fol. 66r (cont.)I
passus xiijus
Passus xiijusxii[i]justertius decimus[quartus] decimus . de visione vt supra .

I haue but on haterR.14.1: Most beta copies have one hool hatere. L, however, shares the alpha reading. quod haukyn  I am þe lasse to blame
Thouȝ it be soyled and selde clene  I slepe þere-inne on niȝtes .
And al-so I haue an hosewif  hewen and children .
Vxorem duxi & ideo non possumR.14.4: R uniquely omits venire from the end of the Biblical citation. &cetera .R.14.4: The right end of the red box is open.
Þat wolen by-molen it many tymesR.14.5: Beta reads the singular form, tyme; however, manuscripts G and Cr2-3 agree with alpha's plural.  maugre my chekes .
¶ It hath ben laued in lenten  and oute of lenten bothe .
With þe sope of siknesse  þat seketh wonder depe .
And with þe losse of catel  lothe for to a-gulte .
God ar any gode man  by auȝt þat I wiste .
And was schriuen of þe prest  þat gaf me for my synnes .
To penaunce pacience  and pore men to fede .
Al for coueytise of my cristendom  in clennesse to kepen it .
¶ And coude I nouȝtR.14.13: For alpha's nouȝt, beta reads neuere. by crist  kepen it clene an houre
Þat I ne soyled it with siȝt  or summe ydel speche .
Or thoruȝ werke or thouȝtR.14.15: In place of R's unique and non-alliterating thouȝt (F = elles þowht), beta has þorugh worde.and otherR.14.15: R uniquely reads and other for beta's probably correct or. F has or þoruh. wil of myn herte
Þat I ne flobere it foule  fram morwe til eue .
¶ And I schal kenne þe quod consience  of contricioun to make .
Þat schal clawe þi cote  of alle kynneR.14.18: Beta has kynnes, while F reads vn-clene. fulthe .
Cordis contricio &cetera
Dowel waschen it and wringen it  þoruȝ a wise confessoure .
Oris confessio . &cetera
Dobet þat schal schal beten and bouken itR.14.22: R's a-verse is unique; cf. beta's phrase: Dobet shal beten it and bouken it. F has Dobet bowke it & beete it.  as briȝt as any scarlet .
And engreynen it with gode wille  and goddes grace to amende þe .
And sitthen sende þe to satisfaccioun  for to sonnenR.14.24: This variant is shared with F. Most beta manuscripts have sowen. it after .
Satisfaccio . dobest
k iij
fol. 66vI
Schal neuere myst by-mole it  ne mothe after biten it .
Ne fende ne fals man  defoulen it in þi liue .
Schal no heraud ne harpour  haue a fairer garment .
Þan haukyn þe actif man  and þow do be my techynge .
Ne no ministrale be more worth . amonges pore and riche .
Þanne haukynnes wif þe waferere  which isR.14.31: Beta reads with his. actiua vita .
Si mea penna valet melior mea litera fiet
Dextera pars penna Brevior et lenior debit esse
In the left margin, an extended comment is written vertically, in a black secretary hand, beginning at R14.54 and reaching upwards in the margin to this point, R14.32. The second line of the comment is under the first and thus slightly closer to the text line initials.
¶ And I schal purueye þe paste quod pacience  þouȝ þowR.14.32: R's þow is an alpha variant omitted by all beta manuscripts. Though C is substantially revised at this point, a half-line occurs in the cognate passage of the final version that exactly confirms beta's reading (=RK C15.234). no plowȝ erie
And floure to fede folke with  as best be for þe soule .
Þowȝ neuere greyne growede  ne grape vp-on vine .
Alle þat lyueth and loketh  liflod wold I fynde .
And þat I-now schal none faile  of thinge þat hem nedeth .
¶ We schulde nauȝt be to busy  abouten oure liflode .
Ne soliciti sitis &cetera . Volucres celi deus pascit &cetera .
Pacientes vincunt . &cetera .
¶ Þanne lawhed haukyn a litel  and liȝtly gan swere .
Who-so leueth ȝow noþer beR.14.41: R's noþer is a unique addition to the a-verse witnessed by beta (F completely rephrases this half-line). However, R's be is merely a spelling variation for beta's by. Cf. R.14.29:: be my techynge. oure lorde  I leue nauȝt he be blissed .
¶ No quod pacience paciently  and oute of his poke hente .
