. raPassus quintus de visione petri plowman . vt sup
AndR.5.8: R uniquely omits before so I and replaces the presumably original babeled with on ; cf. F's vppon. y bablede so on omits this passage, but in the C version it reads as in the beta manuscripts of A. B babeled vppon my bedes þei brouȝt me a-slepe .
pruydeR.5.15: R's phrase here is that of alpha (cf. F's virtually indentical wording); the beta copies read pryde pure. The and A versions both agree with alpha. C and for no poynt elles .Was perteliche for
AndR.5.17: is an alpha variant (cf. F's somewhat different rendering of this line), but it is not present in the beta manuscripts, nor is it attested in the manuscripts of the other versions at this point. And in ensaumple ȝee segges ȝee schulden do þe bette . er
AndR.5.19: is an alpha variant completely unattested in beta copies (which begin the line with And. However, the alpha reading of this line opening agrees exactly with that of the other two versions. Torned turned vpward here taile R.5.19: Alpha omits beta's before in. Both the tokenynge and A versions agree at this point with beta. C to kenyngetokenynge of drede .
He bad wastour ¶toR.5.24: R's is unique among the to manuscripts. The others read B, which is also the reading of the go version and of the P family of A witnesses. However, the X family agrees with R's reading. C werche what he best coude .
maner m ecrastyscra[f]tys .R.5.25: R's , is probably an alpha error (cf. beta's crastys and F's reconstructed crafte). The phrase is omitted from werkys, but the C witnesses support beta's rendering. AAnd wynnen his wastinge with so
¶ Thomme stouue he tauȝte to take to ¶stones .R.5.28: R's is unique. The other stones manuscripts, as well as the other versions, read B. staues
R.5.31: HmGCotH join R in omitting from the final phrase of this line (witnessed by F and most beta copies as worth a grote worth. The majority of nouȝte witnesses agrees with this A majority in attesting the word, but RaUChJEK agree with Rawlinson 38 in omitting it. So do all but two of the B witnesses. C .Þat hire hed was worth half marke his hode nauȝt a grote
¶ ¶AndR.5.32: R uniquely omits the verb before bad here. bet bet cutte a bow other tweye .
And þanne he charged chapmen to chaste ¶R.5.34: The uncovered final <e> makes R's reading unmetrical. R's verb form is unique among the witnesses; some beta manuscripts have B. However, R's form is attested in some copies of both chastize(n) and A. Likewise, some of the C witnesses agree with beta. The A form appears to have been Cx, quite possibly the reading of Bx, since it is also the reading of LCrCG. chasten hire childerne .
-wanyen þeforR.5.35: R uniquely omits 's Bx at the end of the a-verse and uniquely adds hem at the head of the b-verse. However, the addition of þe is paralleled in the X family of þe manuscripts. C while þei ben ȝonge .Late no wynnynge
-so spareth þe sprynge he spillethR.5.42: Beta omits . Although three he manuscripts include the pronoun, it seems clear that C read here as beta does. Cx his childern .Ho
¶ued ropAnd sitthen he R.5.43: R's ued ro is unique and presumably results from scribal anticipation of pue ro in the next line; beta reads p (which is confirmed by both the preyed and A versions) while F completely rewrites the line. C latz and prestes to re-gyderes .p
treson weretreson [n]ereIt is þi tresor if R.5.51: R uniquely drops the negative. and triacle at þi nede .
¶ And siþþen he preyed þe ¶popeR.5.52: The word has been partially erased, though the original reading is visible. The erasure is very old but not the work of the original scribe. pope haue pite on holy cherche .
HeR.5.68: , "she." He scluldesc[h]ulde vnsowen hire serke and setten þere an haire .
