<div1>fol. 4r (cont.)I</div1>
<head><foreign><hi><hi>Passus tercius de visione petri plowman . vt sup<expan>ra</expan> &c<expan>etera</expan> .</hi></hi></foreign></head>
<l> <hi><hi>N</hi></hi>ow is mede þe mayde  and namo of hem alle . </l>
<l> With bedelus and with bayliues  y<seg>-</seg>brouȝt by<seg>-</seg>for þ<supplied>e kynge</supplied> </l>
<l> Þe kyng called <orig>aclerke</orig><reg>a clerke</reg>  can I nouȝt his name . </l>
<l> To take mede þe mayde  and maken hire at ese . </l>
<l> I schal assay hire my<seg>-</seg>selue  and <app><lem>couthliche</lem></app><note>R.3.5: R's <hi>couthliche</hi> is a unique variant, probably reflecting an alpha error (beta = <hi>sothelich</hi>); F smooths this mistake to <hi>sotilly hire</hi>.</note> appose . </l>
<l> What man of þis <app><lem>world</lem></app><note>R.3.6: The beta reading is <hi>molde</hi>. However, the entire a-verse represents a problem. F's rendering of this half-line, <hi>What wyȝe of þis world</hi>, may be the original, descended vertically from alpha. If that were the case, R (which is usually much more faithful to copytext than F) would have slipped into the same modernized form for the first stave word as beta did (<hi>man</hi>) but preserved the second as rendered in alpha and Bx, (i.e., <hi>worlde</hi>), creating an instance of faulty alliteration. By contrast, having modernized <hi>wyȝe</hi> out of this line, beta would then have gone on, in the interest of alliterative regularity, to invoke the archaism <hi>molde</hi> as a replacement for the original <hi>worlde</hi>. Unfortunately for this theory, the evidence from the other versions fails to provide it with much support. The evidence of the <hi>A</hi> witnesses overwhelmingly favors <hi>man</hi> as the first stave of this half-line. And a significant majority of the same manuscripts supports <hi>worlde</hi> as the second stave (RaUHaEKWa = <hi>molde</hi>), agreeing exactly with the testimony of manuscript R in the <hi>B</hi> tradition (against both F and beta). Among the <hi>C</hi> copies, the agreement with R's non-alliterating phrase is universal. If Langland's metrics seem too embarrassed by this evidence, it is still possible to theorize that he intended the first stave word of the line to be <hi>What</hi> rather than <hi>man</hi>, but this hypothesis remains awkward since it would require an elevation of <hi>were</hi> in the b-verse from its apparent position in a dip.</note>  þat hire were leuest . </l>
<l> And if <app><lem>heo</lem></app> wurche be my witte  and my wille folwe . </l>
<l> I wile for<seg>-</seg>gyue hire þis <app><lem>gultes</lem></app><note>R.3.8: The beta reading is <hi>gilte</hi>. <hi>Ax</hi> agrees with beta, but <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with alpha.</note>  so me god helpe . </l>
<l> <hi></hi> Curteysliche þe clerke þanne  as þe kyng<expan>e</expan> hiȝte . </l>
<milestone>fol. 4vI</milestone>
<l> <supplied>T</supplied>ok mede by þe middel  and brouȝte hire in<seg>-</seg>to chaumbre .</l>
<l> <supplied>A</supplied>c þere was murthe and <app><lem>ministracie</lem></app>  mede to plese . </l>
<l> <supplied><hi></hi> Þ</supplied>ei þat wonyeth at westmenstre  worschipped hire alle .</l>
<l> Gentiliche with ioye  þe iustices somme . </l>
<l> Busked hem to þe bowr<expan>e</expan>  þere þe buyrde <app><lem>dwelte</lem></app> . </l>
<l> To conforte hire kendeliche  by clergyse leue . </l>
<l> <supplied>A</supplied>nd seyden mourne nouȝt mede  ne make þow no sorwe . </l>
<l> For we wil <app><lem>wyse</lem></app> þe kyng  and þi weye schape .</l>
<l> <supplied>T</supplied>o be wedded at þi wille  and where þe leef lyketh . </l>
<l> For alle consience <app><lem>crafte</lem></app>  and <app><lem>cast</lem></app><note>R.3.19: R's phrase, <hi>crafte and cast</hi>, represents the alpha order for this pair (cf. F's <hi>craft or cast</hi>); in beta manuscripts they are reversed. Both <hi>Ax</hi> and <hi>Cx</hi> agree with beta's order.</note> as I trowe . </l>
<l> <supplied>¶ M</supplied>ildliche <app><lem>mede</lem></app><note>R.3.20: Here R uniquely omits <hi>þanne</hi> (F attests this adverb's presence at the head of the a-verse rather than the tail, as in beta). Both <hi>Ax</hi> and the X family of <hi>C</hi> agree with beta's reading. The P family of <hi>C</hi> positions the adverb as in beta, but reads it as <hi>þo</hi>.</note>  merciede hem alle .</l>
<l> <supplied>O</supplied>f þeire grete godenesse  and gaf hem vcheone . </l>
<l> <supplied>C</supplied>oupes of clene gold  and cuppes of siluer . </l>
<l> <supplied>R</supplied>ynges with rubies  and <app><lem>ricchesse</lem></app><note>R.3.23: Beta shows the plural, <hi>ricchesses</hi>. Both variants are available in the <hi>A</hi> tradition, but a significant majority of <hi>A</hi> witnesses agrees with beta's reading.</note> manye . </l>
<l> <supplied>Þ</supplied>e lest man of here meyne  a motou<expan>n</expan> of goolde . </l>
<l> <supplied>Þ</supplied>anne lauȝte þei leue  þis lordes at mede . </l>
<l> <supplied>¶ W</supplied>ith þat comen clerkes  to conforte hire þe same . </l>
<l> <supplied>A</supplied>nd beden hire be blithe  for we beth þin owene . </l>
<l> <supplied>Fo</supplied>r to wurche þi wille  þe whyle þow miȝt last . </l>
<l> <supplied>¶ He</supplied>ndeliche heo þanne  be<seg>-</seg>hiȝte hem þe same . </l>
<l> <supplied>To</supplied> loue ȝow<note>R.3.30: F and most beta manuscripts show <hi>hem</hi> here (M has been erased and overwritten to match this majority reading), but L uniquely agrees with R's <hi>ȝow</hi>. Although two <hi>A</hi> manuscripts (RaU) agree with the LR reading, it seems clear that <hi>Ax</hi> supports the F/beta variant. However, the <hi>A</hi> majority continues in the following line with third-person plural references (RU again dissenting), but a large cluster of fairly reliable <hi>B</hi> manuscripts (MCOF, as well as the BmBoCot set) all suddenly shift to second-person plural pronouns at this point, coming back into alignment with LR. It appears likely, then, in the light of this attestational pattern, that LR are not randomly agreeing in error but witnessing, at R3.30, what actually appeared in <hi>Bx</hi>, that the other <hi>B</hi> copies, by contrast, are merely drifting along with the third-person references established in previous lines of this passage and fail to notice, until the next line, the sudden shift in viewpoint caught here by the two most careful <hi>B</hi> scribes. </note> lely  and lordes to make .</l>
<l> <supplied>An</supplied>d in þe constorie at courte  do calle ȝoure names . </l>
<l> <supplied>Sc</supplied>hal no lewednesse lette  þe <app><lem>clerkes</lem></app><note>R.3.32: Although alpha's third stave shows defective alliteration (cf. beta's <hi>leode</hi>, which is also the reading of <hi>Ax</hi>), alpha's <hi>clerkes</hi> is supported by Cr and universally by the <hi>C</hi> version. The possibility that alpha and <hi>C</hi> have randomly converged in error here, both chancing upon the same word that neither alliterates in its line nor is an equivalent for the word replaced, seems unlikely—especially since this particular pattern of alpha / <hi>C</hi> agreement in editorial change is one that recurs frequently throughout the developing narrative. <lb/>
Only two explanations seem plausible for this array of variants and for many similar ones; however, at this distance the two explanations are almost indistinguishable: (1) While he was working on <hi>B</hi>, Langland began to be much more concerned about his London readers not understanding obsolescent words like <hi>leode</hi> than about small metrical lapses and therefore entered a series of marginal "updatings" into <hi>Bx</hi>'s exemplar, moving it away, at times awkwardly, from original <hi>A</hi> readings in order to meet his changed perception of audience needs. When confronted with such evidence of authorial ambiguity in his exemplar, the scribe of <hi>Bx</hi> usually hedged his bets by copying the text unaltered, with the authorial change reproduced in his own margin (perhaps thinking it a gloss). In the final stage of this process, alpha and beta followed their respective proclivities, with alpha normally taking such an entry as authorial revision and using it to supplant the original text while beta usually took it as a mere gloss, ignored it, and copied what he saw in the body of the line of <hi>Bx</hi>. Or, (2) like its many anomalous relatives in other "revised" lines, <hi>clerke(s)</hi> was indeed a purely scribal gloss in the immediate ancestor of <hi>Bx</hi> and had no warrant from the author, but still seemed sufficiently ambiguous to the <hi>Bx</hi> scribe to deserve exact reproduction. The roles of alpha and beta in this scenario remain the same as in the first. But what is painfully evident is that, by the time he began using the exemplar of <hi>Bx</hi> to create the <hi>C</hi> text, Langland either didn't care anymore about such small aesthetic matters or had completely forgotten who had authored <hi>clerkes</hi>—or both!
