<div1>fol. 85r (cont.)I</div1>
<foreign>pass<expan>us</expan> xv<expan>us</expan></foreign>
<head><foreign><hi>Passus <orig><sic>xv<add>j</add><expan>us</expan></sic><corr>xv[ij]<expan>us</expan></corr></orig><reg><sic>quintus decim<expan>us</expan></sic><corr>[septimus] decim<expan>us</expan></corr></reg> de visione vt sup<expan>ra</expan> . <seg></seg> <seg></seg></hi></foreign> <note>R.17.0: An early user has attempted to correct the scribal passus number (which is now undercounted by two) by adding a single red <j> after the <v> of the heading.</note></head>
<l> <hi><hi>I</hi></hi> am <foreign>spes</foreign> <app><lem>a spie q<expan>uo</expan>d he</lem></app><note>R.17.1: Beta reverses the alpha phrase, reading <hi>quod he a spye</hi>; <hi>Cx</hi>, however, agrees with alpha.</note><note>R.17.1: R uniquely omits <hi>and</hi> before <hi>spere</hi>. The <hi>C</hi> reading agrees with the <hi>B</hi> majority.</note> <app><lem>sper<expan>e</expan></lem></app> after a kniȝte .</l>
<l> Þat toek me a maundement  vp<seg>-</seg>on þe mont of synay .</l>
<l> To reule alle reumes <app><lem>þer<expan>e</expan><seg>-</seg>with</lem></app><note>R.17.3: In place of alpha's <hi>þer(e)-with</hi>, the beta copies read <hi>with</hi>; <hi>Cx</hi>, however, agrees with alpha.</note>  I bere þe writ here .</l>
<l> <note>R.17.4: There is no <hi>cc</hi> in the margin because there would have been no space for a paraph marker anyway (the passus initial extends down beyond this line in the left margin).</note> Is it aseled I seyde  may men se þi l<expan>ett</expan>res .<note> Here there is another erased note, in the right margin, written horizontally in a sprawling style that spreads, at its top, over into the ruled area of the page; the note extends for some four lines and appears to be in the same fifteenth-century hand as that found on fol. 94r.</note></l>
<l> ¶ Nay he seyde I seke hym  þ<expan>a</expan>t hath þe sel to kepe .</l>
<l> And þat is cros and cristendom  and criste þer<expan>e</expan><seg>-</seg>on to hange .</l>
<l> And whan it is aseled so  <app><lem>sathanas power</lem></app> schal last no lenger .<note> Here alpha must have merged two lines from <hi>Bx</hi> into one. However, as the lines survive in the extant copies, they differ considerably not only between alpha and beta witnesses but between R and F as well. Beta manuscripts read: <lb/>
<hi>And whan it is asseled so I wote wel þe sothe <lb/>
Þat Lucyferes lordeship laste shal no lenger</hi>
. <lb/>
RF and beta essentially agree on the initial a-verse of this pair, but then R supplies a unique b-verse followed by a hypometrical line: <hi>And þus my lettre meneth</hi>. By contrast, F reads these two lines as follows:<lb/>
<hi>& whan it ys / a-selyd soo / sathenas haþ lost his power<lb/>
& þus myn lettre meneþ / men mowe knowe yt</hi>
. <lb/>
W. W. Skeat, <title>The Vision of William concerning Piers the Plowman</title>, EETS, OS 38 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1869): 416, proposed that RF's exemplar must have read:<lb/>
<hi>And when it is aseled so Sathanas power <lb/>
Schal last no lenger and þus my lettre meneth</hi>
<l> And þus my l<expan>ett</expan>re <app><lem>meneth</lem></app><note>R.17.8: Beta omits this line, and R has truncated it. Cf. F, whose b-verse reads <hi>men mowe knowe yt alle</hi>.</note><note>R.17.8: Although the line following this one is marked in the margin with <hi>cc</hi> as a separate paragraph, the scribe does not follow his usual practice of skipping a line between strophes. It is impossible to know why he departed from his custom here, but he may have been troubled by his exemplar's wasteful attitude toward parchment in this part of the poem, where strophes tend to be very short, indicating only a change of speakers in a rapidly shifting dialogue. </note></l>
<l> ¶ Lat se <app><lem>þat</lem></app> <app><lem>l<expan>ett</expan>re</lem></app><note>R.17.9: In place of alpha's <hi>þat lettre</hi>, beta reads <hi>þi lettres</hi>, which agrees with the reading of <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> q<expan>uo</expan>d I  we miȝte þe lawe knowe <note>R.17.9: The blank line following this one was originally written on and later erased by the scribe.</note></l>
<l><app><lem>A plucked</lem></app><note>R.17.10: <hi>A</hi>, "he."</note> forthe a patente<note>R.17.10: R's a-verse is supported by <hi>Cx</hi> (<hi>A pluhte forth a patente</hi>), but F begins the line <hi>& he</hi> while beta attests a reversal (<hi>Þanne plokked he</hi>).</note>  a pece of a harde roche .</l>
<l> Wher<expan>e</expan><seg>-</seg>on <app><lem>was</lem></app><note>R.17.11: L joins alpha in reading a singular; the other beta copies have <hi>were(n)</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with LRF on this point.</note> writen to wordes  on þis wise Iglosed .</l>
<l> <hi><foreign>Dilige deu<expan>m</expan> <expan>et</expan> p<expan>ro</expan>x<expan>imu</expan>m . tuu<expan>m</expan> &c<expan>etera</expan> .</foreign></hi></l>
<l> Þis was þe tixte treweli  I toke ful gode <app><lem>gome</lem></app><note>R.17.13: For R's <hi>gome</hi>, beta shows <hi>ȝeme</hi> while F reads <hi>keepe</hi>. Although both of the latter forms appear in <hi>C</hi> manuscripts, it seems clear that <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with R's <hi>gome</hi>.</note> .</l>
<l> Þe glose was gloriousliche <app><lem>I<seg>-</seg>write</lem></app><note>R.17.14: Cf. F's <hi>wrete</hi> and beta's <hi>writen</hi>. Though some <hi>C</hi> manuscripts show <hi>write</hi>, it appears that <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with beta's <hi>writen</hi>.</note>  with a gulte penne .</l>
<l> <hi><foreign>In hijs duob<expan>us</expan> <app><lem>pendet tota lex</lem></app> & p<expan>ro</expan>ph<expan>et</expan>ia .</foreign></hi><note>R.17.15: F reads this citation as <foreign>In hijs duobus mandatis tota lex pendet & prophete.</foreign> Most beta copies agree. However, <hi>Cx</hi> basically agrees with R's form of the citation, though the X family reads <foreign>(pe)pendit</foreign>.</note></l>
<l><app><lem>Is</lem></app> here alle þi lordes lawes q<expan>uo</expan>d I  ȝe lef <app><lem>me</lem></app><note>R.17.16: After <hi>me</hi> beta adds <hi>wel</hi>. However, <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with alpha in omitting this word.</note> he seyde .</l>
<l> And who<seg>-</seg>so wercheth after <app><lem>my wit</lem></app><note>R.17.17: R's <hi>my wit</hi> is unique; F, beta, and <hi>Cx</hi> agree on <hi>þis writte</hi>.</note>  I wole vndertaken .</l>
<l> Schal neu<expan>er</expan>e deuel hym dere  ne deth in soule greue .</l>
<l> For þouȝ I seye it my<seg>-</seg>selue  I haue saued with þis charme .</l>
<l> Of men and of wommen  many score thousendes .</l>
<l> ¶ He seith soth seyde þis heraud  I haue I<seg>-</seg>founde it ofte .</l>
<l> Lo here in my lappe  þat leued <app><lem>of</lem></app><note>R.17.22: R's <hi>of</hi> is unique; the other <hi>B</hi> manuscripts read <hi>on</hi>.</note> þat charme .</l>