Vitales of grete vertues  for alle maner bestes .
And seyde lo here liflode I-nowe  if oure bileue be trewe .
For lente nere was þereR.14.45: R's þere is a unique addition to the text witnessed by the other B manuscripts; however, R's reading has a substantial likelihood of being original since at the same point the C manuscripts attest either here or, more commonly, þere. lif  but liflode were schape .
Where-of or where-for  and where-by to libbe .
¶ Furst þe wilde worme  vnder weet erthe .
Fisch to lyue in þe flode  and in þe fuir þe crikat .
Þe corlew be kynde of þe eyre  most clennest flesch of briddes .
And bestes by grasse and by greyne  and by grene rotes .
In menynge þat alle men  miȝt þe same .
LifR.14.52: R's Lif appears, at first, to be lexically unique. F has & lyve and beta shows Lyue; many C manuscripts agree with beta, but many others read Leue. The problem with R's "uniqueness" is that this spelling may not reflect intentional lexical difference but merely inadvertent phonological overlap between voiced <v> and voiceless <f> in Langland's own dialect; cf. the archetypal B spelling for the noun (= ModEng "life") at R.14.27: above: in þi liue. þoruȝ lele byleue  and loue as god witnesseth .
Quodcumque pecieritisR.14.53: Here alpha omitted the phrase a patre from the Biblical citation as witnessed by beta. Nevertheless, the alpha reading may well be original. Among the C manuscripts , the X family (generally regarded as the more authoritative group) also omits the phrase. in nomine meo  &cetera Et alibi .
Non in solo pane viuit homo  sed in omni verbo quod procedit de ore dei .
¶ But I loked what þat liflodeR.14.55: For alpha's þat liflode, beta reads lyflode it. was  þat pacience so preysed .
And þanne was aR.14.56: RF's reading, was a, is an alpha variant shared with CrHm; beta reads was it a. pece of þe paternoster  fiat voluntas tua .
fol. 67rI
¶ Haue haukyn quod pacience  and ete þis whan þe hungreth .
Or whan þow clomsest for colde  or clingest for drouȝtheR.14.58: Beta has drye for R's drouȝthe (F = drowhtys). Cx agrees here with R. .
And schalR.14.59: F begins this line with Þere shal while beta simply begins with Shal. However, Cx agrees with R. neuere feytouresR.14.59: R's feytoures and F's faytour ) against beta's correctly alliterating gyues probably reflects a misunderstood gloss in Bx reading fetters. Cx agrees here with beta. þe greue  ne grete lordes wrathe .
Prisone ne payne  foR.14.60: Neither MED nor OED2 cites s. v. for an example of fo as viable for the preposition signified here, but it occurs in R in four widely separated contexts (cf. R2.64, R15.379, and R20.224) and probably represents an instance of idiolect apocope. Beta here attests the expected for, and F has whil. pacientes vincunt .
By so þat þow be sobre  of siȝt and of tonge .
In etynge and in handelynge  and in alle þi fyue wittes .
Tharst þow neuere care for corne  ne lynnen clothe ne wollen .R.14.63: There is a superfluous bar over the <n> of wollen.
Ne for drink . ne deth drede  but deye as god liketh .
Or thoruȝ honger or thoruȝ hete  at his wille be it .
For if þow lyuest after his lore  þe schorter lyf þe leuereR.14.66: Beta shows better where alpha has leuere. Cx agrees with beta. .
Si quis amat christum mundum non diligit istum .
¶ For thoruȝ his breth bestes wexethR.14.68: Cf. F's weren and beta's woxen or wexen. The C manuscripts are divided, typically witnessing the same forms as beta, but seven of them (IP2RcMcScZWa) agree with R's wexeth.  and a-brode ȝeden .
Dixit & facta sunt &cetera .
Ergo thoruȝ his breth mowen  men and bestes libbenR.14.70: For alpha's libben, beta reads lyuen. The difference is, of course, purely phonological. .
As holy writ witnesseth  whan men seggen here graceR.14.71: F offers a completely different b-verse while beta shows the plural form graces. Although C has been slightly revised in this passage, Cx shows the same plural noun form as that in beta (but four manuscripts [KDcWaGc] agree with R). .
Aperis tu manum tuam et imples omne animal benediccione .
¶ It is founden þat fourty wynter  folke lyuede with-oute tulyinge .
And oute of þe flint spronge þe floed  þat folk and bestes dronke .