þat I louye . </l>
<l> <supplied>Þat</supplied> <app><lem>he</lem></app><note>R.3.33: Only the two alpha manuscripts here omit <hi>ne</hi> before the verb. The <hi>A</hi> version here agrees completely with beta.</note> worth furst <app><lem>vaunsed</lem></app><note>R.3.33: R's <hi>vaunsed</hi> is a unique form among the <hi>B</hi> witnesses but dominates the X family of <hi>C</hi>. The P family tends to agree with the F/beta reading, <hi>auaunced</hi>. As would be expected, <title>MED</title>, <hi>s. v.</hi> <hi>vauncen</hi>, categorizes <hi>vaunsed</hi> as a clipped form derived from the verb <hi>avauncen</hi>. Citations for this form are mostly from the fifteenth century (but the passage from manuscript R is also cited as well as one from Robert Manning).</note>  for ich am by<seg>-</seg>knowe .</l>
<l> <supplied>Þer</supplied>e connynge clerkes  schulle clokke by<seg>-</seg>hynde . </l>
<l> <supplied>¶ Þan</supplied>ne com þer<expan>e</expan> a confessoure  <app><lem>ycoped</lem></app> as a frere . </l>
<l> <supplied>To</supplied> mede <app><lem>þis</lem></app> mayde  he mellud þis<note>R.3.36: R's phrase <hi>þis mayde</hi> is unique. F's has <hi>þat Mayde</hi> while beta reads <hi>þe mayde</hi>. Both <hi>Ax</hi> and <hi>Cx</hi> agree with beta.</note> wordes . </l>
<l> <supplied>And</supplied> seyde ful <app><lem>sotely</lem></app><note>R.3.37: R's <hi>sotely</hi> is unique; the other <hi>B</hi> witnesses read <hi>softly</hi>; the <hi>C</hi> version is revised at this point, but <hi>Ax</hi> agrees with the <hi>B</hi> majority and no <hi>A</hi> copy agrees with R .</note>  in schrift as it were . </l>
<l> <supplied>Þeiȝ</supplied> lewed men and lered men  had leyne be þe bothe . </l>
<l> <supplied>And</supplied> <app><lem>falsede</lem></app><note>R.3.39: Cf. F's <hi>Fals</hi> and beta's <hi>falsenesse</hi>. Though all three variants are available in the <hi>A</hi> tradition, <hi>Ax</hi> almost certainly agreed with R. As for <hi>C</hi>, the manuscript support in that version for R's lection is almost universal. </note> hauede I<seg>-</seg>folwed þe  al þis fifty wynter . </l>
<l> <supplied>I sc</supplied>hal assoyle þe my<seg>-</seg>selue  for a seme of whete .</l>
<milestone>fol. 5rI</milestone>
<l> And al<seg>-</seg>so be þi bedeman  and bere wel þi message . </l>
<l> Amonges kniȝtes and clerkes  consience to turne . </l>
<l> <del></del><supplied></supplied> Þanne mede for here misdedes  to þat man kneled . </l>
<l> And schrof hire of hire schrewednesse  schameles I trowe . </l>
<l> Tolde hym a tale  and tok<expan>e</expan> hym a noble . </l>
<l> For to ben hire bedeman  and hire brocour<expan>e</expan> alse . </l>
<l> <del></del><supplied></supplied> Þanne he assoyled hyre sone  and sytthen <app><lem>a</lem></app><note>R.3.47: <hi>A</hi>, "he."</note> sayde . </l>
<l> We han a wyndow a<seg>-</seg>werchynge  wil sytten vs ful hiȝe . </l>
<l> Waldestow glase þat gable  and graue <app><lem>þer<expan>e</expan></lem></app><note>R.3.49: R's <hi>þer<expan>e</expan></hi> is unique; the other <hi>B</hi> manuscripts have <hi>þere-inne</hi>. However, almost all <hi>C</hi> witnesses agree with R.</note> þi name . </l>
<l> Syker schulde þi soule be  heuene to haue .</l>
<l> <del></del><supplied></supplied> Wist I þat quatz mede  þere <app><lem>nys</lem></app> wyndow <app><lem>no wowȝ</lem></app> .<note>R.3.51: Beta's version of the b-verse reads <hi>I wolde nouȝt spare</hi>. It seems likely that the long passage of damaged or missing text in alpha after this point (cf. R3.52) may actually begin with this b-verse. </note></l>
<l> Þat I <app><lem>ne</lem></app> wolde <app><lem>make and amende</lem></app>  it <app><lem>with of myne</lem></app> .<note> These two lines are offered by alpha instead of eleven lines preserved in beta (= KD3.52-62); it appears that the beta passage is archetypal but was somehow overlooked or unavailable to alpha and that the two lines in their stead were introduced to patch the resulting incoherence, adapted from two cognate lines in <hi>A</hi> (= Kane 3.50-51). Beta's cognate lines are as follows: <lb/>
<hi>Wist I that quod þat womman I wolde nouȝt spare <lb/>
For to be ȝowre frende frere and faille ȝow neure <lb/>
Whil ȝe loue lordes þat lechery haunteþ <lb/>
And lakkeþ nouȝt ladis þat loueþ wel þe same <lb/>
It is a frelete of flesche ȝe fynde it in bokes <lb/>
And a course of kynde wher<seg>-</seg>of we komen alle <lb/>
Who may scape þe sklaundre þe skaþe is sone amended <lb/>
It is synne of seuene sonnest relessed <lb/>
Haue mercy quod Mede of men þat it haunte <lb/>
And I shal keure ȝowre kirke ȝowre cloystre do maken <lb/>
Wowes do whitten and wyndowes glasen</hi>
<l> <app><lem>And my name write</lem></app><app><lem>openliche</lem></app> þere<seg>-</seg>Inne .</l>
<l> Þat <app><lem>vch a</lem></app><note>R.3.54: For alpha's <hi>vch a</hi>, beta reads <hi>eury</hi>. Alpha's reading is supported by a majority of <hi>A</hi> witnesses, but beta's variant agrees with <hi>C</hi>.</note> segg<expan>e</expan> schal <app><lem>Ise</lem></app><note>R.3.54: This form (cf. F's <hi>see</hi>) is an alpha reading that agrees with both <hi>Ax</hi> and <hi>Cx</hi> against beta's <hi>seye(n)</hi> (= modern "say").</note>  Ich am suster <app><lem>to ȝow alle</lem></app> .<note>R.3.54: R's <hi>to ȝow alle</hi> is from alpha; beta reads <hi>of ȝowre hous</hi>. Both <hi>Ax</hi> and <hi>Cx</hi> here support beta, the former by complete agreement, the latter by being an obvious revision of the beta phrase (C = <hi>of ȝoure ordre</hi>).</note></l>
<l> <del></del><supplied></supplied> Ac god to alle goed folke  suche grauynge defendeth . </l>
<l> To writen in wyndowes  of here wel<seg>-</seg>dedes . </l>
<l> <sic>And</sic><corr>An</corr> aunter pruyde be <app><lem>ypeynted</lem></app> þere  and pompe of þe wo<supplied>rld</supplied> </l>
<l> For <app><lem>god</lem></app><note>R.3.58: R's <hi>god</hi> fails to alliterate properly (cf. the F/beta reading, <hi>crist</hi>, which does alliterate). Nevertheless, all the <hi>C</hi> witnesses agree with R against F and beta.</note> knoweth þi consience  and þi kende wille . </l>
<l> <app><lem>Þi</lem></app><note>R.3.59: The opening of this line in F reads <hi>Boþe þe coost</hi>; cf. beta's <hi>And þi coste</hi>. However, the P family of <hi>C</hi> agrees with R's line opening (the X family has no reading here at all as a result of an earlier error that merged two lines in its subarchetype).</note> cost and þi coueytyse  and who þe catel owȝte . </l>
<l> <del></del><supplied></supplied> For<seg>-</seg>thi I lere ȝow lordes  leueth suche werkes . </l>
<l> To writen in wyndowes  of ȝour<expan>e</expan> wel<seg>-</seg>dedes .</l>
<l> Or to grede after goddes men  whan ȝe delen doles . </l>
<l> An aunter ȝe han ȝoure hir<expan>e</expan> here  and ȝour<expan>e</expan> heuene al<supplied>se</supplied> </l>
<l> <hi><foreign>Nesciat sinistra quid faciat dextera </foreign></hi><note>R.3.64: The right end of this red boxing has been cropped.</note> </l>
<l> Lat nouȝt þi left half  late ne rathe . </l>
<l> Wite what þow worchest  with þi riȝte syde . </l>
<l> For þus bitt þe gospel  goede men do here almesse . </l>
<l> <del></del><supplied></supplied> Meyres and maceeres  þat menes ben by<seg>-</seg>twene . </l>
<l> Þe kyng and þe comou<expan>n</expan>e  to kepe þe lawes . </l>