<l> Iosue and Iudith  and Iudas machabeus .</l>
<l> <app><lem>And</lem></app><note>R.17.24: Beta copies begin this line with the phrase <hi>Ȝe and</hi>.</note> sexti thousand by<seg>-</seg>side forth  þat be nauȝt se<del>n</del><add>y</add>ne here .</l>
<milestone>fol. 85vI</milestone>
<l> ¶ Ȝour<expan>e</expan> wordes aren wonderful q<expan>uo</expan>d I þo  which of ȝow is treweste. </l>
<l> And lelest to leue on  for lif and for soule </l>
<l> Abrah<expan>a</expan>m seyth þat he seyȝ  holi þe trinite </l>
<l> Thre p<expan>er</expan>sones in parceles  departable fram other .</l>
<l> And alle thre but o god  þus abrah<expan>a</expan>m me tauȝte .</l>
<l> And hath saued þat <app><lem>bileueth</lem></app><note>R.17.30: Here F reads <hi>byleve</hi>, so alpha presumably had a present-tense form (but the Introduction <xref>III.2.2.10</xref> on the pervasively problematic <-th> tense marking of the alpha tradition); beta, on the other hand, reads <hi>bileued</hi>. Although six C manuscripts (five from the P family) agree with R's reading, <hi>Cx</hi> supports beta.</note> so  and sori for her<expan>e</expan> synnes .</l>
<l> He can nauȝte segge þe somme  & su<expan>m</expan>me aren in his lappe .</l>
<l> What neded it þanne  a newe lawe to <app><lem>bringe</lem></app><note>R.17.32: In place of alpha's <hi>bringe</hi>, beta reads <hi>bigynne</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi>'s reading agrees with alpha.</note> .</l>
<l> Sitth þe furst sufficeth  to sauac<expan>i</expan>ou<expan>n</expan> and to blisse .</l>
<l> ¶ And now cometh <foreign>spes</foreign> and speketh  þ<expan>a</expan>t hath aspied þe lawe .</l>
<l> And telleth nauȝt of þe trinite  þat toek hym his l<expan>ett</expan>res .</l>
<l> To bileue and louye  in o lorde almiȝty .</l>
<l> And sitth riȝt as my<seg>-</seg>selue  so louye all<expan>e</expan> poeple .<note>R.17.37: Following this line, both R and F omit eleven lines of text present in the beta manuscripts:<lb/>
<hi>Þe gome þat goth with o staf he semeth in gretter hele <lb/>
Þan he þat goth with two staues to syȝte of vs alle <lb/>
And riȝte so by þe Rode resoun me sheweth <lb/>
It is lyȝter to lewed men a lessoun to knowe <lb/>
Þan for to techen hem two and to harde to lerne þe leest <lb/>
It is ful harde for any man on abraham byleue <lb/>
And welawey worse ȝit for to loue a shrewe <lb/>
It is liȝtor to leue in þre louely persones <lb/>
Þan for to louye and lene as wel lorelles as lele <lb/>
Go þi gate quod I to spes so me god helpe <lb/>
Þo þat lerneth þi lawe wil litel while vsen it</hi>
<l> ¶ And as we wenten þus in þe weye  wordyng<expan>e</expan> to<seg>-</seg>gyderes .</l>
<l> Þan seye we a samaritan  <app><lem>sittende</lem></app> on a mule .</l>
<l> <app><lem>Ryden</lem></app><note>R.17.40: Cf. F's <hi>Rydende</hi> and beta's <hi>Rydynge</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> shows the same form as beta.</note> ful rapely  þe riȝt weye we ȝeden </l>
<l> <app><lem>Comynde</lem></app><note>R.17.41: R's <hi>Comynde</hi> is a unique present-participle form here; most <hi>B</hi> copies, including F, read <hi>Comynge</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with the predominant <hi>B</hi> form.</note> fram a contre  þat men called iherico .</l>
<l> To a iustes in iherusalem  he chased a<seg>-</seg>weye fast .</l>
<l> Bothe þe heraud and hope  and he mette at ones . <foreign><expan>id est</expan> <expan>christus</expan> .</foreign><note>R.17.43: This Latin phrase is in the scribal hand and appears to have been mistaken by R for part of the poem's text although it is clearly an early gloss. Presumably, it derives from <hi>Bx</hi> since the Laud scribe also reproduces the same gloss and reacts to it with confusion, placing it very close to his ruled text and only halfway as far to the right as the position usually allocated in his copy for marginal notes. The same gloss and ambiguous placement occurs in M.</note></l>
<l> Where a man was <app><lem>I<seg>-</seg>wounded</lem></app>  and with theues taken .</l>
<l> <app><lem>A</lem></app><note>R.17.45: <hi>A</hi>, "he."</note> miȝte neyther steppe ne stande  ne ster<expan>e</expan> foet ne handes .</l>
<l> Ne helpe hym<seg>-</seg>sulue sothly  for semiuif he semed .</l>
<l> And as naked as a nedle  and noen helpe <app><lem>aboute</lem></app> .<note>R.17.47: Alpha's <hi>helpe aboute(n)</hi> is supported by the best X family copies of the <hi>C</hi> version, but a majority of <hi>C</hi> manuscripts agrees with beta's <hi>helpe aboute hym</hi>.</note></l>
<l> ¶ Faith had furst siȝt <app><lem>on</lem></app><note>R.17.48: Cf. beta's <hi>of</hi>.</note> hym  ac he fleiȝ on<seg>-</seg>syde .</l>
<l> And nolde nauȝte neȝen hym  bi nyne londes lengthe .</l>
<l> ¶ Hope cam hippyng<expan>e</expan> after  þat hadde so ybosted .</l>
<l> How he with moyses mau<expan>n</expan>dement  had many man yholpe .</l>
<l> Ac whan he had siȝthe of þat segge  a<seg>-</seg>syde he gan hym drawe .</l>
<l> Dredfully by this day  a<del>d</del><add>s</add> doke doth fram þe faukou<expan>n</expan> .</l>
<l> ¶ Ac so sone so þe samaritan  had siȝt of þis lede .</l>
<l> He liȝtte a<seg>-</seg>dou<expan>n</expan> of liard  and ladde hym in his <app><lem>handes</lem></app><note>R.17.55: Beta has <hi>hande</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi>'s reading, like alpha's, is plural.</note> .</l>
<l> And <app><lem>with þat</lem></app><note>R.17.56: R's <hi>with þat</hi> is unique; the other <hi>B</hi> copies all show <hi>to þe</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> reads <hi>to this</hi>.</note> weye he wente  his wou<expan>n</expan>des to beholde .</l>
<milestone>fol. 86rI</milestone>
<l> And parceyued <app><lem>in</lem></app><note>R.17.57: R's <hi>in</hi> is unique; the other <hi>B</hi> copies read <hi>bi</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with the <hi>B</hi> majority.</note> his pous  he was in peril to deye .</l>
<l> And but ȝif he hadde recourer<expan>e</expan><note>R.17.58: L agrees exactly with R's <hi>recourere</hi>, but cf. F's <hi>recure</hi> and the common beta form, <hi>recouerer</hi>. The majority of <hi>C</hi> manuscripts agrees with beta.</note>  þe rathere  þ<expan>a</expan>t rise schulde he neu<expan>er</expan>e .</l>
<l> <app><lem>And breyde</lem></app> to his boteles  and bothe he <app><lem>atamede</lem></app> .<note>R.17.59: This line is omitted by beta. F's variants for this line include <hi>He breyded</hi> for R's <hi>And breyde</hi> and <hi>hem tamede</hi> for R's <hi>atamede</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> revises the a-verse but agrees with R for the b-verse.</note></l>
<l> With wyne and with oyle  his woundes he waschede .</l>
<l> Enbaumed hym and bonde his hede  and in his lappe hym leyde .</l>
<l> And ladde hym so forth on liarde  to <foreign>lex <expan>christi</expan></foreign> a graunge .</l>
<l> Wel six mile or seuene  by<seg>-</seg>syde þe newe market .</l>
<l> Herberwed hym at an hostrie  and <app><lem>þe</lem></app> hostelere called .</l>