For þisR.5.73: Beta's phrase is þis al. F has For þ(a)t." For I haue -hatedI in myn herte .
on þe dayR.5.76: Cf. beta's and F's þe saterday. The euery day version is completely revised at this point, but the C reading agrees completely with that of beta. A seuen ȝer þere-after .With þat he schulde
he cumsed to mea culpaschreweschre[u]e .R.5.79: R's error, , was not a misreading for schrewe (the beta variant) but for shewe, the alpha reading (cf. F's schreue). The shryve reading agrees with that of beta. AAnd carfulliche
clutedR.5.81: This is a unique R reading ( = Bx). According to clothed, MED s. v. (v. 1), the form is the past participle of clouten, which usually means "to mend" but here and in a few other documented instances clearly signifies "to wear patched or ragged clothes." clouten in a -mauritauri-mauri[c]auriR.5.81: R, probably by coincidence, shares the <c/t> confusion with Bm. I coude nauȝt itR.5.81: R reverses this phrase, which in the other manuscripts (as well as the B version) reads A. it nouȝte descriue .And
frereR.5.83: R's uninflected form, , is unique in the frere version. The other copies have B. However, five freres-version manuscripts (DJLaEN) agree with R's unmarked genitive. A frokke were hisR.5.83: In place of alpha's , beta reads his. þe is unclear on this point, a majority agreeing with beta, but a large minority (HaLaEAKWa) agreeing with alpha. Ax fore-sleues .Of a
wryngyed withR.5.87: Beta reads . F has wryngynge he ȝede. hise hondis he wrong þe fist to wreke hym-self he thouȝte .And
an addreR.5.89: Beta shows a genitive, or addres. Neddres tonge .Eche word þat he warp was of
withR.5.91: This line's second is a unique addition in R. with bysmere and berynge of fals wytnesse .With bagbityng and
-soalR.5.98: R's is unique; cf. al-so's Bx. made his frendes ben his fon þoruȝ my fals tonge .And
-twene mayne and mayneR.5.100: The form is the R scribe's spelling for mayne, "household" (see also meineR.16.247:). In F the a-verse reads n; most beta manuscripts have By-twixe hym & manye me. Though Bitwene many and many lists the head form as MED, meine notes that by the opening of the fifteenth century the word was sometimes spelled OED, which appears to have been beta's intention. Its authenticity is also supported by a cognate line from the many version, where the phrase reads Ameyne. Betwyn hym & his I make debate ofte .By
¶ And whan I come to ¶þechercheþe chercheR.5.106: HmF agree with R in reading , but they omit the article. The beta reading, cherche (also the reading of the kirke tradition), fits the alliterative pattern of the line; A was the alpha reading, shared by convergence with Hm. cherche and schulde knele to þe rode .
onR.5.112: R's is an alpha addition unattested in beta or in the on version. A a newe coteAnd beholde how heleyne hath
R.5.113: Here the scribe omits his usual line break before a new verse paragraph, presumably because he has reached the end of a side.I wysche þenne it were myn and alle þe web after .
¶ And of ¶hisR.5.114: R's is a unique reading among the his manuscripts (both F and beta attest B). However, it is clear that mennes reads as R does. Ax lesynge I lawhe þat lyketh myn herte .
Ac for his wynnygewynny[n]geR.5.115: At the beginning of this phrase, R's is unique among the Ac manuscripts but is also the reading of B; by contrast, F has Ax and beta reads But). As for And (an alpha variant contrasting to beta's his), a majority of hir witnesses agree with RF. A I wepe and wayle þe tyme .
And deme ¶menR.5.116: R's is unique; F substitutes men while beta omits it altogether. However, in a slightly different phrase found in the cognate hem line ( A), we find unambiguous support for R's reading. I deme men þere hy don ille þat hij don ylle þere I do wel worse .
inR.5.121: Cf. R's to F's in and beta's ys; it is unclear what the alpha reading was. The of reading agrees with beta. A my galle .Þat alle my body bolneth for bytter
I am ¶eeuerR.5.129: Beta omits . This omission is also found in the euere version, but the A version agrees with alpha and includes the qualifier. C sory qd þat segg uo I am but selde other . e
aredyR.5.133: Beta reads , and F has redy. Some ful redy copies agree with beta, but C agrees with R's form, Cx. aredy .Whan he solde and I nauȝt þanne was I
wareR.5.134: R's is the alpha reading; cf. beta's ware. chaffare .To lye and to loure on my neyȝbore and to lakken his
¶ Now ¶waketh wrotheR.5.136: R's is unique (most of the other witnesses have waketh). Likewise, R's spelling of the following noun (= awaketh, but rendered as wrothe or Wraþe by most of the others) is unique among the wratthe copies—cf. the same spelling at R5.138 (at which point F and the X family of B concur with R's form). According to C, OED2 s. v., and wrath, MED s. v., this spelling is a late adaptation from the adjective wroth, = "angry." Nominal usage is also found in a manuscript of Gower's wroth (at 3.217) and in the Trinity manuscript of the Confessio-version (at 5.66). A with to white eyȝes .