<l> To ponysch <app><lem>vppon</lem></app><note>R.3.70: Beta reads <hi>on</hi>. <hi>Ax</hi> clearly agrees with beta here, but the <hi>C</hi> families are divided, the P group supporting beta while the X group agrees with alpha's <hi>vppon</hi>.</note> pilaries  and pynyng<expan>e</expan> stoles . </l>
<milestone>fol. 5vI</milestone>
<l> Brewsteres and bakesteres  bocheres and kokes . </l>
<l> For þese aren men <app><lem>vppou<expan>n</expan></lem></app><note>R.3.72: Beta reads <hi>on</hi>. <hi>C</hi> is revised at this point, but the <hi>A</hi> version attests an identical line, in which witnesses are mostly divided between beta's reading and <hi>of</hi></note> þis molde  þat moste harme werchen .</l>
<l> To þe pouere poeple  þat parcelmel buggen . </l>
<l> <supplied><hi></hi></supplied> <app><lem>And also</lem></app><note>R.3.74: R's <hi>And also</hi> is unique but may derive from alpha; cf. beta's <hi>For they</hi> and F's <hi>&</hi>. <hi>C</hi> is revised at this point, but the <hi>A</hi> version attests an almost identical line, in which nearly all manuscripts agree with beta's opening phrase.</note> poysene þe poeple  priuelich and ofte . </l>
<l> <supplied>Þ</supplied>ei richen thorȝ regratrie  and rentes hem buggeth . </l>
<l> With that þe pouer poeple  schulde putte in here wombe . </l>
<l> For toke þei on<seg>-</seg>trewely  þei tymbrede nouȝt so heyȝe . </l>
<l> Ne bouȝte none <app><lem>burg<del>e</del><add>a</add>ge</lem></app><note>R.3.78: R's use of the singular <hi>burgage</hi> is unique but may reflect alpha (beta attests the plural); cf. F's <hi>bargayn</hi>. Although manuscripts EWa of the <hi>A</hi> version agree with R's singular, it seems clear that both <hi>Ax</hi> and <hi>Cx</hi> read as beta does here.</note>  be ye<note>R.3.78: Beta has <hi>ȝe</hi>. F and G clearly have <hi>þe</hi>, but R's <hi>y</hi> and <hi>þ</hi> show sufficient overlap that the scribe's intentions here are ambiguous.</note> ful certeyne . </l>
<l> <supplied>¶ A</supplied>c mede þe mayde  þe mayre hath be<seg>-</seg>souȝte . </l>
<l> Of alle suche selleres  siluer to take . </l>
<l> Or presentz with<seg>-</seg>oute pans  as peces of siluer . </l>
<l> <supplied>R</supplied>ynges <app><lem>other other<expan>e</expan></lem></app> ricchesse<note>R.3.82: This awkward phrase, <hi>other othere richesse</hi>, almost certainly derives from alpha; cf. F's smoothing omission, <hi>or rycchesse</hi>. Beta has <hi>or other ricchesse</hi>.</note>  þe reg<expan>ra</expan>toures to meyntene .</l>
<l> <supplied>¶ F</supplied>or my <app><lem>lord</lem></app><note>R.3.83: Beta reads <hi>loue</hi>, which is also the reading of <hi>Ax</hi> in an identical line. The <hi>C</hi> version is revised at this point, but an analogous line (<hi>Loue hem for my loue quod this lady mede</hi>) confirms the originality of beta's variant.</note> q<expan>uo</expan>d þat lady  loue hem vchone . </l>
<l> <supplied>A</supplied>nd suffre hem to selle  somdel aȝeynes resou<expan>n</expan> . </l>
<l> <supplied>¶ S</supplied>alamon þe sage  a sarmou<expan>n</expan> he made . </l>
<l> <supplied>F</supplied>or to amende meyres  and men þat kepe lawes . </l>
<l> <supplied>A</supplied>nd tolde hem þis teeme  þat I telle thenke . </l>
<l> <supplied>I</supplied><hi><foreign>gnis deuorabit tabernacula eoru<expan>m</expan> qui <app><lem>libent<expan>er</expan></lem></app>.<note>R.3.88: Beta finishes the citation with a phrase omitted by alpha: <foreign>accipiunt munera</foreign>.</note> &c<expan>etera</expan> .</foreign></hi></l>
<l> <supplied>A</supplied>mong<expan>e</expan> þis letterede <app><lem>lede</lem></app><note>R.3.89: R's <hi>lede</hi> (a unique reading) is to be construed as a collective singular (="these lettered folk"); the other B manuscripts witness the plural <hi>ledes</hi>. Both <hi>Ax</hi> and <hi>Cx</hi> attest a completely different word for this alliterative stave: <hi>lordes</hi>.</note>  þis latyn is to mene . </l>
<l> <supplied>Þa</supplied>t feer schal falle and beerne  al to bloo askes . </l>
<l> <supplied>Þe</supplied> houses and þe homes  of hem þat desireth . </l>
<l> <supplied>Ȝif</supplied>tes or ȝereȝiftes  be<seg>-</seg>cause of here <app><lem>office</lem></app> .<note>R.3.92: Beta has the plural, <hi>Offices</hi>.</note> </l>
<l> <supplied>¶ Þe</supplied> kyng fram conseyle cam  and called after mede .</l>
<l> <supplied>And</supplied> ofsent hire alswithe<note>R.3.94: Only L (= <hi>alswythe</hi>) and M (= <hi>alsswythe</hi>) agree precisely with R in attesting this exact phrase and writing it as a single word (cf. manuscript O = <hi>als wythe</hi>, WC = <hi>as swiþe</hi>, and F = <hi>swyþe</hi>). However, both <title>OED2</title> <hi>s. v.</hi> <hi>alswith</hi> and <title>MED</title> in a quotation from the early fourteenth-century <title>King Alexander</title> <hi>s. v.</hi> <hi>certe</hi> and <hi>smert(e)</hi>, attest the phrase's occurrence in this merged form in the fourteenth century, the former in <title>Kyng Alisaunder</title> (<hi>He þonked Kyng Alisaundre þerof, certe, And starf alswiþe, wiþouten smerte</hi>) and the latter in Barbour's <title>Bruce</title> (<hi>His ansuer he tald alswith</hi> VIII. 153). The same a-verse occurs in the <hi>A</hi> version, where the archetypal reading appears to be that found in manuscripts WC of <hi>B</hi>, but one of the oldest of the <hi>A</hi> copies, Vernon, merges the words, reading <hi>aswiþe</hi>. The LMR form is likely to be that of <hi>Bx</hi>.</note>  with seriantes manye . </l>
<l> <supplied>Þat</supplied> brouȝten hire to bowre  with blisse and with ioye . </l>
<l> <supplied>¶ Cur</supplied>teysliche þe kyng þanne  <app><lem>cumseth</lem></app> to telle . </l>
<l> <supplied>To m</supplied>ede þe m<del>o</del><add>a</add>yde  melleth þis wordes . </l>
<l> <supplied>Vnw</supplied>ittiliche wo<expan>m</expan>man  wrouȝt hastow ofte . </l>
<l> <supplied>Ac</supplied><note>R.3.99: The cropped word cannot be supplied with confidence, since F has synonymous <hi>But</hi> in place of beta's <hi>Ac</hi>.</note> wors wrouȝtestow neuere  þan þo þow fals toke . </l>
<l> <supplied>But</supplied> I for<seg>-</seg>gyue þe þat gult<expan>e</expan>  and g<expan>ra</expan>unte þe my grace . </l>
<milestone>fol. 6rI</milestone>
<l> Hennes to þi deth<seg>-</seg>day  <app><lem>to do</lem></app><note>R.3.101: R's <hi>to do</hi> is a unique variant. Most betas read simply <hi>do</hi>; cf. F's <hi>yf þou do</hi>. The same phrase occurs in <hi>A</hi>, where its form agrees with that found in beta.</note> so namore .</l>
<l> <del></del><supplied></supplied> I haue a kniȝt consience  cam late fram by<seg>-</seg>ȝunde . </l>
<l> Ȝif he wilneth þe to wyue  wil<seg>-</seg>tow hym haue .</l>
<l> <del></del><supplied></supplied> Ȝee lord quatz þat lady  lord <app><lem>it me for<seg>-</seg>bede</lem></app> .<note>R.3.104: R's b-verse is unique in the <hi>B</hi> tradition ; F and beta read <hi>lorde forbede elles</hi>, which agrees with <hi>Ax</hi>. However, R's phrasing is identical to that found in <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> </l>
<l> But I be holy at ȝour<expan>e</expan> heste  lete hange me sone . </l>
<l> <del></del><supplied></supplied> And þanne was consience <app><lem>I<seg>-</seg>called</lem></app>  to comen and appere . </l>
<l> By<seg>-</seg>forn þe kyng and his conseyll<expan>e</expan>  as clerkes and other<expan>e</expan> . </l>