<l> And seyde haue kepe þis man  til I come fro þe iustes .</l>
<l> And lo her<expan>e</expan> siluer he seide  for salue to his woundes .</l>
<l> And he toke hym to pans  to liflode as it wer<expan>e</expan></l>
<l> And seyde what he speneth more  I make þe gode her<expan>e</expan><seg>-</seg>after .</l>
<l> For I may nauȝt lette q<expan>uo</expan>d þat lede  and liard he bi<seg>-</seg>strideth .</l>
<l> And raped hym to Ier<expan>usa</expan>l<expan>e</expan>m<seg>-</seg>warde  þe riȝte weye to ride .</l>
<l> ¶ Faith folweth after faste  and fonded to mete hym .</l>
<l> And <foreign>spes</foreign> <app><lem>sparkliche</lem></app><note>R.17.72: Beta reads <hi>spaklich</hi>. Both the beta and alpha forms are presumably misreadings of <hi>Bx</hi>'s <hi>sprakliche</hi>, in which the <hi>r</hi> was inscribed as a superscripted loop.</note> hym spedde  spede ȝif he miȝte .</l>
<l> To ou<expan>er</expan>e<seg>-</seg>take hym & talke to hym  ar þei to tou<expan>n</expan>ne come .</l>
<l> ¶ And whan I seiȝ þis I souiorned nauȝte  but schope me to renne .</l>
<l> And sewed <app><lem>þe</lem></app><note>R.17.75: For alpha's <hi>þe</hi> beta has <hi>þat</hi>; <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with alpha.</note> samaritan  þat was so ful of pite .</l>
<l> And graunted hym to ben his <app><lem>go<del>r</del><add>m</add>e</lem></app>  graunt m<expan>er</expan>cy he seyde .</l>
<l> Ac þi frende and þi felaw <app><lem>q<expan>uo</expan>d he</lem></app>  þow fyndest me at nede .</l>
<l> ¶ And I thanked hym þo  and sitth I hym tolde .</l>
<l> How þat faith fleȝ away  and <foreign>spes</foreign> his felawe bothe .</l>
<l> For siȝte of þe soreful man  þat robbed was with theues .</l>
<l> ¶ Haue hem excused q<expan>uo</expan>d he  her<expan>e</expan> helpe may litel auayle .</l>
<l> May no medecyn <app><lem>vnder</lem></app><note>R.17.82: In place of alpha's <hi>vnder</hi> beta reads <hi>on</hi>; <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with alpha.</note> molde  þe man to hele brynge .</l>
<l> Neither feith ne fyne hope  so festred ben his woundes .</l>
<l> With<seg>-</seg>oute þe blode of a barne  borne of a mayde .</l>
<l> And <app><lem>be</lem></app><note>R.17.85: Beta manuscripts all add <hi>he</hi>; LWHm = <hi>be he</hi> while the others read <hi>he be</hi>.</note> bathed in þat blode  baptized as it were .</l>
<l> And þanne plastered with penaunce  and <app><lem>þe</lem></app><note>R.17.86: Beta copies omit <hi>þe</hi>. The metrics of the beta version, which thus avoids two strong dips in the b-verse, is liklier to be authorial.</note> passion of þat baby .</l>
<l> He schulde stande and steppe  ac stalworth worth he neuer<expan>e</expan> .</l>
<l> Til he haue eten al þe barne  and his blode y<seg>-</seg>dronken .</l>
<l> For wente neu<expan>er</expan>e wiȝt in þis worlde  þoruȝ þat wildernesse .</l>
<milestone>fol. 86vI</milestone>
<l> Þat he ne was robbed <app><lem>ne</lem></app><note>R.17.90: For R's <hi>ne</hi>, F has <hi>&</hi> and beta reads <hi>or</hi>.</note> rifled  rod he ther<expan>e</expan> <app><lem>other</lem></app><note>R.17.90: R's <hi>other</hi> is unique; all other <hi>B</hi> copies show <hi>or</hi>. Cf. F's <hi>eyþer or</hi>, which suggests an error in alpha.</note> ȝede .</l>
<l> Saue faith and his felawe  <foreign>spes</foreign> and my<seg>-</seg>selue .</l>
<l> And þi<seg>-</seg>selue nowe  and suche þat<note>R.17.92: F and nearly all beta manuscripts here read <hi>as</hi>.</note> sewen our<expan>e</expan> werkes .</l>
<l> ¶ For <app><lem>outlawe is</lem></app> in<note>R.17.93: For alpha's <hi>outlawe is in</hi>, beta reads <hi>outlawes in</hi>.</note> þe wode  and vnder banke lotyeth .</l>
<l> And <app><lem>may</lem></app> vche man se  and gode merke <app><lem>taketh</lem></app> .<note>R.17.94: For alpha's <hi>taketh</hi>, beta has <hi>take</hi>.</note></l>
<l> Ho is bihynde and ho bifore  and ho ben an horse .</l>
<l> For he halt hym hardier an horse  þan he þat is a<seg>-</seg>fote .<note>R.17.96: Only L agrees with R's <hi>a-fote</hi>; most other <hi>B</hi> witnesses, including F, attest <hi>on foote</hi> . </note></l>
<l> For he <app><lem>seith</lem></app><note>R.17.97: R's <hi>seith</hi> is an alpha reading (although a few beta copies concur); beta's reading is <hi>seigh</hi> .</note> me þat am samaritan  sewen faith and his felawe .</l>
<l> On my capil þat hatte <foreign>caro</foreign>  of man<seg>-</seg>kende I toke it .</l>
<l> He was <app><lem>vn harlot</lem></app><note>R.17.99: R's <hi>vn harlot</hi> is obviously defective; cf. F's reading, <hi>but an harlot</hi>, with the beta reading that almost certainly reflects <hi>Bx</hi>: <hi>vnhardy þat harlot</hi>.</note>  & hud hym <foreign>in inferno</foreign> .</l>
<l> Ac ar þis day thre dayes  I dar vndertaken .</l>
<l> Þat he worth fettred þat felou<expan>n</expan>  fast with cheynes .</l>
<l> And neu<expan>er</expan>e eft greue gome  þat goth þis ilke gate .</l>
<l> <hi><foreign>O mors ero mors tua . <app><lem>&c<expan>etera</expan></lem></app> .</foreign></hi><note>R.17.103: This line appears only in alpha, and F alone continues the quotation with <hi>morsus tuus ero inferne</hi>. Alford, <title>Piers Plowman: A Guide to the Quotations</title>, notes that this O antiphon is "sung during Holy Week (e.g. <title>Brev.</title> 1:dcclxxxii, dccci), based on Osee 13:14 (Cf. 1 Cor. 15:55)" (107). Hereafter, alpha omits a dozen lines attested in beta witnesses between R17.103 and 104:<lb/>
<hi>And þanne shal feith be forester here and in þis fritth walke <lb/>
And kennen out comune men þat knoweth nouȝte þe contre <lb/>
Which is þe weye þat ich went and wherforth to iherusalem <lb/>
And hope þe hostelleres man shal be þere þe man lith an helynge <lb/>
And alle þat fieble and faynt be þat faith may nouȝt teche <lb/>
Hope shal lede hem forth with loue as his lettre telleth <lb/>
And hostel hem and hele þorw holicherche bileue <lb/>
Tyl I haue salue for alle syke and þanne shal I retourne <lb/>
And come aȝein bi þis contree and confort alle syke <lb/>
Þat craueth it or coueiteth it and cryeth þereafter <lb/>
For þe barne was born in bethleem þat with his blode shal saue <lb/>
Alle þat lyueth in faith and folweth his felawes techynge</hi>
<l> ¶ A swete sir<expan>e</expan> I seide þo  whether I schal bileue .</l>
<l> As faith and his felawe  enformed me bothe .</l>
<l> In thre p<expan>er</expan>sones departable  þat p<expan>er</expan>petuel were eu<expan>er</expan>e .</l>
<l> And al thre but o god  þus abrah<expan>a</expan>m me tauȝte .</l>
<l> And hope afterwarde  he bad me to louye .</l>
<l> O god with al my goed  and alle gomes after .</l>
<l> Louye hem like my<seg>-</seg>suluen  ac our<expan>e</expan> lorde a<seg>-</seg>boue alle .</l>
<l> ¶ After abrah<expan>a</expan>m q<expan>uo</expan>d he  þat heraud of armes .</l>
<l> Sette faste þi faith  and ferme bileue </l>
<l> And as hope <app><lem>behiȝt</lem></app><note>R.17.113: Cf. beta's <hi>hiȝte</hi>.</note> þe  I hote þat þow louye .</l>
