fol. 30r (cont.)I
Passus v .
Passus septimus de visione vt supra .R.7.0: At the extreme right margin, on the same line as the passus heading, there is the cropped fragment of a rubrication guide, very small and in a light brown, contemporary hand: Passus v. Below this fragment is another cropped line, partially obscured by the grain of the membrane: vis.
Pardoun with peres þeR.7.8: Among the other B copies, only the B family (BmBoCot), a textually inferior group, shares R's þe before plowman; the other beta copies omit any determiner at this point, apparently reading the reference to Langland's central character as a full proper name, pieres plowman; F omits everything from the a-verse after Pers. However, among the C witnesses, the X family agrees with R (against the P family's support of beta). plowman treuthe hath I-graunted .
¶ Kynges and kniȝtes þat kepen holy cherches .R.7.9: R's plural is unique; all other B copies show the singular, cherche, which agrees with the reading of Ax.
And[Han]R.7.11: And is unique error; most other B copies read Han, which agrees with the reading of Ax and Cx. pardoun þorȝ purgatorie to passe ful liȝtly .
¶¶ Marchauntes in þe margyne hauedR.7.18: R's verb form here is unique and slightly archaic; most of the other manuscripts of all versions read hadde(n). No difference in meaning is discernible. many ȝeres .
Ac noR.7.19: Alpha construes the opening of this phrase as English and omits the initial Latin preposition; cf. beta's none a pena. The X family of the C version treats this phrase exactly as alpha does, while the reading of the P family omits the negative and is obviously corrupt. pena et a culpa þepopeþe pope wald hem nauȝtR.7.19: In place of R's wald hem nauȝt, F has will(e) not while beta reads nolde hem; no beta copy (nor any A or C witness) attests the presence of alpha's nauȝt. Beta is likelier to be authorial. In a slightly revised version of this half-line, the C version reads either nolde hem (P family) or wolde hem (X family). The same disagreement between wolde and nolde divides the A copies into two large groups. graunte .
For þei holde nauȝt here halydayR.7.20: Although M agrees with alpha on this singular form, most beta witnesses show the plural, halidayes. Most A copies agree with the majority beta reading, but the C manuscripts divide into two large groups, the X family (with some P- family support) atetsting alpha's form while the dominant P-family reading agrees with beta. as holy cherche telleth .R.7.20: R's telleth is unique; Bx has techeth, the same reading found at this point, uniformly, in the other versions .
Þat þei schulde bugge boldely þat hem best likethR.7.24: In place of alpha's present-tense form, beta has a preterite, liked; all but one C witness agrees with beta, but the A manuscripts are split: a majority agree with beta's preterite, but a significant minority attest alpha's form. Kane chooses the minority reading for his edition of A, but Kane-Donaldson endorse the beta reading in their edition of B. .
And sitthenus sellen it vsR.7.25: R's vs is a unique addition to the text of Bx, which agrees here with that of Ax and Cx. aȝeyn and sauen þe wynnynges .R.7.25: Beta shows a singular form, wynnyge. The Ax reading agrees with beta's, but the C manuscripts are split, a majority (including the best witnesses in both major families) agreeing with alpha's plural while a minority supports beta.
Pore poeple orR.7.30: R's or is unique; Bx has and. prisones fynden hem here fode .
And sette scoleres to scole or toR.7.31: The alpha b-verse lacks an alliterative stave; beta reads to somme other craftes. Beta's reading is supported by the analogous verse from A, which reads to summe skynes craftis. other craftes .
¶¶ Þanne were manye marchauntz þat wopenR.7.37: In place of alpha's manye marchauntz þat wopen, the beta phrase is Marchauntz mery many wepten. The beta phrase agrees entirely with the wording of Ax and Cx. for ioye .
Men of lawe leste pardoun hadde .R.7.39: Here alpha seems to have mislineated by truncation (as reflected in R's short line), which causes the authorial b-verse to be cast as a following line (R7.40), fleshed out (uniquely in R) with for þat craft is schrewed. F attempts an even more extensive smoothing, rendering the two lines as follows:
But men of Lawe of pardoun / þe leeste part þey haddyn.
