fol. 30r (cont.)I
Pass v . us
de visione vt sup us . raPassus septimR.7.0: At the extreme right margin, on the same line as the passus heading, there is the cropped fragment of a rubrication guide, very small and in a light brown, contemporary hand: v us. Below this fragment is another cropped line, partially obscured by the grain of the membrane: Pass. vis
with peres þe nR.7.8: Among the other copies, only the B family (BmBoCot), a textually inferior group, shares R's B before þe; the other beta copies omit any determiner at this point, apparently reading the reference to Langland's central character as a full proper name, plowman; F omits everything from the a-verse after pieres plowman. However, among the Pers witnesses, the X family agrees with R (against the P family's support of beta). C plowman treuthe hath I-graunted .Pardou
cherches .R.7.9: R's plural is unique; all other copies show the singular, B, which agrees with the reading of cherche. Ax¶ Kynges and kniȝtes þat kepen holy
And[Han]R.7.11: is unique error; most other And copies read B, which agrees with the reading of Han and Ax. Cx pardou þorȝ purgatorie to passe ful liȝtly . n
¶ Marchauntes in þe margyne ¶hauedR.7.18: R's verb form here is unique and slightly archaic; most of the other manuscripts of all versions read . No difference in meaning is discernible. hadde(n) many ȝeres .
noR.7.19: Alpha construes the opening of this phrase as English and omits the initial Latin preposition; cf. beta's . The X family of the none a pena version treats this phrase exactly as alpha does, while the reading of the P family omits the negative and is obviously corrupt. C pena et a culpa Ac þepope wald hem þe popenauȝtR.7.19: In place of R's , F has wald hem nauȝt while beta reads will(e) not; no beta copy (nor any nolde hem or A witness) attests the presence of alpha's C. Beta is likelier to be authorial. In a slightly revised version of this half-line, the nauȝt version reads either C (P family) or nolde hem (X family). The same disagreement between wolde hem and wolde divides the nolde copies into two large groups. A graunte .
ehalydayR.7.20: Although M agrees with alpha on this singular form, most beta witnesses show the plural, . Most halidayes copies agree with the majority beta reading, but the A manuscripts divide into two large groups, the X family (with some P- family support) atetsting alpha's form while the dominant P-family reading agrees with beta. C as holy cherche telleth .R.7.20: R's is unique; telleth has Bx, the same reading found at this point, uniformly, in the other versions . techethFor þei holde nauȝt her
likethR.7.24: In place of alpha's present-tense form, beta has a preterite, ; all but one liked witness agrees with beta, but the C manuscripts are split: a majority agree with beta's preterite, but a significant minority attest alpha's form. Kane chooses the minority reading for his edition of A, but Kane-Donaldson endorse the beta reading in their edition of A. B .Þat þei schulde bugge boldely þat hem best
sellen it usvsR.7.25: R's is a unique addition to the text of vs, which agrees here with that of Bx and Ax. Cx aȝeyn and sauen þe ges nwynny .R.7.25: Beta shows a singular form, . The wynnyge reading agrees with beta's, but the Ax manuscripts are split, a majority (including the best witnesses in both major families) agreeing with alpha's plural while a minority supports beta. CAnd sitthen
orR.7.30: R's is unique; or has Bx. and prisones fynden hem her fode . ePore poeple
R.7.31: The alpha b-verse lacks an alliterative stave; beta reads other craftes somme. Beta's reading is supported by the analogous verse from to , which reads A skynes craftis summe. to other craftes .And sette scoleres to scole or to
¶ Þanne wer ¶ emanye marchauntz t wopen aþR.7.37: In place of alpha's t wopen a, the beta phrase is manye marchauntz þ. The beta phrase agrees entirely with the wording of Marchauntz mery many wepten and Ax. Cx for ioye .
hadde . nR.7.39: Here alpha seems to have mislineated by truncation (as reflected in R's short line), which causes the authorial b-verse to be cast as a following line (R7.40), fleshed out (uniquely in R) with . F attempts an even more extensive smoothing, rendering the two lines as follows: for þat craft is schrewedMen of lawe leste pardou
For þey for meede pletyn moore / þan mychil for goddis helpe. But men of Lawe of pardoun / þe leeste part þey haddyn.