<l> <del></del><supplied></supplied> Knelynge consience to þe kyng lowtede . </l>
<l> To wite what his wille were  and what he do schulde . </l>
<l> <del></del><supplied></supplied> Wiltow wedde þis wo<expan>m</expan>man q<expan>uo</expan>d þe kyng  ȝif I wole assente<expan>n</expan> . </l>
<l> For sche <app><lem>is of</lem></app><note>R.3.111: Here R omits a key word; beta reads <hi>is <hi>fayne</hi> of þi felawship</hi>. The fact that F appears to try smoothing this passage (<hi>is of fair shap</hi>) suggests that R's omission was inherited from alpha. Both <hi>Ax</hi> and <hi>Cx</hi> read the phrase as beta does.</note> þi felaschipp<expan>e</expan>  for to be þi make . </l>
<l> <del></del><supplied></supplied> quatz consience <app><lem><sic>to</sic><corr>to [þe]</corr></lem></app> kyng<expan>e</expan>  crist it me for<seg>-</seg>bede . </l>
<l> Er I wedde swich a wif  wo me bytyde .</l>
<l> For sche is frele of hire feyth  and fykel<note>R.3.114: R's <hi>and fykel</hi> is paralleled by Hm and H in the beta tradition; however, beta itself omitted the conjunction. F reads <hi>& fals</hi>. The beta reading agrees with that of <hi>Ax</hi>, but R's phrasing is identical to that found in <hi>Cx</hi> (emended out of the Athlone text by Russell and Kane).</note> of hire speche . </l>
<l> And maketh men mys<seg>-</seg>do  many score tymes . </l>
<l> Trust of hire tresor  treyeth ful manye .</l>
<l> Wyues and wydewes  wantownnesse heo techeth . </l>
<l> And lereth hem lecherie  þat loueth hire ȝiftes . </l>
<l> Ȝoure fader <app><lem>he</lem></app><note>R.3.119: <hi>He</hi>, "she." R's <hi>he</hi>, repeatedly deployed by the scribe in this passage, is uncommon in form among the <hi>B</hi> manuscripts but not substantive; <title>OED2</title>, <hi>s. v.</hi> <hi>heo</hi>, and <title>MED</title>, <hi>s. v.</hi> <hi>he</hi> (pron. 2), indicate that <hi>he</hi> is a variant for <hi>heo</hi> between the twelfth and fifteenth centuries.</note> feelde  þoruȝ <app><lem>faire</lem></app><note>R.3.119: R's <hi>faire</hi> is an alpha variant. Cf. beta's <hi>fals</hi>. The same line occurs in <hi>A</hi>, where the original reading is clearly the same as in beta; however, three <hi>A</hi> witnesses, VHaMa, agree with alpha's variant.</note> beheste . </l>
<l> And hath appoysond popes  and <app><lem>appayreth</lem></app><note>R.3.120: R's present tense for this verb is unique among the <hi>B</hi> copies ; the others show its form as a preterite. However, <hi>Cx</hi> clearly agrees with R's verb form and the <hi>A</hi> manuscripts are split between present and past-tense forms. Cf. see the Introduction <xref>III.2.2.10</xref> on a potential ambiguity of tense marking in R.</note> holy cherche </l>
<l> Is nouȝt a better<expan>e</expan> baude  by hym þat me made . </l>
<l> By<seg>-</seg>twene heuene and helle  and<note>R.3.122: Beta reads <hi>in</hi>, but <hi>Ax</hi> and <hi>Cx</hi> both agree here with the reading of alpha.</note> eerthe þeyȝ men sou<supplied>ȝte</supplied> </l>
<l> For sche is tykil of hire taile  tale<seg>-</seg>wise <app><lem>of</lem></app> tonge<note>R.3.123: R's phrase at the end of this line represents the alpha reading; beta has <hi>talwis of <hi>hir</hi> tonge</hi>. However, <hi>Cx</hi> clearly agrees with alpha's phrasing while the <hi>A</hi> manuscripts are split between the alpha and beta lections.</note> .</l>
<l> As comoun as a carte<seg>-</seg>wey  to ech a knaue þat walketh </l>
<l> To monkes and to menstrales  to mesels in hegges . </l>
<l> Sysours and sompnoures  suche men hire preyseth . </l>
<l> Schirryues of schires  were schent ȝif sche nere . </l>
<l> For sche doth men lese her londe  and here lif bothe .</l>
<l> Sche <app><lem>lat</lem></app><note>R.3.129: R's <hi>lat</hi> is unique in form and appears, at first glance, to be a preterite; the other <hi>B</hi> witnesses show a common present-tense inflection (e.g., LMCrWHmOGF = <hi>leteth</hi>); however, <title>MED</title> attests this form as 3rd sing. pres., and it seems clear that R intends the same meaning as the other <hi>B</hi> manuscripts rather than a preterite (cf. <hi>payeth</hi> later in this line). In the <hi>C</hi> version, <hi>lat</hi> is actually the predominant reading among the X family. A similarly inflected form also appears in several <hi>A</hi> manuscripts. See the Introduction <xref>III.2.2.10</xref> for a full discussion of ambiguities in R's tense marking.</note> passe <app><lem>prisons</lem></app><note>R.3.129: R's <hi>prisons</hi> is uniquely spelled (F and beta read <hi>prisoneres</hi>); however, <title>MED</title>, <hi>s. v.</hi> <hi>prisoun</hi>, verifies that the R form is viable as a variant of the <hi>Bx</hi> word. The plural, <hi>prisons</hi> (= "prisoners"), actually appears in <hi>Bx</hi> at R7.30: <hi>Pore poeple or prisones  fynden hem her<expan>e</expan> fode</hi>. R's form is also found in some <hi>A</hi> witnesses at this point, and is the predominant form in the cognate line of the <hi>C</hi> version.</note>  and payeth for hem ofte . </l>
<l> And gyueth þe gayleres gold  and grotes to<seg>-</seg>gyderes .</l>
<milestone>fol. 6vI</milestone>
<l> To vnfettere þe false  fle where hym lyketh .</l>
<l> And taketh trewthe<note>R.3.132: R's <hi>trewthe</hi> is an alpha variant. Beta has <hi>þe trewe</hi>. Both phrasings occur in the other two versions. They seem almost equally distributed in the <hi>A</hi> copies, while a majority of <hi>C</hi> manuscripts, including the most important members of the X family, agrees with alpha (but a significant minority, especially among the P family, agrees with beta).</note> by þe toppe  and teyeth hym faste . </l>
<l> And hangeth hym for hatrede  þat harme dede neu<expan>er</expan>e .</l>
<l> <supplied></supplied> To be cursed in constorie  <app><lem>he</lem></app><note>R.3.134: <hi>He</hi>, "she."</note> conteth nouȝt a rusche . </l>
<l> For <app><lem>he</lem></app><note>R.3.135: <hi>He</hi>, "she."</note> copeth þe comissarie  and coteth his clerkes . </l>
<l> <app><lem>He</lem></app><note>R.3.136: <hi>He</hi>, "she."</note> is assoyled <orig>assone</orig><reg>as sone</reg>  as hire<seg>-</seg>selue liketh . </l>
<l> And may neiȝ as muche do  in <orig>amoneth</orig><reg>a moneth</reg> ones  </l>
<l> As ȝoure secret seal  in six score dayes . </l>
<l> <supplied></supplied> For <app><lem>he</lem></app><note>R.3.139: <hi>He</hi>, "she."</note> is priue with þe pope  prouisoures it knoweth . </l>
<l> For sire symonye and hir<expan>e</expan><seg>-</seg>selue  sealeth her<expan>e</expan> bulles . </l>
<l> <supplied></supplied> <app><lem>He</lem></app> blisseth þes bisshopes  and prestes <app><lem><orig>am<del>.</del><add>e</add>ynteneth</orig><reg>a m<del>.</del><add>e</add>ynteneth</reg></lem></app> .<note>R.3.141: R's phrasing in this line represents a unique compression of two lines from <hi>Bx</hi>, apparently necessitated by textual loss in alpha since F also improvises at this point. Beta, which here appears to reflect <hi>Bx</hi> better, reads:<lb/>
<hi>She blesseth þise Bisshopes þeiȝe þey be lewed <lb/>
Prouendreth persones, and prestes meynteneth</hi>
Nevertheless, when R and F witness an alpha variant in this last half-line, with their inclusion of a reasserted pronoun (cf. F's <hi>& prestys <hi>she</hi> meynteneþ</hi>), they are presumably attesting <hi>Bx</hi> accurately since both the <hi>A</hi> and <hi>C</hi> versions agree on this point.