I am ¶wrotheR.5.138: R's is a relatively uncommon spelling for this word (cf. R5.136 above), but it is also attested in F and among the X family of wrothe. Beta and the P family of C witness the more usual spellings (e.g, W's C). wraþe quatz he I was sutyme a frere . m
couentR.5.139: R's uninflected form is unique; F and beta read a normal genitive, . On the other hand, the R scribe may have taken the phrase couentese as a compound noun. couent gardiner gardiner for to graffe ympes . eAnd þe
blosmedR.5.142: The beta phrase, which has the advantage of alliterating properly, is . blosmed obrode in boure to here schriftes .And sitthe þei
schriftes etil hem þan schriuen hem tilR.5.144: Both of R's uses of in this line are unique; F and beta read til in the first instance. F revises the b-verse substantially (so as to be unsuitable for comparison), but beta again deploys to. to her p esones . erSchewen her
fyndenR.5.147: The agreement of RF in omitting the first stave of this line ( in beta) indicates that the error derives from alpha. freres hem in defaute as folke bereth witnesse .And
hymR.5.149: R's is unique and obviously an error; F and beta read the plural hym, which agrees with all of the surrounding context, including another pronoun reference later in this same line. hem and wisse hem of my bokes .I wrathe walke with
¶ I haue ¶anaunte to nonne and an an aunteabbesseR.5.155: Beta adds at the end of this line. The bothe version, however, agrees with alpha in omitting it. C .
alse .R.5.158: R's is unique; the other alse manuscripts read B. The bothe reading agrees with that of the C majority. BMany monthes with hem and with monkes
Of wikked wordes I wrathe here wortes I ¶-madeR.5.164: Only RLOC have the metrically necessary dissyllabic form from OE 2. F has a recomposed line, and other gemacian manuscripts have B. made .
¶ Seynt gregorie was a goed pope and hadde a goed forwitte ¶R.5.168: In this verse paragraph and the next, the scribal hand becomes noticeably smaller, and yet the 36-line ruling is unchanged from the previous leaf.
ȝeet amR.5.176: R's is a unique addition to this line, as witnessed in the other ȝeet manuscripts. However, it is also clearly attested in the B version. C chalenged in þe chapitelhous .And
achild were a childR.5.177: R's line division here is unique and obviously an error; F, beta, and the version read this phrase as the end of the preceding line . C As I
hers bakR.5.178: R's cancelled reading, , is the hers original. F agrees with R's "corrected" and euphemized reading, Bx, but the bak version agrees with the C original. Bx and no breche by-twene .And baleysed on þe bare
R.5.180: The final <e> of is blotted. feble ale drinke .I ete þere vnthende fissh and feble
Ac other ¶-while whan wyn cometh whan I drynke welR.5.181: Beta reads . wyn at euen .
R.5.184: R uniquely omits a determiner after . A majority of beta copies, and F, read alle here while LMCrW attest þe. owre agrees with F and the beta majority. Cx couent wot it .I couthe it in oure cloystre þat alle
þat þow knoweste by contenance ne by especheR.5.186: R and F agree with the version in attesting C as this line's final stave. By contrast, beta reads speche at this point. riȝte .Conseill
Esto sobrius he seyde and so heR.5.189: R's is a unique addition to the text witnessed by both so he and Bx. Cx assoyled me after .