For þey for meede pletyn moore / þan mychil for goddis helpe. But men of Lawe of pardoun / þe leeste part þey haddyn.
R.7.42: Hereafter beta includes a Latin citation omitted by alpha:And nameliche of innocentes þat non euel ne cunneth .
. Super innocentem munera non accipies
. Super innocentem munera non accipies
spenethR.7.48: R's is a unique reading (the other speneth manuscripts read B); however, R's verb derived historically from spendeth, is synonymous with it, and occurs in free variation with it throughout R (cf. R10.109). From its sometimes parallel occurrence in L (as at KD10.90), the form seems likely to be an authorial relict. A majority of spende(n) copies agree with R's form here, as does the text of Bodley 851, but most C manuscripts agree with beta. A his speche and speketh for þe pore .¶ Ac he þat
AndR.7.50: Beta omits . The And version attests the same a-verse and reads it exactly as beta does. A conforteth hym in þat cas with-oute coueytise of ȝiftes .
-toinR.7.59: Beta reads (LMCrW), followed by on(e) to (LMCrWCG) . deye(n) agrees exactly with F's Cx . to þe deþ deth and indulgences wolde haue .¶ Whan þei drawen
is ful petyt at nhisR.7.60: R's second in this line is unique; all other his manuscripts read a plural form like W's B. However, hir agrees exactly with R's rendering of this line, including the singular posessive here. Cx partyng hennes .His pardou
medeR.7.61: R uniquely omits before any. F and beta agree with mede in attesting the presence of this determiner, but R has the support of Ax in omitting it. Cx of mene men for her motyng taketh .Þat
þeR.7.62: R's is a unique addition to this line. Although R's þe and þ tend oftentimes to overlap in form, this word was probably mistranscribed by Kane and Donaldson, who read it as y, an error also implicit in their earlier omission of R from the lemma for witnesses beginning this line with ye; that group includes R's sibling F. Þe lawyeres holdeth þis for treuthe .Þe legistres and
lowe eherte .R.7.68: Beta shows the plural . The hertis version omits this line, and the C manuscripts are divided, with slightly more than half supporting alpha's singular and the rest agreeing with beta's plural. AAnd lyuen in loue and in lawe for her
on þat sent was to peres . iR.7.69: The scribe omitted the customary space between this line and the new verse paragraph below, but he often does so when, as here, the new unit begins on the last line of a side.Haueth þe same absoluc
hymR.7.71: R's is unique among the hym manuscripts. The others read B. hem agrees with the reading of the Ax majority, but the B manuscripts are divided by major groups, the X family supporting R while the P group supports the other C copies. B to begge .But ȝif þe sugestion be soth þat schapeth
gylethR.7.74: Both beta and F read . However, R's unique verb form agrees exactly with the reading of bigileth and Ax. Cx þe gyuer ageynes his wille . eAnd also he
elemosinaR.7.80: Most beta copies read , but LM support alpha's omission of the first elemosina tua in manu tua. tua in manu tua donec studes cui des .Sit
¶ Ac gregorie ¶is aR.7.81: In place of R's , beta reads is a. F reads was a. þat good man and badde vs gyuen alle .
he ȝiftR.7.87: F reads the opening of this a-verse as ; beta has For þe man þat ȝifte. It seems clear from these overlapping agreements that R is responsible uniquely for omitting For he þat ȝiueth, that F replaces archetypal þat with he, and that the þe man / ȝifte dichotomy reflects an alpha / beta difference. ȝiueth ȝeldeth and ȝarketh hym to reste .For
bitR.7.88: R's is a unique verb form here. F makes extensive revisions to the entire line, while most beta copies read bit. biddeth boreweth and bryngeth hym-selue in detteAnd he þat
-thiForR.7.89: Beta reads . For beggeres borewen eue er-mo and her borȝ is god almiȝti .