<l> To haue <app><lem>lotebies and lemmanes</lem></app><note>R.3.142: R here offers a reversal of the beta phrase, <hi>lemmannes and lotebies</hi>; F uniquely omits <hi>and lotebies</hi>. Both the <hi>A</hi> and <hi>C</hi> versions agree with beta on this phrase.</note>  alle here lif<seg>-</seg>dayes .</l>
<l> And bringen forth barnes  aȝeyne forbode lawes . </l>
<l> <supplied>Þ</supplied>ere <app><lem>he</lem></app><note>R.3.144: <hi>He</hi>, "she."</note> is wel with þe kynge  wo is þe reume . </l>
<l> For <app><lem>he</lem></app><note>R.3.145: <hi>He</hi>, "she."</note> is fau<expan>our</expan>able to þe fals  and fouleth trewth ofte . </l>
<l> <supplied>¶ B</supplied>y ihesus with hire ieweles  <app><lem>þe</lem></app><note>R.3.146: Beta reads <hi>ȝowre</hi>, which agrees with <hi>Ax</hi>. The alpha reading is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> iustices heo schendeth . </l>
<l> <supplied>A</supplied>nd lith aȝeyne þe lawe  and <app><lem>let</lem></app><note>R.3.147: R's <hi>let</hi> is unique; cf. <hi>Bx</hi>'s <hi>letteth</hi>.</note> hym þe gate . </l>
<l> <supplied>Þ</supplied>at feyth may nouȝt haue his forth  hir<expan>e</expan> floreynes go so thikke . </l>
<l> <app><lem><supplied>H</supplied>eo</lem></app> <app><lem>let</lem></app><note>R.3.149: R's <hi>let</hi> is unique; <hi>Bx</hi> has <hi>ledeth</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with <hi>Bx</hi> here. Cf. R's <hi>lat</hi> at <ref>R.3.129:</ref>.</note> þe lawe as hire leste  and louedayes maketh . </l>
<l> <supplied>A</supplied>nd doth men lese thoruȝ hir<expan>e</expan> loue  þat lawe miȝt wynne . </l>
<l> <supplied>Þe</supplied> mase for a mene man  þouȝ he mote hir<expan>e</expan> euere . </l>
<l> <supplied>La</supplied>we is so lordliche  and loth to make ende .</l>
<l> <supplied>Wi</supplied>th<seg>-</seg>owten presentz <app><lem>other</lem></app><note>R.3.153: R's <hi>other</hi> is unique; the other <hi>B</hi> witnesses read <hi>or</hi>. Nevertheless, R's reading may well be original here since it agrees with the majority of <hi>C</hi> witnesses, including the best copies from the X family.</note> pans  <app><lem>he</lem></app><note>R.3.153: <hi>He</hi>, "she."</note> pleseth ful<note>R.3.153: R's <hi>ful</hi> is an alpha variant shared with F; beta has <hi>wel</hi>, which agrees with the lection found in half of the <hi>A</hi> manuscripts. Most of the other <hi>A</hi> copies agree with RF, as does the archetype of the <hi>C</hi> version.</note> fewe . </l>
<l> <supplied>¶ Ba</supplied>rouns and burgeys  heo bringeth in sorwe . </l>
<l> <supplied>An</supplied>d alle þe comou<expan>n</expan> in care  þat coueyten lyf<note>R.3.155: R's <hi>lyf</hi> is unique among the manuscript witnesses of the <hi>B</hi> version but is shared with Cr<hi>2-3</hi>. The other <hi>B</hi> copies read <hi>lyue</hi>.</note> in trewthe . </l>
<l> <supplied>For</supplied> clergise<note>R.3.156: R shares this reading (<hi>clergise</hi> for <hi>Bx</hi>'s <hi>clergye</hi>) with Hm by convergence. The <hi>A</hi> version agrees with the majority <hi>B</hi> reading here.</note> and coueytise  <app><lem>he</lem></app><note>R.3.156: <hi>He</hi>, "she."</note> coupleth to<seg>-</seg>gyderes . </l>
<l> <supplied>Þis</supplied> is þe lyf of þat lady  now lord ȝif hire sorwe . </l>
<l> <supplied>An</supplied>d alle þat meyteneth her<expan>e</expan> men  meschaunce hem bytyde . </l>
<l> <supplied>For</supplied> pore men mow haue no powere  to pleyne he<expan>m</expan> þoȝ þei sm<expan>er</expan>te . </l>
<l> <supplied>Su</supplied>che a maister is mede  amonges men of goode . </l>
<l> <note>R.3.161: Because the left margin has been lost to cropping, it is not possible to be confident that it lacked the parasign that appears in LMWHmO. The scribe frequently fails to skip a line between strophes when the last line falls at the foot of a page.</note> <supplied>Þan</supplied>ne mornede mede  and mened hir<expan>e</expan> to þe kynge . </l>
<milestone>fol. 7rI</milestone>
<l> To haue space to speke  spede ȝif <app><lem>a</lem></app><note>R.3.162: <hi>A</hi>, "she."</note> miȝte .</l>
<l> <hi></hi> Þe kynge graunted hire grace  with a goede wille . </l>
<l> Excuse þe if ȝow canst  I can namore seggen . </l>
<l> For consience acuseth þe  to congey þe for euere . </l>
<l> <del></del><supplied></supplied> Nay lord quatz þat lady  leue hym þe worse . </l>
<l> When ȝe witen witterly  where þe wronge lyggeth . </l>
<l> Þere þat mischief is grete  mede may helpe . </l>
<l> And <app><lem>þat</lem></app><note>R.3.169: Only RF attest <hi>þat</hi>; beta omits it. The <hi>A</hi> version agrees with beta; by contrast, a majority of <hi>C</hi> manuscripts attests the presence of <hi>þat</hi>, but most of these omit <hi>þow</hi>. XIFc read <hi>þat knowestou</hi>.</note> þow knowest consience  I cam nouȝt to chyde . </l>
<l> Ne depraue þi persone  with a proude herte . </l>
<l> Wel þow wost wernard  but if þow wilt gabe . </l>
<l> Þow hast hangen on myn half  elleuen <app><lem>tyme</lem></app><note>R.3.172: R's <hi>tyme</hi> is unique in form, an unmarked plural. Compare <ref>R.3.89:</ref>, <ref>R.10.224:</ref>, and <ref>R.15.407:</ref>). Both <hi>Ax</hi> and <hi>Cx</hi> agree with the ordinary plural of the other <hi>B</hi> manuscripts.</note> .</l>
<l> And al<seg>-</seg>so <app><lem>I<seg>-</seg>gripe</lem></app><note>R.3.173: Beta reads <hi>griped</hi>.</note> my gold  gyue it where þe liked . </l>
<l> And whi þow wrathest þe now  wonder me thenketh . </l>
<l> Ȝet I may as I miȝte  menske þe with ȝiftes . </l>
<l> And mayntene þi manhode . more þanne þow knoweste . </l>
<l> <hi></hi> Ac þow haste famed me foule  by<seg>-</seg>fore þe kyng here . </l>
<l> For kuld I neu<expan>er</expan>e no <app><lem>kniȝt</lem></app><note>R.3.178: R's <hi>kniȝt</hi> is an alpha reading; cf. beta's <hi>kynge</hi>. Both <hi>Ax</hi> and <hi>Cx</hi> agree with beta.</note>  ne conseyled þere<seg>-</seg>after . </l>
<l> Ne dede as þow demest  I do it on þe kynge . </l>
<l> <del></del><supplied></supplied> In normandy was he nouȝt  <app><lem>I<seg>-</seg>nuyed</lem></app> for my sake . </l>
<l> Ac þow þi<seg>-</seg>selue sothelich  schamedest hym ofte . </l>
<l> Crope in<seg>-</seg>to a caban  for cold of þi nayles .</l>
<l> Wendest þat wynter  wold a last<note>R.3.183: R's <hi>last</hi> is matched only by Hm; F and beta read <hi>(y)lasted</hi>. Nevertheless, the <hi>Ax</hi> form agrees with RHm.</note> euere . </l>
<l> And draddest to be dede  for a dym clowde . </l>
<l> And heȝedest homward  for hunger of þi wombe . </l>
<l> <hi></hi> With<seg>-</seg>oute pite pyloure  pouer men þow robbedest . </l>
<l> And bere here bras at þi bak  to caleys to selle . </l>
<l> Þere I lefte with my lord  his lif for to saue . </l>
<l> I made hys men merie  and <app><lem><sic>murnyge</sic><corr>murny[n]ge</corr></lem></app> lette . </l>
<l> I batered hem on þe bak  and bolded here hertes </l>
<l> And dede hem hoppe fore hope  to haue me at wille </l>
<l> Hadde I be marschal of his men  be marie of heue<supplied>ne</supplied></l>
<milestone>fol. 7vI</milestone>
<l> <supplied>I</supplied> durste haue leid my lyf  and no lesse wedde </l>