<l> Þine euene<seg>-</seg>cristene eu<expan>er</expan>more  euen<seg>-</seg>forth with thi<seg>-</seg>selue .</l>
<l> And if consience carpe þer<expan>e</expan><seg>-</seg>aȝeine  or kende wit other .</l>
<l> Or eritikes with argumentz  þi hande þow hem schewe .</l>
<l> For god is after an hande  I<seg>-</seg>here now and knowe it .</l>
<l> ¶ Þe fader was furst as a fust  with o fynger <app><lem>folden</lem></app> .<note>R.17.118: In place of RF's <hi>folden</hi>, beta reads <hi>foldynge</hi> .</note></l>
<l> Til hym <app><lem>leued</lem></app><note>R.17.119: Cf. F's <hi>lyþed</hi> and beta's <hi>loued</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> reads <hi>likede</hi>.</note> and luste  to vnlosen his fynger .</l>
<l> And <app><lem>profered</lem></app><note>R.17.120: Beta has the infinitive <hi>profre</hi>. Though several <hi>C</hi> manuscripts support beta's reading, <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with alpha.</note> it forth as with a paume  to what place it schulde .</l>
<l> Þe paume is puirliche þe hande  & p<expan>ro</expan>fereth forth þe fyngeres .</l>
<l> To mi<expan>n</expan>stre and to make  þat miȝt of honde knoweth .</l>
<milestone>fol. 87rI</milestone>
<l> And bitokneth treweli telle ho<seg>-</seg>so liketh .</l>
<l> Þe holy goste of heuene  he is as þe paume .</l>
<l> Þe fyngeres þat fre ben  to folde and to s<expan>er</expan>ue .</l>
<l> Bytokneth sothly þe sone  þat sent was til erthe .</l>
<l> <app><lem>And</lem></app><note>R.17.127: <hi>And</hi> (and the rest of this defective line) is almost certainly from alpha; beta more plausibly has <hi>Þat toched and tasted atte techynge of þe paume</hi>. In attempting to salvage the a-verse, F completely rewrites it as <hi>& þorghȝ towchyng & tastyng</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> reads the entire line as beta does, except for the initial <hi>That</hi>, which is omitted.</note> touched and tasted  <app><lem>and</lem></app> techyng<expan>e</expan> of þe paume .</l>
<l> Seinte marie a <app><lem>mayden</lem></app><note>R.17.128: The other <hi>B</hi> copies read <hi>mayde</hi>. Although a majority of the <hi>C</hi> manuscripts also read <hi>mayde</hi>, the best X family witnesses agree with R on <hi>mayden</hi>.</note>  and man<seg>-</seg>kende lauȝte . <seg></seg></l>
<l> <hi><foreign>Qui conceptus est de sp<expan>irit</expan>u s<expan>an</expan>c<expan>t</expan>o . &c<expan>etera</expan> .</foreign></hi></l>
<l> Þe fader is þanne as <app><lem>fuste</lem></app><note>R.17.130: The other <hi>B</hi> manuscripts all read <hi>as <hi>a</hi> fust</hi>.</note>  with fynger to <app><lem>thouche</lem></app><note>R.17.130: Kane-Donaldson transcribe R's <hi>thouche</hi> as <hi>chouche</hi>, but there is no warrant for this transcription—nonsensical in context, as opposed to an idiolectal spelling of the expected word—since the R scribe on this same page frequently executes his <hi>t</hi> with a negligible ascender indistinct from his <hi>c</hi>.</note> .</l>
<l> <hi><foreign>Quia om<expan>n</expan>ia trah<expan>a</expan>m ad me ip<expan>su</expan>m &c<expan>etera</expan> .</foreign></hi></l>
<l> Alle þat þe paume p<expan>er</expan>ceyueth  p<expan>ro</expan>fitable to fele .</l>
<l> Þus ar þei alle but one  as it <app><lem>a fust</lem></app><note>R.17.133: For alpha's <hi>a fust</hi>, beta reads <hi>an hande</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with beta.</note> were .</l>
<l> And thre su<expan>n</expan>dry siȝtes  in oen <app><lem>in</lem></app><note>R.17.134: R uniquely adds the second <hi>in</hi> of this b-verse.</note> schewynge .<note>R.17.134: There is a superfluous tilde over the terminal punctus (not a punctus elevatus).</note></l>
<l> Þe paume for <app><lem>þe paume</lem></app><note>R.17.135: The second occurrence of <hi>þe paume</hi> in this a-verse is unique error in R; cf. F's <hi>it</hi> and beta's <hi>he</hi>.</note> <app><lem>put</lem></app><note>R.17.135: Cf. beta's <hi>putteth</hi>.</note> forthe  fyngres and þe fuste bothe .</l>
<l> Riȝt so redely  resou<expan>n</expan> it scheweth </l>
<l> How he þat is holy goste  sir<expan>e</expan> and sone p<expan>ro</expan>ueth .</l>
<l> And as þe hande halte harde  and al thyng<expan>e</expan> faste .</l>
<l> Thoruȝ four<expan>e</expan> fyngres and a thumbe  forth with þe paume .</l>
<l> Riȝt so þe fader and þe sone  and seint spiriȝt þe thridde .</l>
<l> Halt al þe wyde worlde  <app><lem>with</lem></app><note>R.17.141: In place of alpha's <hi>with</hi>, beta reads <hi>within</hi>.</note> hem thre .</l>
<l> Bothe wolkne and þe wynde  water and erthe .</l>
<l> Heuene and helle  and alle þat <app><lem>þer<expan>e</expan> is Inne</lem></app> .</l>
<l> Þus it nedeth no man<note>R.17.144: Though HmCG agree with alpha's version of this a-verse, it appears that beta reads <hi>Þus it <hi>is</hi> nedeth no man</hi>.</note><app><lem>to</lem></app><note>R.17.144: L agrees with RF, though the other beta copies omit <hi>to</hi>.</note> trowen non other</l>
<l> Þat thre thynges bylongeth  in our<expan>e</expan> lorde of heuene .</l>
<l> And aren surleps bi hem<seg>-</seg>sulue  a<seg>-</seg>sondry <app><lem>wer<expan>e</expan></lem></app> neuer<expan>e</expan> .<note>R.17.146: L agrees with RF's reading; in the other beta witnesses, the final b-verse phrase reads <hi>were þei neuere</hi>.</note></l>
<l> Namore þan <app><lem>may an hand</lem></app><note>R.17.147: For alpha's <hi>may an hand</hi>, beta reads <hi>myn hande may</hi>.</note>  meue with<seg>-</seg>outen <app><lem>fyngres</lem></app> .</l>
<l> ¶ And as my fust is ful honde  I<seg>-</seg>folde to<seg>-</seg>gyderes .</l>
<l> So is þe fader a ful god  formeour<expan>e</expan> and schepper<expan>e</expan> .</l>
<l> <hi><foreign>Tu fabricator o<expan>mn</expan>i<expan>u</expan>m &c<expan>etera</expan> .</foreign></hi></l>
<l> And alle þe miȝte myd hym is  in makyng<expan>e</expan> of thynges .</l>
<l> ¶ Þe fyngres formeth a ful honde  to purtreye or peynten .</l>
<l> Keruynge <app><lem>or</lem></app><note>R.17.153: For alpha's <hi>or</hi>, beta reads <hi>and</hi>.</note> cu<expan>m</expan>passyng<expan>e</expan><app><lem>is</lem></app><note>R.17.153: Among the beta copies, only Cr agrees with alpha's <hi>is</hi>; the others read <hi>as</hi>.</note> crafte of þe fyngres .</l>
<l> Riȝt so is þe sone  þe science of þe fader .</l>
<l> And ful god as is þe fader  no febler<expan>e</expan> ne no better<expan>e</expan> .</l>
<l> Þe paume is puirliche þe hande  hath power<expan>e</expan> bi hym<seg>-</seg>selue .</l>
<l> Other<seg>-</seg>wise þan þe writen<note>R.17.157: Y originally shared R's erroneous <hi>writen</hi> but was corrected. Several <hi>C</hi> copies also share R's reading. F's <hi>wrytynge</hi> is probably an attempt to make sense of the alpha error reflected in R. Cf. beta's <hi>wrythen</hi>, which must have been the reading of <hi>Bx</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with beta's reading.</note> fuste  or werkman<seg>-</seg>schepe of fyngres .</l>
<milestone>fol. 87vI</milestone>