amoreR.7.90: R alone reads ; other amore witnesses correctly have B. more .To ȝelden hem þat ȝyueth hem and ȝut vsure
indiget[non] indigetR.7.96: R's omission of before non is unique. indiget pane . Satis diues est qui
þeR.7.104: Both beta and F read bone some. This agrees with the reading of . Cx had read Ax bon his. bone þeiR.7.104: Beta manuscripts have for alpha's he breketh. The þei breken manuscripts are divided, some attesting a singular and others a plural, but A agrees with alpha, treating the phrase as a plural. Cx breken in here ȝouthe .Or þe bak or
eherR.7.105: Although OC support alpha's reading, beta has 2 for alpha's ȝoure. Both here and Ax agree with alpha. Cx fauntes for eue er-more after .And sitthen gon faiten with
ÞoR.7.108: In place of alpha's or Þo (= F), beta reads For þo. Both And þei and Ax agree with R's version of the entire a-verse. Cx þat lyueth þus here lif mowe lothe þe tyme .
inR.7.112: R's is a unique reading; this preposition is omitted by the other in witnesses but is attested in two of the B copies (Ma and H) and in A. Cx here membres .Blynde and bederede and broken
vponR.7.116: F garbles the entire b-verse; beta reads in place of R's here on. The reading of here vpon for this half-line seems uncertain, but six A witnesses attest the presence of A at the beginning of this phrase and five read here. here vpon omits C's B from the phrase; the full here reading is Cx. vppon this puyre erthe þis erthe .Here penance and here purgatorie here
schalR.7.118: Beta reads . wil agrees with alpha. Ax construe vche clause and kenne it þe an englys .For I
heR.7.119: R's is a unique addition to the text as witnessed by the other he copies. Both B and Ax agree with the Cx majority. B vnfoldeth .¶ And peres at his preyere þe pardon
ÞatR.7.128: R's is an alpha variant supported by LM. Most other beta copies read Þat. Y reads But. And agrees with the RFLM reading. Ax after þi deth-day þe deuel schal haue þi soule .
es . mNon timebo mala quoniam tu mecuR.7.131: Here the scribe omits the customary space between strophes, presumably because the next verse paragraph begins on the last line of this side.
penauncesR.7.134: Beta shows the singular . Although two penaunce witnesses (DMa) agree with alpha, it is clear that A read the same singular form as beta. Ax my plow schal ben here-after .Of preyeres and of
ofR.7.144: R's is unique; F and most beta copies read of. LM have in. The on version reads the key phrase of this half-line as A þe firmament in. foulis þe felde ho fynt hem mete at wynter .Þe foules
¶ ¶AbstinenceR.7.148: After , beta adds Abstinence. The passage does not appear in þe abbesse but is phrased in C exactly as in beta. A qd peres myn a b c me tauȝte . uo
ofR.7.151: Beta reads . in diuinite with to þi teme . dixit insipiensAs dyuinor
¶ Lewed lorel q ¶d peres litel lokestow on þi uoR.7.152: Both F and beta read , which is also the reading of þe. Ax bible .
R.7.153: Beta reads ; F rephrases the entire a-verse, beginning it with On. Þere salamounes sawes selden þow beholdest .And
R.7.154: Many manuscripts read B, including F and numerous beta copies; however, the most authoritative beta copies (including LMCrW) all agree with R on Eice. The latter variant is clearly erroneous with regard to the original Vulgate text, but it probably already existed as a Vulgate variant long before Langland's day since the same paleographic factors that would have induced multiple independent errors in both directions among Ecce scribes already were in place. Even Kane-Donaldson fall into this pit, mistranscribing R's Piers Plowman as Ecce because it is barely possible to construe (generously) the <cc> as <ic> joined at the top by a ligature—until one notices, in the preceding tag at R7.142, that the R scribe does not avail himself of a ligature when writing the <ic> of Eice. There is no way to know which word Langland himself wrote, but since all solliciti manuscripts attest A, the odds are, as Rigg and Brewer theorize in Ecce (Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 1983): 111, that various Piers Plowman: The Z Version scribes attempted to do for Langland what Kane-Donaldson unconsciously do for R: repair the damage quietly. See John A. Alford, B (Binghamton: MRTS, 1992), p. 57, for discussion of this tag. Piers Plowman: A Guide to the Quotations derisores &c . eteraEcceR.7.154: R omits the end of this citation, which in beta reads: . F's version of the rest of the citation is, typically, unique: iurgia cum eis ne crescant &c. & exibit cum eo iurgium cessabitque cause & contumelie
¶ And I thorȝ her wordes ¶R.7.156: R alone misplaces the caesura indicator. a-woke and wayted aboute .