hisR.5.198: For alpha's , beta reads his. The an reading agrees with alpha. C hode on his hed a lousy hatt aboue .With
lepe þe bette . erR.5.201: All the manuscripts are corrupt, presumably losing most of the original b-verse: B. RF omit But if (þat) a lous couthe (haue lopen / lepen) þe bettre and avoid the perfect tense. F's reading for this line is unique in other ways as well. The þat-version reading for this line's second half is uncertain, with considerable variation between witnesses. Kane chose A. The I may it nouȝt leue b-verse has the appearance of a feeble patch rather than a common original: C. y leue and y troweBut if a lous coude
He ne schulde nouȝt walkeR.5.202: Cf. beta's . Evidence from the She sholde nouȝte haue walked and A versions suggests that archetypal C was already misreading the first verb in this line (= B in wandre and A). Though most C manuscripts attest the line's opening as C, manuscripts X and P He sholde here agree with R's version of the opening phrase, 2. Among the He ne schulde copies, the same pattern is apparent, with most opting for some form of A but with ChRaU paralleling R's double-negative syntax. he shulde on þat welsch so was it thredebar . e
-pliȝt his pfit to wayte . roR.5.205: R omits his customary blank line between strophes at the juncture of ll. 205-06, presumably because the latter is to fill the last line ruled for this side.And was his prentis I
-go amonge my ware .R.5.210: The alpha variant is supported by LM, but most beta copies read ware. However, as is often the case with such splits, both chaffare and Ax support the LMRF variant. CxNe hadde þe grace of gyle I
rayeresR.5.214: R's , "a maker or seller of striped cloth," is a unique variant among rayeres witnesses; B reads Bx. The same variant occurs in manuscript Uc of the rayes version, but both C and Ax clearly attest the same word here as the Cx majority. For other citations of this R form, see B, MED s. v.. raier I rendred a lessou . nAmonge þe riche
batnedelR.5.215: Most beta manuscripts read , but L (and perhaps M originally, which has been corrected to paknedle by erasure and writeover) supports alpha's pak. The majority of batnedel witnesses agrees with beta, but manuscripts AE agree with alpha's lection. A is also the reading of the best Batnedel manuscripts (though most of the P family copies agree with the common beta reading). C and playted hem to-gyderes .To brochen hem with a
Heo spak to a spinnesterR.5.219: Beta reads , which is also the reading of spynnesteres. The Cx reading is uncertain since the singular and plural forms are both well attested among extant copies. Ax to spynne it oute . n
d þat heo payed by peysed a nquarterR.5.220: Beta reads , but quarteroun and Ax confirm alpha's lection. Cx more .Ac þe pou
I bouȝte hire ¶barlyR.5.222: Beta and F read , but both barly malte and Ax confirm R's reading. Cx heo brewe it to selle .
¶ Þe best ¶of alleR.5.225: R's is unique; F and beta read of alle. Among the ale manuscripts, the P family omits this lection entirely (as does the cognate line in C), while the X family agrees with the reading of F and beta. A lay in my boure or in my bedde-chaumbre .
-so meth mbuR.5.226: R is the only manuscript to render this verb in the present tense (but see the Introduction B on R's—and alpha's—possibly ambiguous tense marking); the others read III.2.2.10. Both bummed and Ax agree with the majority Cx reading. B þere-offe he bouȝte it þere-after .And ho
-mele þis crafte my wif vseth .R.5.228: The present-tense marking represents alpha's reading (but cf. see the Introduction on R's—and alpha's—possibly ambiguous tense marking); cf. beta's III.2.2.10. Both vsed and Ax agree with beta. CxAnd ȝet it com in coppe
isR.5.229: The present-tense marking represents alpha's reading; cf. beta's . Both was and Ax agree with beta. Cx hire riȝte name .Rose þe regrater
Heo hath -holdeIR.5.230: Cf. beta's . holden and A witnesses show a mixture of verb forms here, but the P family of C agrees with alpha's form. C hokkarie alle hire lif-tyme .
¶ Repentedest þow euere q ¶d repentau uoce ne nR.5.235: Among the manuscripts, only LM support R's B; most beta copies read ne and F has or. However, & clearly agrees with the LMR reading. Cx restitucion madest .
-reste and I-rifledR.5.237: LR alone have unmetrical -rifled. Other I manuscripts have B. riflede here males .I ros whan þei were a
e erR.5.239: R shares with LM alone the omission of in the phrase, be. Their reading is, however, likely to be the original. M later was "corrected" to the majority reading. be bettere worthi be hanged þere-fore .Þow haddest bett
and of iewes na lessouR.5.245: Cf. beta's . F reads and iewes a lessoun. The a lessoun be herte reading agrees exactly with R's. C .I lerned amonges lumbardes
regagesR.5.249: Beta has ; alpha's reading, rerages, is unrecorded in both regages and OED2 MED s. v., and rerage, and is presumably nonsense generated by the misreading of a single graph, an anglicana arrearage. r þan þorȝ & comodat ur . miseretIch haue mo maneres þorȝ
R.5.251: R shares this error ( for brouȝt) by convergence with Cot alone. bouȝte it my-selue .And ben here brokour after and brouȝt
chaffaresR.5.252: R uniquely deploys the plural form here. I dele .Exchaunges and cheuysaunces with suche
þereR.5.255: Cf. R's with beta's þere; F omits the adverb entirely. here and tolde hem ther lasse . eAnd toke it be taille
¶ ¶Lenedest þow eue lordes for loue of here mayntenance . er A design is scratched in drypoint in the left margin beside these lines; its shape is that of three pillars of approximately the same length, a vertical pillar with two supporting pillars on its left side; the higher supporting pillar is a flat horizontal, joining the vertical midway along its length, the lower one running diagonally upwards to join the other two at the same point. The effect is almost that of a reversed capital <K>.