For þey for meede pletyn moore / þan mychil for goddis helpe.
But men of Lawe of pardoun / þe leeste part þey haddyn.
For þey for meede pletyn moore / þan mychil for goddis helpe.
And nameliche of innocentes þat non euel ne cunneth .R.7.42: Hereafter beta includes a Latin citation omitted by alpha:
Super innocentem munera non accipies.
Super innocentem munera non accipies.
¶ Ac he þat spenethR.7.48: R's speneth is a unique reading (the other B manuscripts read spendeth); however, R's verb derived historically from spende(n), is synonymous with it, and occurs in free variation with it throughout R (cf. R10.109). From its sometimes parallel occurrence in L (as at KD10.90), the form seems likely to be an authorial relict. A majority of C copies agree with R's form here, as does the text of Bodley 851, but most A manuscripts agree with beta. his speche and speketh for þe pore .
AndR.7.50: Beta omits And. The A version attests the same a-verse and reads it exactly as beta does. conforteth hym in þat cas with-oute coueytise of ȝiftes .
¶ Whan þei drawen in-toR.7.59: Beta reads on(e) to (LMCrW), followed by deye(n) (LMCrWCG) . Cx agrees exactly with F's to þe deþ . deth and indulgences wolde haue .
His pardoun is ful petyt at hisR.7.60: R's second his in this line is unique; all other B manuscripts read a plural form like W's hir. However, Cx agrees exactly with R's rendering of this line, including the singular posessive here. partyng hennes .
Þat medeR.7.61: R uniquely omits any before mede. F and beta agree with Ax in attesting the presence of this determiner, but R has the support of Cx in omitting it. of mene men for her motyng taketh .
Þe legistres and þeR.7.62: R's þe is a unique addition to this line. Although R's þ and y tend oftentimes to overlap in form, this word was probably mistranscribed by Kane and Donaldson, who read it as ye, an error also implicit in their earlier omission of R from the lemma for witnesses beginning this line with Þe; that group includes R's sibling F. lawyeres holdeth þis for treuthe .
And lyuen in loue and in lawe for here lowe herte .R.7.68: Beta shows the plural hertis. The C version omits this line, and the A manuscripts are divided, with slightly more than half supporting alpha's singular and the rest agreeing with beta's plural.
Haueth þe same absolucion þat sent was to peres .R.7.69: The scribe omitted the customary space between this line and the new verse paragraph below, but he often does so when, as here, the new unit begins on the last line of a side.
But ȝif þe sugestion be soth þat schapeth hymR.7.71: R's hym is unique among the B manuscripts. The others read hem. Ax agrees with the reading of the B majority, but the C manuscripts are divided by major groups, the X family supporting R while the P group supports the other B copies. to begge .
And also he gylethR.7.74: Both beta and F read bigileth. However, R's unique verb form agrees exactly with the reading of Ax and Cx. þe gyuere ageynes his wille .
Sit elemosinaR.7.80: Most beta copies read elemosina tua in manu tua, but LM support alpha's omission of the first tua. in manu tua donec studes cui des .
¶¶ Ac gregorie is aR.7.81: In place of R's is a, beta reads was a. F reads þat. good man and badde vs gyuen alle .
For he ȝiftR.7.87: F reads the opening of this a-verse as For þe man þat ȝifte; beta has For he þat ȝiueth. It seems clear from these overlapping agreements that R is responsible uniquely for omitting þat, that F replaces archetypal he with þe man, and that the ȝifte / ȝiueth dichotomy reflects an alpha / beta difference. ȝeldeth and ȝarketh hym to reste .
And he þat bitR.7.88: R's bit is a unique verb form here. F makes extensive revisions to the entire line, while most beta copies read biddeth. boreweth and bryngeth hym-selue in dette
For-thiR.7.89: Beta reads For. beggeres borewen euere-mo and her borȝ is god almiȝti .
To ȝelden hem þat ȝyueth hem and ȝut vsure amoreR.7.90: R alone reads amore; other B witnesses correctly have more. .