And in Elyes tyme  heuene was I-closed . In the right margin, in black ink, there is an early ownership stamp for the Bodleian Library.
Þat non rayn ne roen  þus rett men onR.14.76: R's rett is unique; the same is true of R's on. The majority, including F, attest rede men in. Cx is uncertain, but five manuscripts (YcIP2UcT) reflect a similar verbal inflection to that found in R (rat), and XIUcZ agree with R's ensuing preposition. bokes .
Þat many wynterR.14.77: R and Cr alone have singular wyntre. F omits the entire phrase in which this term occurs. Cx clearly agrees with the RCr singular. men lyued  and no mete ne teleden .
¶ Seuen slepen as seith þe boke  seuen hundreth wynter
And lyueden with-outen liflode  and att þe laste þei woken .
And if men lyuede as mesure wolde  schulde neuere more be defaute.
AmogesAmo[n]ges cristene creatoures  if criste R.14.81: R's unmarked possessive, criste, is unique; all other manuscripts have crystes. Among C copies, only P2 agrees with R's form. wordes be trewe .
Ac vnkendenesse caristia maketh  amonges cristesR.14.82: All other B manuscripts read crystene. poeple .
And ouer-plente maketh pruyde  amonges pore and riche .
Ac mesure is so muche worth  it may nowȝt be to dere .
For þe mischief and þe mischaunce  amonges men of sodome .
Wex thoruȝ plente of payn  and of puir slewthe .
Ociositas et habundancia panisR.14.87: F omits the entire citation; R leaves off the end, as seen in beta manuscripts: peccatum turpissimum nutriuit.
For þei mesured nauȝt hem-selue  of þat þei eten and dronke .
Deden dedly synne  þat þe deuel lyked 
So veniaunce fel vpon hem  for here vile synnes .
fol. 67vI
Þei sonken in-to helle  þe cites vchone .
¶ For-thy mesure we vs wel  and make oure faith oure scheltroun .
And thoruȝ faith cometh contricioun  consience wot wel .
Which driueth aweye dedly synne  and doth it to be venial .
And þouȝ a man miȝt nouȝt speke  contricion miȝt hym saue .
And brynge his soule to blisse  bi soR.14.96: Immediately following this word there is an unintended ink dot. þat feith bere witnesse .
Þat whiles he lyued he byleued  in þe lore of holy cherche .
Ergo contricion faith and consience  is kendeliche dowel .
And surgyanes for dedly synneR.14.99: Many beta copies read this noun as a plural: synnes. However, CrHmB agree with alpha.  whan schrift of mouthe faileth .
¶ Ac schrifte of mouthe more worthi is  if manR.14.100: After man, R shares an omission of the verb be with C alone. in-lich contrit
For schrifte of mouthe sleth synne  be it neuere so dedly .
Per confessionem to a prest  peccata occiduntur .
Þere contriciounR.14.103: Here the R scribe uses two separate bars for expanding the final affix, one over the <c> and another over the <u>; the second of these is partially obscured by the red boxing above. What this instance indicates by inference, however, is that his intended spelling (when the bar covers only his <c> or his <o>) is -cion, and that the only warrant for expanding to -cioun is a bar extending beyond the <o> of this syllable. These conclusions are confirmed by the scribe's overwhelming preference for -cion forms when he spells them out fully. doth but driueth it doun  in-to a venial synne .
As dauid seith in þe sauter  & quorum tecta sunt peccata .
Ac satisfaccion seketh oute þe rote  & bothe sleth and voydeth .
And as it neuere hadde be  to nauȝt bryngeth dedly synne.
Þat it neuere eft is sene  ne sore  but semeth a wounde I-heled .
ȜeR.14.108: Ȝe is an alpha variant; beta begins this line with Where. where woneth charite quod haukyn  I wiste nereR.14.108: R's form here is unique; the other B witnesses, including F, read the negative as neuer(e). in my lyue .
Man þat with hym spake  as wyde as I haue passed .
There parfit treuth  and pouer hert is  and pacience of tonge .
Þere is charite þe chief chaumbre  for god hym-sulue .
¶ Whether pacience and pouerteR.14.112: Most of the beta manuscripts render this phrase as paciente pouerte or pacience pouerte. In C, the phrase becomes pouerte and pacience. quod haukyn  be more plesant to oure lord .R.14.112: Many beta manuscripts (and presumably Bx) read driȝte(n) for R's bland lord; F has god more as the end of the line; R's reading is in agreement only with G, presumably by convergence. The C revision abandons beta's archaic driȝte(n) in favor of god almyhty
Þen ricchesse riȝtfulliche I-wonne  & resonabeliche yspended .