<l> For þe paume hath power<expan>e</expan>  to <app><lem>pult</lem></app><note>R.17.158: R's <hi>pult</hi> is a rare verb (= ModE <hi>thrust</hi> ) but is likelier to be the <hi>Bx</hi> form than is beta's <hi>put</hi> or F's <hi>pittyn</hi>. Most <hi>C</hi> manuscripts agree with the <hi>B</hi> majority on <hi>putte</hi>, but the most reliable X family manuscripts agree with R.</note> oute <app><lem>þe</lem></app> ioyntes<note>R.17.158: Where alpha reads <hi>þe ioyntes</hi>, beta has <hi>alle þe ioyntes</hi>. Among the <hi>C</hi> witnesses, only manuscript N (which shows massive evidence throughout of having been proofed—and contaminated—by a beta manuscript) agrees with beta on this phrasing.</note> .</l>
<l> And to vnfolde <app><lem>þe</lem></app> fust  for <app><lem>hym it bilongeth</lem></app> .<note>R.17.159: <hi>Cx</hi> agrees exactly with R's version of this b-verse, but F renders it as <hi>for it to hym longeþ</hi>. Beta omits this b-verse (KD17.179b) as well as the next line (KD17.180) and a following half-line (KD17.181a), probably because of eyeskip on <hi>fust</hi>.</note></l>
<l> <app><lem>And</lem></app> receyue þat þe fyngres recheth  <app><lem>and</lem></app> refuse bothe .<note>R.17.160: This line, omitted by beta, is rendered with slight differences in F: <hi>& to receyve þat þe fyngris reche & to refuse boþe</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi>'s version of this line exactly agrees with R until the end of the b-verse, where <hi>bothe</hi> is replaced by <hi>yf hym liketh</hi>.</note></l>
<l> <app><lem>Whan he feleth þe fust</lem></app><app><lem>and</lem></app> þe fyngres wille .</l>
<l> So is þe holy gost god  nother gretter ne lasse .</l>
<l> Þan is þe sir<expan>e</expan> <app><lem>or</lem></app><note>R.17.163: Cf. beta's <hi>and</hi>. Though some <hi>C</hi> manuscripts agree with with beta, it is clear that <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with alpha's <hi>or</hi>.</note> þe sone  and in þe same miȝte .</l>
<l> And alle ar þei but o god  as is myn hande and my fyngres .</l>
<l> Vnfolden or folden  my fust and my paume .</l>
<l> Al is it<note>R.17.166: Beta omits <hi>it</hi>. Some <hi>C</hi> manuscripts agree with beta's omission, but the majority, including the best X family copies, agree with alpha in including it.</note> but an hande  <app><lem>how so I turne it</lem></app> .<note>R.17.166: Following this line, for no apparent reason, the R scribe fails to insert his customary blank line between verse strophes.</note></l>
<l><app><lem>Ac who is herte in þe honde</lem></app>  euene in þe myddes .</l>
<l> He may reseyue riȝt nauȝt  reson it scheweth .</l>
<l> For þe fyngres þat folde schulde  & þe fust make .</l>
<l> For peyne of þe paume  power hem faileth .</l>
<l> To cluche or to clawe  to cluppe or to holde .</l>
<l> ¶ Wer<expan>e</expan> þe myddel of myn hand  ymaymed <app><lem>other</lem></app> <app><lem>ypersed</lem></app> .<note>R.17.172: R's <hi>other ypersed</hi> is unique. F omits the entire line. The other <hi>B</hi> manuscripts agree in reading <hi>or</hi> for R's <hi>other</hi>, but they offer a variety of verb forms: <hi>yperissed</hi> (WC), <hi>peris(s/c)hed</hi> (MCrHm), and <hi>ypersshed</hi> (L).</note></l>
<l> I schulde reseyue riȝt nauȝt  of þat I reche miȝte .</l>
<l> Ac þouȝ my thombe and my fyngres  bothe wer<expan>e</expan> to<seg>-</seg>swolle .</l>
<l> And þe myddel of myn hande  with<seg>-</seg>oute male<seg>-</seg>ese .</l>
<l> In many kynne maneres  I miȝte my<seg>-</seg>sulue helpe .</l>
<l> Bothe meue and amende  þouȝ alle my fyngres oke .</l>
<l> By this <app><lem><sic>kile</sic><corr>[s]kile</corr></lem></app> <app><lem>he seyde</lem></app><note>R.17.178: For alpha's <hi>he seyde</hi>, beta reads <hi>me þynkeþ</hi>, which fails in alliteration. <hi>Cx</hi> revises <hi>skile</hi> to <foreign>simile</foreign> but agrees with alpha on the following words: <hi>he saide</hi>.</note>  I se an euydence </l>
<l> Þat ho<seg>-</seg>so synneth in þe seynt spiriȝt  assoyled worth he neu<expan>er</expan>e .</l>
<l> Nother here ne elles<seg>-</seg>wher<expan>e</expan>  as I herde telle .</l>
<l> <hi><foreign>Qui peccat in sp<expan>irit</expan>u s<expan>an</expan>c<expan>t</expan>o <app><lem>nu<expan>m</expan>q<expan>ua</expan>m</lem></app> &c<expan>etera</expan> . .</foreign></hi><note>R.17.181: F omits this citation, and the beta copies omit <foreign>numquam</foreign>. The <hi>C</hi> manuscripts here agree with beta.</note></l>
<l> For he priketh god as in þe paume  þ<expan>a</expan>t <foreign>p<expan>ec</expan>cat in sp<expan>irit</expan>u s<expan>an</expan>c<expan>t</expan>o</foreign> </l>
<l> For god þe fader is as a fust  þe sone is as a fynger .</l>
<l> Þe holy goste of heuene  is as it wer<expan>e</expan> þe paume .</l>
<l> So ho<seg>-</seg>so synneth <app><lem>a<seg>-</seg>ȝeynes</lem></app> þe<note>R.17.185: In place of alpha's <hi>a-ȝeynes þe</hi>, beta reads <hi>in</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with alpha.</note> seynt spirit  it semeth þ<expan>a</expan>t he g<expan>re</expan>ueth<note>R.17.185: The <h> of <hi>greueth</hi> is nearly lost in the binding, but is still visible in the manuscript, though not in the digital image.</note></l>
<l> God þ<expan>a</expan>t he gripeth with  and wolde his grace quenche .</l>
<l><app><lem>For</lem></app> to a torche or <app><lem>to</lem></app> a taper<expan>e</expan><note>R.17.187: Alpha's a-verse reads <hi>For to a . . . or to a . . .</hi>, while beta has <hi>And to a . . . or a . . .</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with alpha.</note>  þe t<expan>ri</expan>nite is likned</l>
<l> As wex and a weyke  wer<expan>e</expan> twyned to<seg>-</seg>gyderes <seg></seg> </l>
<l> And þanne a fere <app><lem>flawmende</lem></app><note>R.17.189: Most beta copies read <hi>flawmynge</hi> (which is also the reading of <hi>Cx</hi> in a revised form of this line) and F has <hi>flawmeþ</hi>, but L agrees with R's form.</note>  forth ouȝt<note>R.17.189: <hi>Ouȝt</hi>, "out."</note> of bothe .</l>
<l> And as wex and wyke  and <app><lem>warme</lem></app><note>R.17.190: R's <hi>warme</hi> is shared with F alone; cf. the non-alliterating beta variant, <hi>hote</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with alpha.</note> fer<expan>e</expan> to<seg>-</seg>gyderes .</l>
<l> Fostren forth a flawme  and a fair<expan>e</expan> leye .</l>
<l> So doth þe sire and þe sone  and al<seg>-</seg>so <foreign>sp<expan>iritu</expan>s s<expan>an</expan>c<expan>tu</expan>s</foreign> .</l>
<hi>fostren forth amonges folk</hi><note>R.17.192: These boxed catchwords are heavily cropped.</note>
<milestone>fol. 88rI</milestone>
<l> Fostren forth amonges folk  loue and bileue .</l>
<l> Þat alkynne cristene  <app><lem>clensede</lem></app><note>R.17.194: Both F and the beta copies read <hi>clenseth</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with them.</note> of synnes .</l>
<l> And as þow seste somtyme  sodeyneliche a torche .</l>