Satis diues est qui indiget[non] indigetR.7.96: R's omission of non before indiget is unique. pane .
Or þe bak or þeR.7.104: Both beta and F read some bone. This agrees with the reading of Cx. Ax had read his bon. bone þeiR.7.104: Beta manuscripts have he breketh for alpha's þei breken. The A manuscripts are divided, some attesting a singular and others a plural, but Cx agrees with alpha, treating the phrase as a plural. breken in here ȝouthe .
And sitthen gon faiten with hereR.7.105: Although OC2 support alpha's reading, beta has ȝoure for alpha's here. Both Ax and Cx agree with alpha. fauntes for euere-more after .
ÞoR.7.108: In place of alpha's Þo or For þo (= F), beta reads And þei. Both Ax and Cx agree with R's version of the entire a-verse. þat lyueth þus here lif mowe lothe þe tyme .
Blynde and bederede and broken inR.7.112: R's in is a unique reading; this preposition is omitted by the other B witnesses but is attested in two of the A copies (Ma and H) and in Cx. here membres .
Here penance and here purgatorie here vponR.7.116: F garbles the entire b-verse; beta reads here on in place of R's here vpon. The reading of A for this half-line seems uncertain, but six A witnesses attest the presence of here at the beginning of this phrase and five read here vpon . C omits B's here from the phrase; the full Cx reading is vppon this puyre erthe. þis erthe .
For I schalR.7.118: Beta reads wil. Ax agrees with alpha. construe vche clause and kenne it þe an englys .
¶ And peres at his preyere þe pardon heR.7.119: R's he is a unique addition to the text as witnessed by the other B copies. Both Ax and Cx agree with the B majority. vnfoldeth .
ÞatR.7.128: R's Þat is an alpha variant supported by LM. Most other beta copies read But. Y reads And. Ax agrees with the RFLM reading. after þi deth-day þe deuel schal haue þi soule .
Non timebo mala quoniam tu mecum es .R.7.131: Here the scribe omits the customary space between strophes, presumably because the next verse paragraph begins on the last line of this side.
Of preyeres and of penauncesR.7.134: Beta shows the singular penaunce. Although two A witnesses (DMa) agree with alpha, it is clear that Ax read the same singular form as beta. my plow schal ben here-after .
Þe foules ofR.7.144: R's of is unique; F and most beta copies read in. LM have on. The A version reads the key phrase of this half-line as foulis in þe firmament. þe felde ho fynt hem mete at wynter .
¶¶ AbstinenceR.7.148: After Abstinence, beta adds þe abbesse. The passage does not appear in C but is phrased in A exactly as in beta. quod peres myn a b c me tauȝte .
As dyuinor ofR.7.151: Beta reads in. diuinite with dixit insipiens to þi teme .
¶¶ Lewed lorel quod peres litel lokestow on þiR.7.152: Both F and beta read þe, which is also the reading of Ax. bible .
AndR.7.153: Beta reads On; F rephrases the entire a-verse, beginning it with Þere. salamounes sawes selden þow beholdest .
EcceR.7.154: Many B manuscripts read Eice, including F and numerous beta copies; however, the most authoritative beta copies (including LMCrW) all agree with R on Ecce. The latter variant is clearly erroneous with regard to the original Vulgate text, but it probably already existed as a Vulgate variant long before Langland's day since the same paleographic factors that would have induced multiple independent errors in both directions among Piers Plowman scribes already were in place. Even Kane-Donaldson fall into this pit, mistranscribing R's Ecce as Eice because it is barely possible to construe (generously) the <cc> as <ic> joined at the top by a ligature—until one notices, in the preceding tag at R7.142, that the R scribe does not avail himself of a ligature when writing the <ic> of solliciti. There is no way to know which word Langland himself wrote, but since all A manuscripts attest Ecce, the odds are, as Rigg and Brewer theorize in Piers Plowman: The Z Version (Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 1983): 111, that various B scribes attempted to do for Langland what Kane-Donaldson unconsciously do for R: repair the damage quietly. See John A. Alford, Piers Plowman: A Guide to the Quotations (Binghamton: MRTS, 1992), p. 57, for discussion of this tag. derisores &cetera .R.7.154: R omits the end of this citation, which in beta reads: iurgia cum eis ne crescant &c. F's version of the rest of the citation is, typically, unique: & exibit cum eo iurgium cessabitque cause & contumelie.
