> <note>Bx.14.307: Alpha has a paraph which beta more logically postpones to l. <ref>308</ref>.</note>And contricioun confort [·] <foreign>& cura animarum</foreign><note>Bx.14.307: CGO add <hi>þe second</hi>, no doubt incorporated from a marginal note. But cf. l. <ref>314</ref>.</note></l>
<l> ¶ Selde sitte pouerte · þe sothe to declare</l>
<l> Or<note>Bx.14.309: <hi>Or</hi>: CrW read <hi>For</hi>, and M is altered to that reading. Hm takes <hi>Or as</hi> to be Latin, so writes <hi>horas justicie</hi> in display script. Many <hi>C</hi> scribes are puzzled by the syntax at this point.</note> as iustyce to iugge men · enioigned is no pore<note>Bx.14.309: <hi>enioigned is no pore</hi>: The b-verse has been lost in alpha, with F patching.</note></l>
<l> Ne to be a<note>Bx.14.310: <hi>a</hi>: Dropped by beta2 and G, as by some <hi>C</hi> scribes.</note> Maire [ouer]<note>Bx.14.310: <hi>ouer</hi>: Probably alpha as in R, misread as <hi>on</hi> in F. It has support from <hi>Cx</hi> against beta's <hi>aboue</hi>.</note> men · ne mynystre vnder kynges</l>
<l> Selden is any<note>Bx.14.311: <hi>any</hi> (1): Beta supported by <hi>Cx</hi>. R's nonsensical <hi>enemye</hi> presumably reproduces alpha, revised to <hi>þe</hi> by F.</note> pore yput · to punysshen any peple</l>
<l> <foreign>Remocio curarum</foreign></l>
<l> <foreign>Ergo</foreign> pouerte and pore men · parfornen þe comaundement</l>
<l> <foreign>Nolite iudicare quemquam</foreign> þe þridde<note>Bx.14.314: <hi>þe þridde</hi>: Supported by all <hi>B</hi> mss., though not in <hi>Cx</hi> and quite possibly incorporated from a marginal note. Cf. l. <ref>307</ref>.</note></l>
<l> ¶ Selde is pore [riȝt]<note>Bx.14.315: <hi>pore riȝt</hi>: Alpha is supported by <hi>Cx</hi> and alliteration over beta's <hi>any pore</hi>, picked up from l. <ref>311</ref>.</note> riche · but of [his]<note>Bx.14.294: <hi>his</hi>: Omitted by all except R (rephrased in F), but supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> riȝtful heritage</l>
<l> Wynneth he nauȝt with weghtes<note>Bx.14.316: <hi>weghtes</hi>: Alpha must have had <hi>wittes</hi> as in R but revised in F. <hi>C</hi> mss. show some confusion, the majority reading <hi>wihtes</hi>, "weights", but with variants including <hi>wittes</hi>, <hi>whittus</hi> and <hi>whites</hi> (RK.16.130).</note> fals · ne with vnseled mesures</l>
<l> Ne borweth of his neghbores · but þat he may wel paye</l>
<l> <foreign>Possessio sine calumpnia ·</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ Þe fierthe [it]<note>Bx.14.319: <hi>it</hi>: Omitted by all except R, but it is in the most reliable mss. of <hi>C</hi>, and easily lost. Cf. ll. <ref>324</ref>, <ref>327</ref>, <ref>334</ref>, <ref>338</ref>, <ref>342</ref>, where R again uniquely reads <hi>it</hi>.</note> is a fortune · þat florissheth þe soule</l>
<l> Wyth sobrete fram al synne · and also ȝit more</l>
<l> It affaiteth þe flesshe · fram folyes ful manye</l>
<l> A collateral conforte · crystes owne ȝifte</l>
<l> <foreign>Donum dei</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ Þe fyfte [it]<note>Bx.14.324: <hi>it</hi>: Omitted by all except R; cf. note to l. <ref>319</ref>. <hi>C</hi> mss. have instead <hi>Ȝut is hit</hi> or <hi>Ȝut hit is</hi>.</note> is moder of helthe [·] a frende in alle fondynges</l>
<l> And for þe la[w]d[e]<note>Bx.14.325: <hi>lawde</hi>: The range of variants suggests that this spelling (as in CR) or possibly <hi>laude</hi> was the reading of <hi>Bx</hi>. Schmidt (1995), 394, plausibly proposes that it was an error for <hi>lowe</hi>, "humble people". Most beta scribes suppose the intended reading to be <hi>lande</hi>, but GO take it as the northern spelling of <hi>lewde</hi>. F's <hi>lawe</hi> presumably means "law" rather than "low", which is <hi>lowe, lowh, lowhȝ</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> rewrites (RK.16.138)</note> euere a leche<note>Bx.14.325: <hi>a leche</hi>: Alpha's <hi>a-liche / y-lyche</hi>, though adopted by KD, is an obvious error. In its rewritten line <hi>Cx</hi> has <hi>of foule eueles leche</hi>.</note> · a lemman of al clennesse</l>
<l> <foreign>Sanitatis<note>Bx.14.326: <hi><foreign>Sanitatis</foreign></hi>: For the error <hi>Sanitas</hi> in CrWC and uncorrected M and G, cf. l. <ref>294</ref>.</note> mater</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ Þe sexte [it]<note>Bx.14.327: <hi>it</hi>: Omitted by all except R; cf. note to l. <ref>319</ref>. Most <hi>C</hi> mss. have it.</note> is a path of pees · ȝe þorw þe pas of altoun</l>
<l> Pouerte myȝte passe · with-oute peril of robbyng</l>
<l> For þere þat pouerte passeth · pees folweth after</l>
<l> And euere þe lasse þat he bereth · þe hardyer he<note>Bx.14.330: <hi>he</hi> (2): R drops and <hi>Cx</hi> rewrites. The line is lost in F.</note> is of herte</l>