Ȝe I haue lent lordes ¶d heo loued uoqR.5.257: The attributive phrase, , is an alpha reading not witnessed in any beta manuscript; cf. F's quod heo. quod he me neue after . er
I haue as muche pyte of pore me ¶ as nþeR.5.261: R's determiner, , is an alpha variant; it is not present in beta manuscripts. þe pedler hath of cattes . e
mandR.5.262: , "if." Beta reads and. yf he cacche he miȝte for coueytise of her m skynnes . eR.5.262: At the bottom center margin of 17v, there is a drypoint figure almost identical to the one noted at R5.256 for the left margin. Now, however, the <K> figure faces downwards, and the top is trapezoidal rather than a simple rectangular pillar.Þat wolde kulle he
¶ I am holden q ¶d he as hende as hound in uohisR.5.264: R's is a metathesis of beta's presumably original text (= in his kychyne). Cf. F's is in kychyne. in þe kycchene kychyne .
R.5.268: R reads , agreeing with L alone (= vssue); M has been erased and overwritten to match the other beta manuscripts' reading, ysue. F reads heires. houswif after þe haue ioye of þat þow wynneste .Ne þin vssue
seketouresR.5.269: RF's is an aphetic form of beta's seketoures. excecutours wel bi-sette þe seluer þat þow hem leuestNe þi
wolde nouȝt cope vs with þi catel ne our echercheR.5.272: Two alpha variants are attested here, the second inadequate for the line's alliterative pattern; cf. RF's and wolde nouȝt with beta's cherche and nolde. kyrke amendeI
d repentance uoqR.5.279: Only R records . The other quod repentance witnesses, including F, are here content with a line having only two alliterating staves. The B manuscript that Langland used in creating B appears to have shared this faulty alliteration since the alliterative key is there shifted from /r/ to /m/ in order to make use of C (= make) / B (= ymad) in the first stave position. C and rekene with he alle . mTil þow make restitucion
saue .R.5.281: R's is unique. The other manuscripts read saue. assoilleÞat þow hast made vch man goed I may þe nauȝt
peccatu ur mnisiR.5.282: The predominant beta variant here is , but Cr agrees with alpha. donec restituat urmablatu .Non dimittit
haldyngeR.5.284: Only LMF agree with R's (but F's verb occurs in a completely rewritten line). The other copies show Is. R's be(n) is unique; the other haldynge copies all show B as do many P manuscripts in the holde(n) tradition. However, the X family of C agrees with R's lection. C at þe heyȝ dome to helpe þe restitueR.5.284: With reference to beta, R's lection here appears at first glance to involve a unique omission. Beta reads restitue to. However, the supposition of omission collapses when we notice that the nearly unanimous þe reading at this point is identical to R's (F rewrites the line completely). C .Is
-so leueth nauȝt þis be soth loke in aR.5.285: R's lection is unique; the other manuscripts read , as does the þe version. C saut glose . erAnd ho
Þer ¶ is no laborer e ewolde leue with mhe þt aknoweth peres þe plowma . nR.5.288: Kane-Donaldson dismiss this alpha line as spurious because of its reference to Piers Plowman, who has not yet been introduced into the narrative.