<l> Þe blase þere<seg>-</seg>of I<seg>-</seg>blowe oute  ȝet brenneth þe weke .</l>
<l> With<seg>-</seg>oute leye or liȝte  þat þe macche brenneth .</l>
<l> So is the holy gost god  and grace with<seg>-</seg>oute mercy .</l>
<l> To alle vnkende creatures  þat coueyte to destruye .</l>
<l> Lel loue other lif þat oure lorde schupte .<note>R.17.200: R's <hi>schupte</hi> is a unique preterite form among the <hi>B</hi> manuscripts, whose typical form is <hi>shapte</hi>; but <hi>schupte</hi> is uniformly attested in <hi>C</hi> copies. <lb/>
After this line, R and F omit twenty-seven lines found in the beta manuscripts: <lb/>
<hi>And as glowande gledes gladieth nouȝte þis werkmen <lb/>
Þat worchen & waken in wyntres niȝtes <lb/>
As doth a kex or a candel þat cauȝte hath fyre & blaseth <lb/>
Namore doth sire ne sone ne seynt spirit togyderes <lb/>
Graunteth no grace ne forȝifnesse of synnes <lb/>
Til þe holi goste gynne to glowe and to blase <lb/>
So þat þe holygoste gloweth but as a glede <lb/>
Tyl þat lele loue ligge on hym & blowe <lb/>
And þanne flaumbeth he as fyre on fader & on filius <lb/>
And melteth her myȝte into mercy as men may se in wyntre <lb/>
Ysekeles in eueses (<hi>or</hi> euesynges) þorw hete of þe sonne <lb/>
Melteth in a mynutwhile to myst & to watre <lb/>
So grace of þe holygoste þe grete myȝte of þe trinite <lb/>
Melteth into mercy to mercyable & to non other <lb/>
And as wex withouten more on a warme glede <lb/>
Wil brennen & blasen be þei togyderes <lb/>
And solacen hem þat may se þat sitten in derkenesse <lb/>
So wole þe fader forȝif folke of mylde hertes <lb/>
Þat reufulliche repenten & restitucioun make <lb/>
In as moche as þei mowen amenden & payen <lb/>
And if it suffice nouȝte for assetz þat in suche a wille deyeth <lb/>
Mercy for his mekenesse wil make good þe remenaunte <lb/>
And as þe weyke and fyre wil make a warme flaumbe <lb/>
For to myrthe men with þat in merke sitten <lb/>
So wil cryst of his curteisye and men crye hym mercy <lb/>
Bothe forȝiue & forȝete & ȝet bidde for vs <lb/>
To þe fader of heuene forȝyuenesse to haue</hi>
<l> ¶ Ac hewe fuyr <app><lem>and</lem></app><note>R.17.201: For R's <hi>and</hi>, F reads <hi>on a</hi> and beta has <hi>at a</hi>. The P family of <hi>C</hi> manuscripts reads <hi>of a</hi> at this point, but the X family agrees with beta.</note> <app><lem>flint</lem></app>  four<expan>e</expan> hundreth wynter .</l>
<l> But þow haue <app><lem>tacche</lem></app><note>R.17.202: Beta has <hi>towe</hi> in place of alpha's <hi>tacche</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with alpha.</note> to take it  with tunder or broches .</l>
<l> Al þi labour is lost  and al þi longe trauaile .</l>
<l> For may no fuir<expan>e</expan> flaume make  faile it his kende .</l>
<l> So is þe holy gost god  and grace with<seg>-</seg>oute mercy .</l>
<l> To alle vnkende creatures  crist hym<seg>-</seg>selue witnesseth .</l>
<l> <hi><foreign>Amen dico vobis nescio vos  &c<expan>etera</expan> .</foreign></hi></l>
<l> ¶ Be vnkende to þin euencristene  and alle þat þow ca<expan>n</expan>ste bidden .</l>
<l> Delen and do penaunce  daye and niȝt euere .</l>
<l> And purchase al þe pardou<expan>n</expan>  of paemploen and rome .</l>
<l> And indulgences Inowe  and be <app><lem>ingrat</lem></app><note>R.17.211: R's <hi>ingrat</hi> is an alpha variant shared with F; cf. beta's <foreign>ingratus</foreign>. At the end of this line, <hi>kynne</hi> is likewise an alpha variant; beta reads <hi>kynde</hi>. On the first of these variants, the <hi>C</hi> manuscripts split, with many P family copies supporting alpha while the X family mainly supports beta. On the latter variant, <hi>Cx</hi> clearly agrees with beta.</note> to þi <app><lem>kynne</lem></app> .</l>
<l> Þe holy gost hereth þe nauȝte  ne helpe may þe be resou<expan>n</expan> .</l>
<l> For vnkendenesse <app><lem>qwenche hem</lem></app><note>R.17.213: The other manuscripts all read <hi>quencheth hym</hi>. The <hi>C</hi> manuscripts agree with the <hi>B</hi> majority.</note>  þat he can nauȝt schine .</l>
<l> Ne brenne ne blase clere  for blowyng of vnkendenesse .</l>
<l> Powel þe apostel  p<expan>ro</expan>ueth where I lye .</l>
<l> <hi><foreign>Si linguis hominu<expan>m</expan> <app><lem>loquar</lem></app> .</foreign></hi></l>
<l> For<seg>-</seg>thi beth war ȝe wise men  þ<expan>a</expan>t with þe worlde deleth .</l>
<l> Þat riche ben and reson knoweth  rewleth wel ȝour<expan>e</expan> soule .</l>
<l> Beth nauȝt vnkende I consel ȝow  to ȝour<expan>e</expan> euen<seg>-</seg>cristene .</l>
<l> For many of ȝow riche men  be my soule men telleth .</l>
<l> Ȝe brenneth<note>R.17.221: The other <hi>B</hi> copies read <hi>brenne</hi>, but <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with R.</note> but ȝe blaseth nauȝte  <app><lem>&</lem></app><note>R.17.221: This occurrence of <hi>&</hi> at the head of the b-verse is omitted by beta. Once more, <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with alpha.</note> þ<expan>a</expan>t is a blinde bekne .</l>
<l> <hi><foreign>Non o<expan>mn</expan>is qui dicit d<expan>omi</expan>ne d<expan>omi</expan>ne  intrabit &c<expan>etera</expan> .</foreign></hi></l>
<l> ¶ Diues deyed <app><lem>Idampned</lem></app>  for his vnkendenesse </l>
<l> Of his mete and mone<note>R.17.224: R's <hi>and mone</hi> is shared only with Y (<hi>and monoie</hi>). F has a rewritten a-verse. LMC agree with the best X family copies of <hi>C</hi> in reading <hi>& his moneye</hi> while CrWHmG agree with the <hi>C</hi> majority in attesting <hi>and of his moneie</hi>.</note>  to men þat it nedede .</l>
<l> Vche a riche I rede  rewarde at hym take .</l>
<l> And gyueth ȝour<expan>e</expan> gode to þat god  þat grace of ariseth .</l>
<milestone>fol. 88vI</milestone>
<l> For þat ben vnkende to hise  hope I non other .</l>
<l> But þei dwelle þere diues is  dayes with<seg>-</seg>outen ende </l>
<l> Þus is vnkendenesse þe contrarie  þat que<expan>n</expan>cheth as it were .</l>
<l> Þe grace of þe holy goste  godes owene kende<note>R.17.230: Cf. R's <hi>kende</hi> (shared with F) to the beta form <hi>kynde</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> shows the same form as beta.</note> .</l>
<l> For þat kende deth  vnkende fordoth as þese cursed theues .</l>
<l> Vnkende cristene men  for coueytise and enuye .</l>
<l> Sleth a man for his mebles  with mouthe or with handes .</l>
<l> For þat þe holy gost hath to kepe  þo harlotes destruyeth .</l>
<l> Þe whiche is lif and loue  þe leye of mannes body .</l>
<l> For euery man<expan>er</expan> goed man  may be lickned to a torche .</l>
<l> Or elles to a taper  to reuerence þe trinite .</l>
<l> And ho<seg>-</seg>so morthereth a goed man  me thenketh be myn in<seg>-</seg>witt .</l>
<l> He fordoth þe leuest liȝt  þat our<expan>e</expan> lorde louyeth .</l>
<l> ¶ Ac ȝut in many mo maneres  me<expan>n</expan> offenden þe holy gost .</l>
<l> Ac þis is þe worste wise  þat any wiȝt miȝte .</l>