<l> For-þi seith seneca <foreign> · paupertas est absque solicitudine<note>Bx.14.331: <hi><foreign>solicitudine</foreign></hi>: See note to l. <ref>295</ref>.</note> semita</foreign></l>
<l> And an hardy man of herte · amonge an hepe of þeues</l>
<l> <foreign>Cantabit<note>Bx.14.333: <hi><foreign>Cantabit</foreign></hi>: Cr and alpha have the imperfect in error. (KD and Schmidt wrongly record <hi>Cantabit</hi> as F's reading).</note> paupertas coram latrone viator</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ Þe seueneth [it]<note>Bx.14.334: <hi>it</hi>: Omitted by all except R; cf. note to l. <ref>319</ref>. Most <hi>C</hi> mss. have it.</note> is welle of wisdome · and fewe wordes sheweth</l>
<l> For lordes alloweth hym litel · or lysteneth to his reson</l>
<l> He tempreth þe tonge to treuthe-ward · [þat]<note>Bx.14.336: <hi>þat</hi>: Alpha is supported by <hi>Cx</hi> against beta's easier <hi>and</hi>.</note> no tresore coueiteth</l>
<l> <note>Bx.14.337: The Latin tag (from l. <ref>295</ref>) is recorded only in beta and is not in <hi>C</hi>.</note> <foreign>Sapiencie temperatrix</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ The eigteth [it]<note>Bx.14.338: <hi>it</hi>: Omitted by all except R; cf. note to l. <ref>319</ref>. Most <hi>C</hi> mss. have it.</note> is a lele laborere<note>Bx.14.338: <hi>laborere</hi>: The form has strong support for <hi>Bx</hi> from LCr and alpha, though <hi>Cx</hi> has <hi>labour</hi>. <title>MED</title> <hi>labour</hi> 6 gives the sense "laborer", with examples almost entirely from <hi>A</hi> mss, and it is quite a frequent variant in all three versions. Cf. <hi>flateres</hi> for <hi>flatererers</hi> in <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.13.450</ref> and <ref>477</ref>, and MHmCG + alpha <hi>chambre</hi> for <hi>chaumbrere</hi> in <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.14.110</ref>.</note> · and loth to take more</l>
<l> Þan he may wel deserue · in somer or in wynter</l>
<l> And if [he]<note>Bx.14.340: <hi>he</hi> (1): Omitted in L, where the line is marked for correction.</note> chaffareth he chargeth no losse · mowe he charite wynne</l>
<l> <foreign>Negocium sine dampno</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ The nyneth [it]<note>Bx.14.342: <hi>it</hi>: Omitted by all except R; cf. note to l. <ref>319</ref>. Most <hi>C</hi> mss. have it.</note> is swete to þe soule · no sugre is swettere</l>
<l> For pacyence is payn · for pouerte hym-selue</l>
<l> And sobrete swete drynke · and good leche in sykenesse</l>
<l> Þus lered me a le[r]ed<note>Bx.14.345: <hi>lered</hi> (2): Alpha supported by <hi>Cx</hi>. To avoid the repetition, beta adopts <hi>lettred</hi>, while a number of <hi>C</hi> mss. have, oddly, <hi>lewid</hi>.</note> man · for owre lordes loue<note>Bx.14.345: <hi>loue</hi>: Supposing an omission, WCr and F add <hi>of heuene</hi> on the model of <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.6.19</ref>, <ref>13.151</ref>, etc. <hi>Cx</hi> ends <hi>lordes loue seynt Austyn</hi> (RK.16.153), taking up the first words of the following line.</note></l>
<l> Seynt austyn a blissed lyf · with-outen bysynesse<note>Bx.14.346: <hi>bysynesse</hi>: CrW add <hi>ladde</hi> to complete the b-verse, and M is corrected to that reading. <hi>Cx</hi> redivides ll. 345-7, so that this line becomes "A blessed lyf withoute bisinesse bote onelyche for þe soule" (RK.16.155).</note></l>
<l> For body and for soule · <foreign>absque solicitudine felicitas</foreign></l>
<l> Now god þat al good gyueth · graunt his soule reste</l>
<l> Þat þus<note>Bx.14.349: <hi>þus</hi>: Beta2 has <hi>þis</hi>, but <hi>Cx</hi> reads <hi>þus</hi>.</note> fyrst wrote to wyssen men · what pouerte was to mene</l>
<l> ¶ Allas quod haukyn þe actyf man þo<note>Bx.14.350: <hi>þe actyf man þo</hi>: Lost in alpha. These lines to the end of the passus are not in <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> · þat after my crystendome</l>
<l> I ne hadde ben ded and doluen · for doweles sake</l>
<l> So harde it is quod haukyn · to lyue and to do synne</l>
<l> Synne suweth<note>Bx.14.353: <hi>suweth</hi>: Alpha's error <hi>scheweth</hi> prompts F to rewrite.</note> vs euere quod he · and sori gan wexe</l>
<l> And wepte water with his eyghen · and weyled þe tyme</l>
<l> Þat euere he dede dede · þat dere god displesed</l>
<l> Swowed and sobbed · and syked ful ofte</l>
<l> Þat euere he hadde londe or lordship · lasse other more</l>
<l> Or maystrye ouer any man · mo þan of hym-self</l>
<l> I were nouȝt worthy wote god quod haukyn · to were any clothes</l>
<l> Ne noyther sherte ne shone · saue for shame one</l>
<l> To keure my caroigne quod he · and cryde mercye faste</l>
<l> And wepte and weyled · and þere-with I awaked</l>