<l> <supplied>H</supplied>e schuld haue be lord of þat lond  a lenthe and a brede . </l>
<l> <supplied>A</supplied>nd al<seg>-</seg>so kynge of þat kyth  hys kyn for to helpe . </l>
<l> <supplied>Þ</supplied>e leste brol of his <app><lem>lond</lem></app><note>R.3.196: Here alpha's alliteration fails; cf. beta's <hi>blode</hi>, a reading which is also found in <hi>Ax</hi> and <hi>Cx</hi>.</note>  a barounes pere . </l>
<l> <supplied>¶ C</supplied>owardlich þow consience  consayledest hym þennes . </l>
<l> <supplied>T</supplied>o leuen his lordschipp<expan>e</expan>  for a litel siluer . </l>
<l> <supplied>Þ</supplied>at is þe riccheste rewme  þat reyn ouer<seg>-</seg>houeth . </l>
<l> <supplied>¶ I</supplied>t bycometh to a k<del>u</del><add>y</add>ng<expan>e</expan>  þat kepeth a rewme . </l>
<l> To ȝiue mede to men  þat mekeliche hym s<expan>er</expan>ueth . </l>
<l> <supplied>T</supplied>o alyenes and to alle men  to honour<expan>e</expan> hem with ȝiftes .</l>
<l> <supplied>M</supplied>ede maketh hym by<seg>-</seg>loued  and for a man holden . </l>
<l> <supplied>¶ E</supplied>mperoures and erles  and alle maner lordes . </l>
<l> <app><lem><supplied>Þ</supplied>urȝ</lem></app><note>R.3.205: Beta reads <hi>For</hi>, but both <hi>Ax</hi> and <hi>Cx</hi> agree with alpha.</note> ȝiftes han <app><lem>ȝoumen</lem></app><note>R.3.205: Beta's phrase is <hi>ȝonge men</hi>, a reading also found in <hi>Ax</hi>; however, <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with alpha.</note>  to <app><lem>ȝernen</lem></app><note>R.3.205: Here beta reads synonymous <hi>renne</hi>. <hi>Ax</hi> agrees with this non-alliterating reading, as does the P family of the <hi>C</hi> tradition, but the X family clearly agrees with alpha's <hi>ȝernen</hi>, a choice endorsed by both Russell-Kane and Schmidt.</note> and to ride . </l>
<l> <supplied>¶ Þ</supplied>e pope and alle p<expan>re</expan>lates  presentes vnderfongen . </l>
<l> <supplied>A</supplied>nd medeth men hem<seg>-</seg>selue  to meyntene her<expan>e</expan> lawes . </l>
<l> <supplied>¶ Ser</supplied>uantz for here s<expan>er</expan>uise  we seth wel þe sothe . </l>
<l> <supplied>T</supplied>aken mede of her meystres  as þei mowen acorde . </l>
<l> <supplied>Be</supplied>ggeres for here <app><lem>beggyng<expan>e</expan></lem></app>  bydden men mede . </l>
<l> <supplied>M</supplied>instrales for here murthe  mede þei aske  </l>
<l> <supplied>¶ Þe</supplied> kynge hath mede of his men  to make pes i<expan>n</expan> londe .</l>
<l> <supplied>Men</supplied> þat <app><lem>techet</lem></app><note>R.3.213: Here most <hi>B</hi> witnesses (including F) read <hi>teche(n)</hi>. Manuscript C reads <hi>techeþ</hi>, which may be what was intended by R (C's form is used by R on many other occasions). <title>MED</title>, <hi>s. v.</hi> <hi>techen</hi>, acknowledges <hi>techet</hi> as a possible 3rd sing. pres. inflection of <hi>techen</hi>, but the few citations are almost all from the twelfth and thirteenth centuries.</note> children  crauen of hem mede . </l>
<l> <supplied>¶ Pre</supplied>stes þat p<expan>re</expan>che þe poeple  <app><lem>to god</lem></app><note>R.3.214: Here beta reads <hi>gode</hi>, but Hm agrees with alpha, specifically with F (= <hi>of god</hi>). <hi>Ax</hi> agrees with beta.</note> asken mede . </l>
<l> <supplied>An</supplied>d masse<seg>-</seg>pans and here mete  <app><lem>at</lem></app><note>R.3.215: Beta reads <hi>at <hi>þe</hi></hi> while F has <hi>at <hi>here</hi></hi>.</note> meal<seg>-</seg>tymes . </l>
<l> <supplied>¶ Alle</supplied> kynnes crafty men  craue<expan>n</expan> mede for her<expan>e</expan> prentyces . </l>
<l> <supplied>Marc</supplied>hauntz and mede  most nede go to<seg>-</seg>gyderes . </l>
<l> <supplied>No</supplied> wiȝt as I wene  with<seg>-</seg>oute mede may lybbe . </l>
<l> <supplied>¶ Qua</supplied>tȝ þe kyng to consience  by crist as me thenketh . </l>
<milestone>fol. 8rI</milestone>
<l> Mede <app><lem>is</lem></app> worthy<note>R.3.220: Beta reads <hi>wel worþi</hi> while F revises the entire a-verse, producing <hi>Now ys Meede worthy</hi>. <hi>Ax</hi> reads this verse exactly as R does, and though the <hi>C</hi> version introduces a phrasal revision in mid-line, it also omits beta's qualifier before <hi>worthi</hi>, supporting the originality of R's reading.</note>  þe maystrie to haue .<note>R.3.220: The eighth leaf of Rawlinson is slit (part of the same act as the cropping of leaves 1-7) at the right edge of the writing area for a space of some 12.5 cm, from R3.229-49.</note></l>
<l> <hi></hi> Nay quatz consience to þe kyng<expan>e</expan>  and kneled to þe erthe . </l>
<l> Þere arn to maner<expan>e</expan> of medes  my lord <app><lem>by</lem></app><note>R.3.222: Beta reads <hi>with</hi>, but <hi>Ax</hi> agrees with alpha.</note> ȝoure leue .</l>
<unclear>.....</unclear>ratio bonor<expan>um</expan> qui<unclear>.</unclear><lb/>
operans iusticiam</foreign>
<note> In the right margin, in a brown contemporary hand, an early reader left behind this partially legible note.</note>
<l> Þat on god of his grace  graunteth in his blisse . </l>
<l> To þo þat wel werchen  while þei ben here . </l>
<l> Þe p<expan>ro</expan>phite p<expan>re</expan>cheth þere<seg>-</seg>offe  and putte it in þe sauter<note>R.3.225: In the right margin, just inside the ruling, someone has added an oversized punctus for this line in a darker shade of ink than that used by the original scribe.</note></l>
<l> <hi><foreign>D<expan>omi</expan>ne quis h<expan>ab</expan>itabit in tabernaculo tuo . &c<expan>etera</expan> .</foreign></hi> </l>
<l> Lord who schal wonie in þi wones  <app><lem>with</lem></app><note>R.3.227: Beta reads <hi>and with</hi>; the line does not appear in either <hi>A</hi> or <hi>C</hi>.</note> þi holy seyntes . </l>
<l> Or resten <app><lem>on</lem></app><note>R.3.228: The alpha reading is here confirmed by LM, but the other beta copies show <hi>in</hi>.</note> þin holy hilles  þis <app><lem>asked</lem></app><note>R.3.228: Beta shows the present form, <hi>asketh</hi>.</note> dauid . </l>
<l> <del></del><supplied></supplied> And dauid assoyleth it hym<seg>-</seg>selue  as þe sauter telleth . </l>
psal xiv<note>R.3.230: The appropriate scriptural reference has been inscribed in the right margin by an early reader.</note>
<l> <hi><foreign>Qui ingreditur sine macula  & operatur iusticiam .</foreign></hi></l>
<l> Þoo þat entren of o colour<expan>e</expan>  and of one wille . </l>
<l> And haue I<seg>-</seg>wrouȝt werkes  with riȝt and with resou<expan>n</expan> . </l>
<l> And he þat ne vseth nauȝt  þe lyue of vsurie . </l>
<l> And enformeth pouer<expan>e</expan> men  and pursueth trewthe .</l>
<unclear>mor<space>  </space>wm</unclear><note>R.3.235: In the right margin are the remains of what appears to have been a pen trial.</note>
<l> <hi><foreign>Qui pecunia<expan>m</expan> sua<expan>m</expan> no<expan>n</expan> dedit ad vsura<expan>m</expan> & mun<expan>er</expan>a sup<expan>er</expan> innoc<expan>entem</expan> . &c<expan>etera</expan> .</foreign></hi> </l>
<l> And alle þat helpeth þe innocent  and holt with þe riȝtful . </l>
<l> With<seg>-</seg>oute mede doth hem goed  and þe <app><lem>trewe</lem></app><note>R.3.237: Beta reads <hi>trewthe</hi>.</note> helpeth : </l>