R.7.169: F and most beta witnesses attest the plural . dremes of a kyng .How daniel diuined þe dreme
reue .R.7.172: In place of alpha's , beta witnesses are divided between reue (CrWHmC) and cleyme (LMGOC cleue). 2 reads Ax, but the stemmatic array of the two variants from beta actually suggests that its form was somewhat likelier to have been cleyme. cleueÞat vnkouth kniȝtes schul come þi kyngdom to
hym þere souȝteR.7.183: Reversing R's , beta reads hym þere souȝte; F has þere hym souȝte. sowtyn þere .It byfel as his fader tolde his frendes
nempnedR.7.186: R's is a unique error, failing in alliteration; F and beta agree on nempned, which is also the reading of demed and of some of the Cx manuscripts (most of the others read various forms of another alliterating verb, e.g., manuscript A's A). deuyned þat dowel indulgence passed And
npardouR.7.189: R uniquely omits before þe. Only one pardoun manuscript duplicates this error (the others all agree with A). Bx of seinte petres chercheR.7.189: Here the scribe omits the customary space between strophes, presumably because the next verse paragraph begins on the last line of this side.And passeth alle
Þis oureÞis [is] oureR.7.192: R uniquely omits before is. beleue beleue as lettred men vs techeth .
It isR.7.198: Beta omits and begins the line with It. Seven Is witnesses (UDVJAWaN) agree with beta in this omission, but the others agree with alpha. Among the A copies, it seems likely that the progenitor of the P family agreed with beta's omission, but the X family clearly supports the inclusion of C at the head of this line. Hit nauȝt so siker for þe soule certes as is dowel .
For ¶-thi I rede ȝow thenkeR.7.199: Alpha was corrupt here and R presumably mirrors its reading with ; cf. beta's presumptively authentic ȝow thenke. F offers a typical job of smoothing alpha's error: ȝow renkes. ȝow alle agrees with beta. Cx þat riche ben on þis erthe .
and acountesR.7.206: Alpha adds at the head of this b-verse; although several and manuscripts do the same, it is obvious that both A and Ax agree with beta in omitting this conjunction. Cx to ȝelde .And comen alle byfore criste
dostR.7.208: Beta has ; F reads a present form, dedest. don agrees with beta. Ax day by day þe dome wil reherce .And how þow
-fulpouhȝR.7.209: This unusual form appears only in R. The word , "sack, bag," is synonymous with pouhȝ, the form attested by other manuscripts. This form is possibly original, since it appears in poke's Vernon manuscript, and Kane-Russell have adopted it for their critical text of AC of pardou þere ne p nuinciales l rores . ettA
nite of alle þe erfyueR.7.210: R's is a unique variant among the fyue witnesses; beta and F read B. foure agrees with the Ax majority, but B agrees with R. Cx ordres .Þowe ȝe be founde in þe frat
but dowel wil ȝowR.7.211: Beta has the unmetrical reading . R's but if dowel ȝow is a unique addition. wil helpe .And haue indulgences dubblefolde
¶orthi I conseil F alle cristene to crie god mercy . eR.7.213: Although he left the job of ornamenting R far from complete, the rubricator usually took care to alternate blue with red paraph markers. However, on this page the pattern is broken (two red parasigns in a row), presumably through inadvertency. The verse strophe preceding this one is fairly long, but there is no evidence that a paragraph division was overlooked by the copyist. Only one of the older manuscripts shows any division between KD7.187 and KD7.201 (Hm, at KD7.193); the rest agree with R in marking none. B
þeR.7.216: Beta omits . þe agrees with beta, as does the P family of Ax witnesses; however, the X family agrees with alpha. C while we ben here .Suche werkes to werche