¶¶ And I thorȝ her wordes R.7.156: R alone misplaces the caesura indicator. a-woke and wayted aboute .
How daniel diuined þe dremeR.7.169: F and most beta witnesses attest the plural dremes. of a kyng .
Þat vnkouth kniȝtes schul come þi kyngdom to reue .R.7.172: In place of alpha's reue, beta witnesses are divided between cleyme (CrWHmC) and cleue (LMGOC2). Ax reads cleyme, but the stemmatic array of the two variants from beta actually suggests that its form was somewhat likelier to have been cleue.
It byfel as his fader tolde his frendes hym þere souȝteR.7.183: Reversing R's hym þere souȝte, beta reads þere hym souȝte; F has sowtyn þere. .
And nempnedR.7.186: R's nempned is a unique error, failing in alliteration; F and beta agree on demed, which is also the reading of Cx and of some of the A manuscripts (most of the others read various forms of another alliterating verb, e.g., manuscript A's deuyned). þat dowel indulgence passed
And passeth alle pardounR.7.189: R uniquely omits þe before pardoun. Only one A manuscript duplicates this error (the others all agree with Bx). of seinte petres chercheR.7.189: Here the scribe omits the customary space between strophes, presumably because the next verse paragraph begins on the last line of this side.
Þis oureÞis [is] oureR.7.192: R uniquely omits is before beleue. beleue as lettred men vs techeth .
It isR.7.198: Beta omits It and begins the line with Is. Seven A witnesses (UDVJAWaN) agree with beta in this omission, but the others agree with alpha. Among the C copies, it seems likely that the progenitor of the P family agreed with beta's omission, but the X family clearly supports the inclusion of Hit at the head of this line. nauȝt so siker for þe soule certes as is dowel .
¶ For-thi I rede ȝow thenkeR.7.199: Alpha was corrupt here and R presumably mirrors its reading with ȝow thenke; cf. beta's presumptively authentic ȝow renkes. F offers a typical job of smoothing alpha's error: ȝow alle. Cx agrees with beta. þat riche ben on þis erthe .
And comen alle byfore criste and acountesR.7.206: Alpha adds and at the head of this b-verse; although several A manuscripts do the same, it is obvious that both Ax and Cx agree with beta in omitting this conjunction. to ȝelde .
And how þow dostR.7.208: Beta has dedest; F reads a present form, don. Ax agrees with beta. day by day þe dome wil reherce .
A pouhȝ-fulR.7.209: This unusual form appears only in R. The word pouhȝ, "sack, bag," is synonymous with poke, the form attested by other manuscripts. This form is possibly original, since it appears in A's Vernon manuscript, and Kane-Russell have adopted it for their critical text of C of pardoun þere ne prouinciales lettres .
Þowe ȝe be founde in þe fraternite of alle þe fyueR.7.210: R's fyue is a unique variant among the B witnesses; beta and F read foure. Ax agrees with the B majority, but Cx agrees with R. ordres .
And haue indulgences dubblefolde but dowel wil ȝowR.7.211: Beta has the unmetrical reading but if dowel ȝow. R's wil is a unique addition. helpe .
¶ Forthi I conseile alle cristene to crie god mercy .R.7.213: Although he left the job of ornamenting R far from complete, the rubricator usually took care to alternate blue with red paraph markers. However, on this page the pattern is broken (two red parasigns in a row), presumably through inadvertency. The verse strophe preceding this one is fairly long, but there is no evidence that a paragraph division was overlooked by the copyist. Only one of the older B manuscripts shows any division between KD7.187 and KD7.201 (Hm, at KD7.193); the rest agree with R in marking none.
Suche werkes to werche þeR.7.216: Beta omits þe. Ax agrees with beta, as does the P family of C witnesses; however, the X family agrees with alpha. while we ben here .