<l> Synegen<note>R.17.242: R's <hi>synegen</hi> is listed by <title>OED2</title>, <hi>s. v.</hi> <hi>sin</hi> (v.) as a variant of the infinitive form of <hi>sin</hi> for the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. Cf. <ref>R.17.254:</ref> below, where the past participle, <hi>syneged</hi>, is used, and <ref>R.18.223:</ref>, where <hi>synege</hi> occurs. <title>MED</title>, <hi>s. v.</hi> <hi>sinnen</hi>, offers a number of citations for <hi>synegen</hi> and its inflected forms, but virtually all are from various <title>Piers Plowman</title> manuscripts of all three versions (e.g., Laud 581, Hm 137, and Vernon).</note> aȝeyne þe seint spiriȝt  assente to destruye .</l>
<l> For coueytise of any kynnes thyng<expan>e</expan>  þat crist dere bouȝte .</l>
<l> How miȝte he aske mercy  or any mercy hym helpe .<note>R.17.244: This line is clearly attested by both R and F and probably descended unaltered from <hi>Bx</hi>. However, evidence for its attestation in beta is mixed: although it is present in LMCr, it is not found in any other copies of the beta tradition.</note></l>
<l> Þat wickedlich and wilfulliche  wolde mercy anynte .</l>
<l> Innocense is next god  and niȝt and daye it crieth .</l>
<l> Veniance veniance  for<seg>-</seg>ȝyue be it neuere .</l>
<l> Þat <app><lem>schent</lem></app><note>R.17.248: Beta has <hi>shent vs</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with beta.</note> and schedde our<expan>e</expan> blode  for<seg>-</seg>schupte vs as it <app><lem>semed</lem></app><note>R.17.248: Where R reads <hi>semed</hi>, F shows <hi>semeþ</hi> and beta has <hi>were</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with R.</note> .</l>
<l> <hi><foreign>Vindica sanguine<expan>m</expan> iustor<expan>um</expan> .</foreign></hi></l>
<l> Þus veniance veniance  verrey charite asketh .</l>
<l> And sitthe holy cherche and charite  chargeth þis so sore .</l>
<l> Leue I neu<expan>er</expan>e þat our<expan>e</expan> lorde  wil loue þ<expan>a</expan>t charite lakketh .</l>
<l> Ne haue pite for eny preyer<expan>e</expan>  þere þat he pleyneth .</l>
<l> ¶ I pose I had syneged so  and schuld nouȝ deye .</l>
<l> And <app><lem>nouȝt</lem></app><note>R.17.255: This mistake is shared with F. The substitution, in alpha, of <hi>nowht</hi> for beta's (and <hi>Cx</hi>'s) <hi>now</hi> probably reflects confusion about a <hi>nowth</hi> spelling for <hi>now</hi>.</note> am sori þat<note>R.17.255: Here R and L alone omit <hi>I</hi> in the a-verse. L leaves the line completely without a pronoun reference while R transposes the syntax by moving the pronoun to the final phrase of the b-verse, uniquely reading <hi>I agulte</hi> where the other copies all show <hi>agulte</hi>. Nevertheless, the other <hi>B</hi> manuscripts also attest uncertainty about the pronoun's placement, and about whether there is one <hi>I</hi> in the a-verse, or two. The likeliest version of the line (which agrees with <hi>Cx</hi>) is W's: <hi>And now am I sory þat I so . þe Seint Spirit agulte</hi>. It seems probable, from the massive confusion over <hi>I</hi>'s placement, and its complete omission from L, that it was a marginal addition in <hi>Bx</hi>.</note> so  þe seint spiriȝt <app><lem>I</lem></app> agulte .</l>
<l> Confesse me and crie his grace  god þat al made .</l>
<l> And myldelich his mercy aske  miȝt I nauȝt be <app><lem>I<seg>-</seg>saued</lem></app> .</l>
<l> ¶ Ȝus seyde þe samaritan  <app><lem>so</lem></app> þow <app><lem>miȝtest</lem></app><note>R.17.258: R's <hi>þow miȝtest</hi> is an alpha variant; cf. beta's <hi>wel þow myȝte</hi>.</note> repente .</l>
<l> Þat riȝtwisenesse <app><lem>to</lem></app><note>R.17.259: This is an alpha variant; cf. beta's <hi>þorw</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with beta.</note> repentance  to reuthe miȝte turne .</l>
<l> Ac it is but selden I<seg>-</seg>seye  þer<expan>e</expan> sothenesse bereth witnesse .</l>
<milestone>fol. 89rI</milestone>
<l> Eny creatur<expan>e</expan> <app><lem>be</lem></app><note>R.17.261: R's <hi>be</hi> is an alpha reading; cf. beta's <hi>þat is</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with alpha.</note> <app><lem><sic>coupble</sic><corr>coup[a]ble</corr></lem></app><app><lem>by<seg>-</seg>for</lem></app> a kynges iustice .</l>
<l> Be raunsouned for <app><lem>his</lem></app><note>R.17.262: After <hi>his</hi>, R completely lacks the second stave of the a-verse, probably because alpha was already corrupt. Beta reads <hi>repentaunce</hi>; F's <hi>gilt</hi> is unique. It is characteristic of F to have attempted to make sense of a defective exemplar. <hi>Cx</hi>'s reading here agrees with beta.</note>  þere al resou<expan>n</expan> hym dampneth .</l>
<l> For þere þat partie pursueth  þe <app><lem>peel</lem></app><note>R.17.263: L supports the RF reading here; most beta copies have <hi>peple</hi>; <hi>Cx</hi> supports the LRF lection, reading <hi>apeel</hi>.</note> is so huge .</l>
<l> Þat þe kynge may do no mercy  til bothe men acorde .</l>
<l> And eyther haue equite  as holy writt telleth .</l>
<l> <hi><foreign>Nu<expan>m</expan>q<expan>ua</expan>m dimittitur p<expan>ec</expan>catu<expan>m</expan> &c<expan>etera</expan> .</foreign></hi></l>
<l> Þus it fareth bi suche folke  þat falsliche al her<expan>e</expan> <app><lem>lyue</lem></app> .<note>R.17.267: Cf. beta's plural form, <hi>lyues</hi>.</note></l>
<l> Euele lyuen and leten nouȝt  til lif hem forsake .</l>
<l> <app><lem>Drede</lem></app> of desp<expan>er</expan>ac<expan>i</expan>ou<expan>n</expan><app><lem>dryueth a<seg>-</seg>weye þanne</lem></app> grace .<note> These lines are attested only in alpha. F's version of these lines differs from R's as follows: (1) for R's <hi>Drede</hi>, F reads <hi>& drede</hi>; (2) for R's <hi>dryueth a weye þanne</hi>, F reads <hi>þanne dryveþ a-wey</hi>. The P family of <hi>C</hi> agrees with R on the first of these variants and with F on the second. The X family offers several unique variants, including the opening phrase, <hi>Som drede</hi> and the omission of <hi>away</hi> later in the line.</note></l>
<l> Þat m<expan>er</expan>cy in her mynde  may nauȝt þanne falle .</l>
<l> Goed hope þat helpe schulde  to wanhope turneth .</l>
<l> Nouȝt of þe <app><lem>nounper</lem></app> of god  þat he ne is miȝtful .</l>
<l> To amende al þat amys is  and his m<expan>er</expan>cy gretter<expan>e</expan> .</l>
<l> Þanne al our<expan>e</expan> wicked werkes  as holy writt telleth .</l>
<l> <hi><foreign>M<expan>isericord</expan>ia <app><lem>d<expan>omi</expan>ni</lem></app><note>R.17.275: R's <foreign>domini</foreign> is attested only by RF; the beta copies have <foreign>eius</foreign>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with beta.</note> super om<expan>n</expan>ia op<expan>er</expan>a eius .</foreign></hi></l>
<l> Ac ar his riȝtwisnesse to reuthe turne  su<expan>m</expan> restitucion by<seg>-</seg>houeth .<note>R.17.276: Hereafter alpha omitted a single line from <hi>Bx</hi> attested by beta manuscripts:<lb/>
<hi>His sorwe is satisfaccioun for hym þat may nouȝte paye</hi>. The <hi>C</hi> version attests a revised version of this line.