ForR.5.289: is an alpha variant; beta omits it. For schal neue werkman in þis world er thriue with þ et þow wynnest . a
co eforted nR.5.292: Although Hm and G agree with R (presumably by convergence), beta itself had a compound of this verb, needed for alliteration: ; F offers, in a rewritten b-verse, reconforted, which looks like an attempted repair. reersyd hy in þis maner m . eNe hadde repentance þe rather
ni omidR.5.295: This is a unique variant in R; the beta copies that contain this citation read , the accurate Vulgate form. Approximately half the beta copies and F omit the entire citation. eius super oia opera eius . &c mn . eteraMisericordia
cherchewardeR.5.312: As is frequently the case, R's unique reading here is defective in alliteration (cf. 's Bx). kirke-ward his coupe to schewe .And cayres hym to
¶ Hastow auȝt in þi purce any hote spices . ¶R.5.318: Although the scribe customarily enters a blank line between paragraphs, following this line he seems to have forgotten to do so because of the heavy prevalence of paraph markers to indicate dialogue.
I haue peper and ¶pioyneR.5.319: R's singular is unique among the manuscripts but agrees with the reading found in B and in the X family of Ax. The P family of C shows the same plural as the C majority. B qd sche and a pound of garlek uo . e
R.5.324: R's non-alliterating is shared with HmYCBoCot among the Symme manuscripts but also agrees, oddly, with the reading found in B manuscripts TRaDH AH and with the reading of 2 manuscript P C. Presumably the cause of these overlapping errors is the mutual resemblance of the relevant capitals. 2 þe tynker and tweyne of his p entys . reSymme
AndR.5.327: is an alpha variant; beta begins the line with And. The Sire version of this line agrees exactly with beta. C sire peres of pridie and ponele of flaundres er
-kyng and rose þe dissheres edouȝter .R.5.330: The phrase is an alpha variant; cf. beta's dissheres douȝter. Both the disshere(s) version and the A version agree with beta on this reading. CA roper a redyng
-hethe and grifythR.5.331: F reads while beta has Geffrey. Both the gryfin version (some copies omit the line completely) and the P family of the A version agree with beta's name form here (P family = C), but the X family of griffyng agrees with R's otherwise unique form. C þe walsh . eGodefrey of garlek
etoR.5.337: The verbal particle is an alpha variant completely absent from the beta manuscripts. It does, however, appear in a few to manuscripts (RaUDJ) and in approximately half of the A manuscripts. It may, in fact, be the family reading of the P group. C ben on his side .And badde bette þe bocher
ÞereR.5.338: R uniquely omits the verb Bx at this point, treating the participle were at the end of the a-verse as the verb. Ichose chapmen Ichose þis chaffare to preyse .
Þo ¶R.5.340:R and Bm are the only witnesses in the tradition beginning this line with B (= not the common adverb but rather the plural demonstrative pronoun, equivalent to Modern English, "Those." See Kane, Þo, pp. 207-8). The other beta copies all attest Glossary while F begins the line with Two. The P family of Þan is joined by manuscripts Uc and Dc in support of the beta reading, but manuscripts X, I and P2 (probably reflecting the X subarchetype) agree with R and Bm in reading C. The Þo archetype also supports the RBm variant. Presumably R attests this reading by descent from alpha while Bm has it through correction, perhaps from the A exemplar used for its opening passus. Schmidt is probably correct in hypothesizing (II, 353) that C actually spelled Bx in this line as Þo, thus inviting the common subsequent scribal error of To. Two risen inR.5.340: R uniquely omits a word from this phrase. Beta reads in vp while F has risen . The reading of beta is also found in many ryse þey ful manuscripts and is clearly archetypal in that tradition; among the A witnesses, the P family mostly agrees with R (omitting C from the phrase) while the X family attests its presence. However, many vp manuscripts in both families omit C. in rape and rowned to-gyderes .