Richard<note> A sixteenth-century reader has recorded a pen trial, written vertically downwards in the right margin.</note>
<l> Suche man<expan>er</expan> men my lorde  schal haue þis furste mede .</l>
<l> Of god at a grete nede  whanne þei gon hennes . </l>
<l> <hi></hi> Þere is an<seg>-</seg>other<expan>e</expan> mede mesurles  þat maystres desireth . </l>
<l> To meytene misdoeres  mede þei take . </l>
<l> And þere<seg>-</seg>offe seith þe sauter  in a salmes ende . </l>
<l> <hi><foreign>In quor<expan>um</expan> manib<expan>us</expan> iniquitates sunt  dext<expan>ra</expan> eor<expan>um</expan> repleta e<expan>st</expan> mun<expan>er</expan>ib<expan>us</expan> .</foreign></hi></l>
<l> And he þat gripeth her<expan>e</expan> gold  so me god helpe . </l>
<l> Schal abye it ful bitter<expan>e</expan>  or þe book lyeth . </l>
<l> <del></del><supplied></supplied> Prestes and persones  þat plesinge desireth .</l>
<l> Þat <app><lem>taked</lem></app> mede and mone  for masses þat þei <app><lem>songen</lem></app> .<note>R.3.247: R's past-tense verbs in this line are unique; all other <hi>B</hi> manuscripts use present-tense forms. Cf. see the Introduction <xref>III.2.2.10</xref> on R's problematic tense marking. Both the <hi>A</hi> and <hi>C</hi> versions of this line agree with <hi>Bx</hi> on these verbs being in the present tense.</note></l>
<l> Taketh here mede her<expan>e</expan>  as mathew vs techeth . </l>
<l> <hi><foreign>Amen amen recipiebant mercedem suam .</foreign></hi> </l>
<l> <hi></hi> Þat laboreres and <app><lem>lewed</lem></app> folke  taketh of here meystres .</l>
<milestone>fol. 8vI</milestone>
<l> It <app><lem>nis</lem></app><note>R.3.251: The negative verb is unique to R; all other <hi>B</hi> manuscripts read <hi>is</hi>.</note> no maner mede  but a mesurable hire .</l>
<l> <hi></hi> In marchaundise is no mede  I may it wel a<seg>-</seg>vowe . </l>
<l> It is<note>R.3.253: Beta reads <hi><hi>a</hi> permutacioun</hi>. This is also the reading found in the other two versions.</note> <app><lem>permutacion</lem></app> apertly  a peny<seg>-</seg>worth for another . </l>
<l> <del></del><supplied></supplied> Ac reddestow neuer<expan>e</expan> <foreign>Regu<expan>m</expan></foreign>  þow recrayede mede . </l>
<l> Whi þe vengaunce fel  on saul and on his children . </l>
<l> God sente to saul  by samuel þe p<expan>ro</expan>phete . </l>
<l> Þat agag of amalec  <app><lem>and</lem></app><note>R.3.257: In the <hi>B</hi> tradition, R uniquely omits <hi>al</hi> before the phrase <hi>his poeple</hi>. However, though <hi>Ax</hi> reads the phrase exactly as the <hi>B</hi> majority, a significant, closely interrelated set of <hi>A</hi> manuscripts (TDChH<hi>2</hi>) also omits <hi>al</hi> at this point. The same phenomenon can be seen among the <hi>C</hi> witnesses, a small minority reading with R while most agree with F/beta.</note> his poeple after .</l>
<l> Schulde deye for a dede  þat don hadde here elderes . </l>
<l> <hi></hi> For<seg>-</seg>thi sayde samuel to saul  god hym<seg>-</seg>selue hoteth . </l>
<l> Þe be buxu<expan>m</expan> at <app><lem>my</lem></app><note>R.3.260: Beta reads <hi><hi>his</hi> biddynge</hi>, which is also the reading found in the <hi>A</hi> version, but the <hi>C</hi> text agrees with alpha's <hi>my</hi>.</note> byddynge  his will<expan>e</expan> to fulfille . </l>
<l> Wend to amalec with þin host  and what þow fynst þer<expan>e</expan> slee it . </l>
<l> Bernes and bestes  brenne hem to dede . </l>
<l> Wydewes and wyues  wommen and chyldren . </l>
<l> Mebles and vnmebles  and al þat þow miȝt fynde . </l>
<l> Brenne it bere it nauȝt a<seg>-</seg>way  be it neu<expan>er</expan>e so riche . </l>
<l> For mede ne for mone  loke þow destruye it . </l>
<l> Spille it and spare it nauȝt  þow schalt spede þe bett<expan>er</expan>e .</l>
<l> <del></del><supplied></supplied> And for he coueytede her<expan>e</expan> catel  and þe kyng spared . </l>
<l> For<seg>-</seg>bare hym and his bestes bothe  as þe bible wytnesseth . </l>
<l> Otherwise þan he was  warned of þe p<expan>ro</expan>phete . </l>
<l> God seyde to samuel  þat saul schulde deye . </l>
<l> And alle his seed for þat synne  schentfulliche <app><lem>endede</lem></app> .<note>R.3.272:The RF usage of past tense here (beta = <hi>ende</hi>) reflects alpha and is shared by convergence with Hm. Though both <hi>A</hi> and <hi>C</hi> traditions attest—in isolated manuscripts—preterite forms for this verb, it is obvious that the beta uninflected base form is archetypal in both of the poem's other versions.</note> </l>
<l> Suche a meschief mede made  saul þe kyng to haue . </l>
<l> Þat god hated hym for euere  and alle his heires after . </l>
<l> <hi></hi> Þe <foreign>culoru<expan>m</expan></foreign> of þis cas  kepe I nouȝt to schewe . </l>
<l> <app><lem>Aunter</lem></app><note>R.3.276: Beta opens this line with <hi>An auenture</hi>; F begins it with <hi>For hap</hi>. The witness of the other two versions is in favor of <hi>An aunter</hi>.</note> it nuyed men  non eende wille I make . </l>
<l> For so is þis worlde went  with hem þat han power<expan>e</expan> .</l>
<l> Þat who<seg>-</seg>so seyth hem sothes  is sonnest I<seg>-</seg>blamed . </l>
<l> <del></del><supplied></supplied> I consience knowe þis  for kynde witt me it tauuȝte . </l>
<l> Þat <app><lem><sic>rosoun</sic><corr>r[e]soun</corr></lem></app> schal regne  and rewmes gouerne . </l>
<supplied>And riȝt as agag hadde</supplied>
<milestone>fol. 9rI</milestone>
<l> And riȝt as agag hadde  happe schulle so<expan>m</expan>me .<note> The ninth leaf of Rawlinson is slit (part of the same act as the cropping of leaves 1-7) at the right edge of the writing area for a space of some 10 cm, from R3.296-309.</note></l>
<l> Samuel schal scleen hym  and saul schal be blamed . </l>
<l> And dauid schal be diademed  and dau<expan>n</expan>ten hem alle . </l>
<l> And on cristene kyng  kepen hem alle . </l>
<l> <hi></hi> Schal namore mede  be mayster as <app><lem>he</lem></app><note>R.3.285: Alpha's <hi>he</hi> does not differ substantively from beta; <hi>he</hi> is a variant of <hi>heo</hi>, "she." See note at <ref>R.3.119:</ref>.</note> is nowthe . </l>
I<note>R.3.286: In the extreme right margin, beyond the pricking, is what appears to a modern eye to be a barred <add>9</add>, probably an <I> or <Q> in this hand, though it is unclear what it signifies.</note>
<l> Ac loue and lowenesse  and lewte to<seg>-</seg>gyderes .</l>
<l> Þese schul be maystres on molde  trewthe to saue .</l>
<l> <del></del><supplied></supplied> And hoo<seg>-</seg>so trespaseth aȝeynes trewthe  or taketh aȝeynes his wille . </l>
<l> Lewte schal don hym lawe  and no lif elles . </l>
<l> Schal no seriaunt for here s<expan>er</expan>uise  were a silk howue . </l>
<l> Ne non pelure in his clook  for pledyng atte barre . </l>
<l> Mede of mysdoeres  maketh many lordes . </l>
<l> And ouer lordes lawes  reuleth þe realmes . </l>
<l> <hi></hi> Ac kende loue schal come ȝut  and consience to<seg>-</seg>gydere . </l>
<l> And make of lawe a laborer<expan>e</expan>  suche loue schal aryse . </l>
<l> And suche <app><lem>pees</lem></app><note>R.3.296: Beta reads <hi>such <hi>a</hi> pees</hi>; the <hi>C</hi> version agrees with alpha.</note> amonge þe poeple  and a parfit trewth . </l>