<l> ¶ Thre thynges ther<expan>e</expan> ben  þat doth<note>R.17.277: L agrees with alpha's <hi>doth</hi>; the form in the other beta manuscripts is <hi>doon</hi>. The grammar of this line is substantially revised in <hi>C</hi>, but <hi>Cx</hi> reads <hi>doth</hi>.</note> a man be strengthe .</l>
<l> Forto flen his owene hous  as holy writt scheweth .</l>
<l> Þat on is a wicked wif  þat wil nauȝt be chasted .</l>
<l> Hire fere fleth <app><lem>hir<expan>e</expan></lem></app><note>R.17.280: Cf. beta's <hi>fleeth fro hyr</hi>. The P family of <hi>C</hi> manuscripts agrees with beta, but the X family mostly supports alpha's reading.</note>  for fere of hire tonge .</l>
<l> And if his hous be vnheled  and reyne on his bedde .</l>
<l> He seketh and seketh til he slepe drie .</l>
<l> ¶ And whanne smoke and smolder  smitte in his siȝte .</l>
<l> It doth hym wors þan his wif  or wete to slepe .</l>
<l> For smoke and smolder  <app><lem>smerteth</lem></app><note>R.17.285: In place of alpha's <hi>smerteth</hi>, beta reads <hi>smyteth</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> supports the alpha verb form.</note> his eyȝes .</l>
<l> Til <app><lem>he</lem></app><note>R.17.286: <hi>Bx</hi> reads <hi>he be blereighed</hi>; R shares the omission of <hi>be</hi> solely with Bm, whose corrector supplies the missing verb.</note> blereneyed or blinde  and <app><lem>cowȝhe</lem></app> in þe throte<note>R.17.286: R's <hi>and cowȝhe in þe throte</hi> suggests that alpha had lost an alliterating stave. F has <hi>& a bold cowhe after</hi>. Beta witnesses make sense but lose the alliterative pattern, reading <hi>and hors in þe throte</hi> . In place of <hi>cowȝhe </hi> or <hi>hoors</hi>, <hi>Cx</hi> has <hi>borre</hi>, which probably was the authorial <hi>B</hi> version of this stave.</note> .</l>
<l> He<note>R.17.287: F completely revises the a-verse (<hi>þan kenely he curseþ</hi>) while beta omits the pronoun reference and begins this line with the verb, <hi>Cougheth</hi>; only G shares R's <hi>He</hi>, and the pronoun is added in that copy in the margin. <hi>Cx</hi> reads as beta.</note> kouȝeth and corseth  þat crist ȝeue hym sorwe .</l>
<l> Þat schuld brynge in better<expan>e</expan> wode  or blowen it til it brende .</l>
<l> ¶ Þise thre þat I telle of  <app><lem>þus ben</lem></app><note>R.17.289: Alpha's <hi>þus ben</hi> is transposed in beta to <hi>ben þus</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with alpha.</note> vnderstonde .</l>
<l> Þe wif is our<expan>e</expan> wikked flesche  <app><lem>wil</lem></app><note>R.17.290: At the head of this b-verse, R omits <hi>þat</hi>, which is found in all other <hi>B</hi> copies. However, <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with R in this omission.</note> nauȝt be chasted .</l>
<l> For kende cleueth on hym euer<expan>e</expan>  to contrarie þe soule .</l>
<l> And þow it fall<expan>e</expan> it fynt skiles  þat frelte it made .</l>
<l> And þat is liȝtlych for<seg>-</seg>ȝyue  and for<seg>-</seg>ȝete bothe .</l>
<l> To man þat mercy asketh  and amende thenketh .</l>
n ij<expan>us</expan>
<milestone>fol. 89vI</milestone>
<l> ¶ Þe reyne þat reyneth þer<expan>e</expan> we rest schulde </l>
<l> Ben siknesses and <app><lem>other</lem></app><note>R.17.296: R's <hi>other</hi> is, among the extant <hi>B</hi> copies, a unique addition to this line. However, the appearance of this same word at this point in <hi>Cx</hi> indicates that <hi>other</hi> was probably authorial in <hi>B</hi> also. </note> sorwes  þat we suffren <app><lem>ouȝte</lem></app><note>R.17.296: For alpha's obviously correct <hi>ouȝte</hi>, beta supplies the easier <hi>oft</hi>. Many <hi>C</hi> manuscripts agree with beta's reading, but the most reliable ones of both major families support the alpha reading.</note> .</l>
<l> As poule þe apostel  to þe poeple tauȝte .</l>
<l> <hi><foreign>Virtus in infirmitate <app><lem>p<expan>er</expan>ficitur</lem></app> .</foreign></hi></l>
<l> And þouȝ þat men make muche  doel in her<expan>e</expan> angre .</l>
<l> And be inpacient in here penaunce  puir resou<expan>n</expan> knoweth .</l>
<l> Þat þei han <app><lem>resou<expan>n</expan></lem></app><note>R.17.301: For alpha's <hi>resoun</hi> (deficient in alliteration), beta correctly reads <hi>cause</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with beta.</note> to contrarie  by kynde of here sikenesse .</l>
<l> And liȝtliche our<expan>e</expan> lorde  at here liues ende .</l>
<l> Hath mercy on suche men  þat so euele may suffre .</l>
<l> ¶ Ac þe smoke and þe smolder  þ<expan>a</expan>t smitte i<expan>n</expan> our<expan>e</expan> eyȝes .</l>
<l> <app><lem>Þat</lem></app><note>R.17.305: Here R uniquely omits the verb from the a-verse; other <hi>B</hi> manuscripts read <hi>Þat is</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with the <hi>B</hi> majority.</note> coueitise and vnkendenesse  <app><lem>quencheth</lem></app><note>R.17.305: Here F has <hi>þey qwenche</hi> while beta reads <hi>þat quencheth</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> reads <hi>whiche quencheth</hi>.</note> godes mercy .</l>
<l> For vnkendenesse is þe contrarie  of alle kynne resou<expan>n</expan> .</l>
<l> For þer<expan>e</expan> nis sike ne sori  ne none so muche wrecche .</l>
<l> Þat he ne may louye and hym like  and lene of his herte .</l>
<l> Goed wille <app><lem>goed</lem></app><note>R.17.309: <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with alpha in this lection.</note> worde  both wischen and <app><lem>wilnen</lem></app><note>R.17.309: R's <hi>wilnen</hi> is shared with F alone; beta reads <hi>willen</hi>. Although a number of <hi>C</hi> copies agree with beta, it seems clear that <hi>Cx</hi> reads as alpha.</note> .</l>
<l> Alle maner men  mercy and forȝeuenesse </l>
<l> And louye hem lich hym<seg>-</seg>sulue  and his lif amende .</l>
<l> I may no lenger lette q<expan>uo</expan>d he  and liard he prikede .</l>
<l> And went a<seg>-</seg>way as wynde  and þere<seg>-</seg>with I wakede .</l>