þeR.5.341: Beta reads in place of alpha's þese. The þe reading agrees with alpha, but the A version is split by families, with the P family supporting alpha while the X family agrees with beta. C penyworthes a-part by -seluehym .And preysed
arise þe southe .R.5.343: R may well represent here, but the b-verse is plainly wrong. It is obvious that the F redactor has completely recast the b-verse because of its archtypally defective sense; in beta, the b-verse is similarly lacking, reading Bx. Both Kane-Donaldson and Schmidt emend this verse conjecturally to conform to the arose bi þe southe version: C. aryse they bisouhteTil robyn þe ropere
R.5.344: Beta and F read in place of R's nere, but both G and Hm agree with R (presumably by correction). The were witnesses are split, but a majority agrees with R; the A version reading is unambiguously the same as R's. C .And nempned hym for a noumper þat no debate were
syngenR.5.351: The present tense, , is unique to R; cf. F's syngen and beta's sunge. R also shows a present-tense form earlier in this line, songen, where most sitten witnesses record a past-tense form (but Cr and G agree with R). Context alone would suggest that the past tenses are correct, but the unanimous witness of B manuscripts as well as the attestation of a clear majority of C manuscripts in favor of these forms decides the question. Cf. see the Introduction A for a discussion of R's problematic tense marking. III.2.2.10 vmb-while .And sitten so til euesonge and
R.5.353: R's is shared exclusively with LM. As odd as it first seems, this was almost certainly the form of the verb in godly. F has Bx while most beta manuscripts read gowle. The same phrase occurs in the goþelen version, where it reads C. Significantly, a sizeable number of His gottes gan to gothly witnesses agree exactly with manuscripts LMR of C on the spelling of the verb form, and B, MED s. v., acknowledges both gothelen and -dly forms as viable for -þly, but citations are solely to gothelen. The same limited acknowledgment of these forms is found in Piers Plowman, OED2 s. v., and gothele. godele(n), -y as to gnedyg[r]edy sowes .His guttes gonne to godly
HeR.5.355: is a unique variant; the other He manuscripts read B. However, R's reading is also that of four And manuscripts and of the X family of the A version. Both Kane-Donaldson and Schmidt prefer the F/beta reading, presumably on stylistic grounds since C avoids a syntactic repetition (the previous line begins with And) that modern tastes find clumsy. He blew his round rowet at his rigges bonesR.5.355: Most manuscripts have the compound riggebone, but both and rigges are genitives. Manuscript C has the same reading. bones ende .
alle þatalle [þat herde] þatR.5.356: Here R uniquely omits a key phrase from the archetypal text. horne held here nose after .Þat
¶ ¶AcR.5.362: is unique to R; the other manuscripts read Ac. The And archetype seems to omit any connective here, but the A version agrees with F / beta. C whan he drouȝ to þe dore þanne dymmed hys eyȝes .
R.5.363: R's is uniquely supported by L (M having been altered once more to conform to the typical beta reading—for which, see below); F reads tremled while most betas offer the non-alliterating tripplid. Among the stombled manuscripts, only Vernon offers a viable reading, A, while the others attest various forms of þrompelde. As for the stombled version, though a few opt for C, the majority attest stumblet. Based on its alliterative pattern, this is presumably what Langland wrote originally, but the LR form is almost certainly what it became in thromblede. Bx on þe threswolde and threw to þe erthe .He tremled
leuyngR.5.369: Beta shows the plural form, , while F rewrites the a-verse beyond recognition. The leuynges version agrees here with R's singular. C so vnlouely it smauȝte .Durst lape of þe
toR.5.371: Beta reads ; although three home to copies (VHaN) agree with beta here, both A and Ax concur with alpha's omission of Cx. hom his bed and brouȝte hym þere-inne .Baren hym
Of þt aR.5.381: R's is unique; the other Of witnesses begin the line with B. However, the Þat reading here is identical to R's. C I haue trespased with my tonge I can nauȝt telle how ofte .
and his sydesR.5.382: Beta omits the entire R phrase for the end of the a-verse (); F reads an abbreviated version, and his sydes. The & side reading is probably that of the X family (which agrees exactly with R's). The P family reading ( C) agrees with F's omission of the possessive but with R's plural number. & sides and so -domehelp me god & holyR.5.382: Beta appears to reverse a key alpha phrase (the latter being more colloquial), rendering alpha's as so help me god. The so god me help reading for the end of this b-verse is revised but its opening agrees exactly with alpha's phrasing, C. Beta's motive for revision was probably metrical, but manuscript M somehow still agrees with alpha and displays a form that may explain both Langland's intention and the apparent lapse in alliteration. Alpha and M read the line as aliterating on /s/ (hence M's so helpe me god) but beta judges that it must alliterate on /g/ and generates the aformentioned phrase reversal to highlight that possibility. selpe .Sworen godes soule
And ou ¶er-seye me at my soper and -tymessumR.5.384: R's form here is unique. The other -s copies show B-tyme, a reading shared with some. C at nones .
-spilt þat myȝt be spared and spendR.5.386: R's is an alpha variant; cf. F's spendAnd I