<l> Þat Iuwes schal wene in her<expan>e</expan> witt  and wexen wonder glade .</l>
<l> Þat moyses or messye  be come in<seg>-</seg>to þis eerthe . </l>
<l> And haue wonder in her<expan>e</expan> hertes  þat men beth so trewe . </l>
<l> <del></del><supplied></supplied> Alle þat bereth baslard  brode<seg>-</seg>swerde or launce . </l>
<l> Ax other hachet  or eny wepne elles . </l>
<l> Schal be demed to þe deth  but ȝif he do it smythye . </l>
<l> Into sycul or to sythe  to schare or to culter<expan>e</expan> . </l>
<l> <hi><foreign><hi>C</hi>onflabunt gladios suos in vomeres &c<expan>etera</expan> .</foreign></hi></l>
<l> Ich man to pleye with <orig>aplow</orig><reg>a plow</reg>  pycoys or spade . </l>
<l> Spynne <app><lem>other</lem></app><note>R.3.306: R's <hi>other</hi> is unique; the remaining <hi>B</hi> witnesses attest <hi>or</hi>.</note> sprede dong  or <app><lem>lese</lem></app><note>R.3.306: This non-alliterating third stave (<hi>lese</hi> for <hi>Bx</hi>'s <hi>spille</hi>) is an alpha reading.</note> hym<seg>-</seg>self with slewthe . </l>
<l> <hi></hi> <hi>P</hi>restes and persones  with <foreign>placebo</foreign> to hunte . </l>
<l> And dyngen vppon dauid  vch a day til eue .</l>
<l> Huntynge or haukynge  ȝif any of hem vse . </l>
<l> His boste of his benefice  worth by<seg>-</seg>no<expan>m</expan>me hym after . </l>
<l> Schal neyther kyng ne kniȝt  constable ne meyre . </l>
<milestone>fol. 9vI</milestone>
<l> Ouer<seg>-</seg>lede þe comune  ne to þe court sompne .</l>
<l> Ne putte hem in panel  to don hem pliȝt here trewthe . </l>
<l> But after þe dede þat is don  on dom schal rewarde . </l>
<l> Mercy <app><lem><sic>or no mercy or no mercy</sic><corr>or no mercy</corr></lem></app>  as trewthe wil acorde . </l>
<l> <hi></hi> Kynges court and comune court  constorie and chapitele . </l>
<l> Alle schal be but on court  and on baron be iustice . </l>
<l> Þanne worth trewe tonge  a tydy man þat tened me neuere</l>
<l> Batayles schul non be  ne noman ber<expan>e</expan> wepne . </l>
<l> And what smyth þat any <app><lem>smithie</lem></app><note>R.3.320: R's <hi>smithie</hi> is the alpha variant; most of the beta copies attest either <hi>smyþeþ</hi> (e.g., WO) or <hi>smyteth</hi> (LC).</note>  be smiten þer<expan>e</expan><seg>-</seg>with to <app><lem>dede</lem></app><note>R.3.320: R's <hi>dede</hi> is a unique variant, but its meaning is identical to the common reading (<hi>dethe</hi>) found in other witnesses, both from the <hi>B</hi> and the <hi>C</hi> traditions.</note> . </l>
<l> <hi><foreign>Non leuabit gens contra gentem gladiu<expan>m</expan> &c<expan>etera</expan> .</foreign></hi> </l>
<l> <del></del><supplied></supplied> And er<expan>e</expan> þis fortune falle  fynde men schal þe werste . </l>
<l> By six sonnes and a schipp<expan>e</expan>  and half a schef of arwes . </l>
<l> And þe meddel of a mone  schal make þe Iewes <app><lem>torne</lem></app><note>R.3.324: Cf. beta's <hi>Iewes <hi>to</hi> torne</hi>; but the <hi>C</hi> reading clearly agrees with alpha's omission of <hi>to</hi>.</note> . </l>
<l> And sarasyns for <app><lem>þe siȝte þer<expan>e</expan><seg>-</seg>offe</lem></app><note>R.3.325: R's <hi>þe siȝte þere<seg>-</seg>offe</hi> reflects alpha; cf. beta's <hi>þat siȝte</hi>. The <hi>C</hi> reading is identical to beta's.</note>  schul synge <foreign>gl<expan>or</expan>ia i<expan>n</expan> excelsis</foreign> . </l>
<l> For makomet and mede  myshappe schal þat tyme . </l>
<l> <hi>For <foreign>melius est bonu<expan>m</expan> nome<expan>n</expan> q<expan>ua</expan>m diuicie multe .</foreign></hi> </l>
<l> <hi></hi> Also wroth as þe wynde  wex mede in a while  </l>
<l> I <app><lem>can</lem></app> latyn<note>R.3.329: R's omission of the negative in this phrase is unique among the extant <hi>B</hi> manuscripts but is shared by convergence with Cr<hi>3</hi>.</note> quatz sche  clerkes wote þe sothe . </l>
<l> See what salomon seith  in <app><lem>sapiences</lem></app><note>R.3.330: R's genitive <hi>sapiences</hi> is unique; F and beta both attest the unmarked possessive form.</note> bokes .</l>
<l> Þat hij þat ȝiueth ȝiftes  þe victorie wynneth . </l>
<l> And muche wurchip haad þer<expan>e</expan>with  as holy writt telleth . </l>
<l> <hi><foreign>Honorem adquiret qui dat <app><lem>mun<expan>er</expan>a</lem></app> .</foreign></hi></l>
<l> <del></del><supplied></supplied> I leue wel lady q<expan>uo</expan>d consience  þat þi latyn be <app><lem><sic>trowe</sic><corr>tr[e]we</corr></lem></app> . </l>
<l> Ac þow art lyk a lady  þat radde a lesson ones . </l>
<l> Was <foreign>o<expan>mn</expan>ia p<expan>ro</expan>bate</foreign>  and þat plesede hire herte . </l>
<l> For þat lyne was no lenger<expan>e</expan>  atte þe <orig>leuesende</orig><reg>leues ende</reg> . </l>
<l> Had sche loked þat other half  and þe lef <app><lem>I<seg>-</seg>turned</lem></app><note>R.3.338: R's <hi>I<seg>-</seg>turned</hi> reflects an alpha reading; cf. beta's <hi>torned</hi>. The <hi>Cx</hi> reading is identical to beta's.</note> . </l>
<l> <app><lem>Heo</lem></app> schulde <app><lem>a</lem></app><note>R.3.339: R's <hi>a</hi> is unique in form but represents the same semantic element as the majority's <hi>haue</hi>.</note> founde fele wordes  folwyng þer<expan>e</expan><seg>-</seg>after . </l>
<l> <hi><foreign>Quod bonu<expan>m</expan> est tenete</foreign>  trewthe þat tixt made .</hi> </l>
<l> <hi></hi> And so ferd ȝe ma<seg>-</seg>dame  ȝe coude namore fynde .</l>
<l> Þo ȝe loked on sapience  sittynge in ȝour<expan>e</expan> stodie . </l>
<milestone>fol. 10rI</milestone>
<l> Þis tixt þat ȝe haue <app><lem>Itolde</lem></app>  were goed for lordes .<note> The tenth leaf of Rawlinson is slit (part of the same act as the cropping of leaves 1-7) at the right edge of the writing area for a space of some 4 cm, from R4.12-18.</note></l>
<l> Ac ȝow failede a cu<expan>n</expan>nyng clerk  þat coude þe lef <orig>attorned</orig><reg>a torned</reg><note>R.3.344: <hi>a</hi>, "have."</note> . </l>
<l> And if ȝe seke sapience eft  fynde schal ȝe þat foleweth . </l>
<l> A ful teneful tixt  to hem þat taketh mede . </l>
<l> And þat is <foreign>a<expan>n</expan>i<expan>m</expan>am aute<expan>m</expan> aufert <app><lem>accipientiu<expan>m</expan></lem></app></foreign><note>R.3.347: After this Latin tag (completely omitted by F), beta adds <hi>&c.</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with R in omitting it.</note> . </l>
<l> And þat is þe taile of þe tixt  of þat þ<expan>a</expan>t ȝe <app><lem>schede</lem></app><note>R.3.348: R's <hi>schede</hi> is unique in form but probably represents the same intention as beta's <hi>schewed</hi> (F omits the entire line). Nevertheless, neither <title>MED</title>, <hi>s. v.</hi> <hi>sheuen</hi> (v. 1), nor <title>OED2</title>, <hi>s. v.</hi> <hi>show</hi>, acknowledges R's form as a viable inflected spelling for the verb in question.</note> . </l>
<l> Þat þow we wynne worchipe  and with <app><lem>me</lem></app><note>R.3.349: Alpha introduced the error of <hi>me</hi> for original <hi>mede</hi>.</note> haue victorie . </l>
<l> Þe soule þat þe <app><lem>souȝd</lem></app> taketh  be so muche is bounde . </l>