¶ Ȝe quis est ille quod pacience  quik laudabimus eum .
Þouȝ men rede of ricchesse  riȝt to þe worldes ende .
I wiste neuere renk þat riche was  þat whan he rekne schulde .
Whan itR.14.117: R's sole partner in reading it is L; F reads &. The majority beta reading is he. In a partially revised line, the C version also attests he at this point. drouȝ to his deth day  þat he ne dradde hym sore
And at þe rekenynge in a-rerage fel  rather þan oute of dette .
¶ Þere þe pore dar plede  and preue by puir resoun .
To haue a-louaunce of his lorde  be þe lawe he it claymeth .
Ioye þat neuere ioye hadde  of riȝtful iuge he asketh .
fol. 68rI
And seith lo briddes and bestes  þat no blisse ne knoweth .
And wilde wormes in wodes  þoruȝ wynteres þou hem greuest .
And makest hem wel neyh meke  and mylde for defaute .
And after þou sendest hem somer  þat is here souereyn ioye .
And blisse to alle þat ben  bothe wilde and tame .
Þan may beggeres and bestes  after bote wayten .
Þat alle here lif han lyuede  in langour and in defaute .
But god sent hem some-tyme  sum maner ioye .
Other here or elles-where  kende wolde it nereR.14.130: R's form here is unique; beta reads the negative as neuer(e); F rewrites the half-line completely. .
For to wrothor-hele was he wrouȝt  þat neuer ioye was shapedR.14.131: R's ioye was shaped is an alpha phrasing substantively shared with FHm; beta agrees with Cx in reading was ioye shaped. .
¶ Angeles þat in elle now ben  hadden ioye sum-tyme .
And diues in deyntes lyued  and in douce vie .
Riȝt so resoun : scheweth þat þo men :R.14.134: Here alpha probably was identical to R's reading; R matches beta exactly through the phrase þo men but is missing þat were riche F reads þo men shulle redyly a-counte.
And here makes also  lyued here lyf in murthe .
¶ Ac god is of a wonder wille  by þat kende wit scheweth .
To ȝiue many men his mercymonie  ar he it haue deserued .
Riȝt so fareth god by sum riche  reuthe me it thenketh .
For þei han here hire here  and heuene as it were .
And is grete lykynge to þe lifR.14.140: Cf. R's to þe lif to F's of lyf and beta's to lyue.  wyth-oute labour of body .
And whan he deieth ben disalawed  as dauid sayth in þe sauter .
Dormierunt & nichil inuenerunt &cetera .
And in an-other stede al-so  Velut sompnum surgencium domine
in ciuitate tua  ad nichilum eorum redigesR.14.144: R's eorum is a unique addition to this citation. .
Allas þat richesse schal reue  and robbe mannes soule .
Fram þe loue of oure lorde  at his last ende .
¶ Hewen þat han here huire to-foreR.14.147: Alpha is responsible for to-fore where beta reads afore. At the same point, Cx has byfore.  aren euermore nedy .R.14.147: A brace extends down the right margin from this line to R14.152. Apparently, it is intended to call attention to the nota at R14.149.
And selde deyeth oute of dette  þat dineth or þeiR.14.148: In place of alpha's þei, beta reads he (as does the X family of the C version; the P family of C agrees here with alpha). In the a-verse, beta reads deieth he where R omits the pronoun and F revises the entire half-line. deserue it .
And til he haue done his deuer  and his dayes iourneR.14.149: In the right margin, in a light brown ink and a near-contemporary hand, there is a large nota.
For whan a werkeman hath wrouȝt  þan may men se þe sothe .
What he were worthi for his werke  & what he hath deserued .
And nauȝt to fonge byfore  for drede of disalowynge .
¶ So I segge be ȝow riche  it semethR.14.153: R parallels beta but omits nouȝt after semeth, completely inverting the intended sense of the assertion (beta's version is vouched for by Cx). F rewrites the line. þat ȝe schulle .
Haue to heuenes for ȝoure here-beinge  and heuene þere-after .R.14.154: F offers a typically unique reading of this line (Cleyme two hevynys oon here & anoþer heerafter); R's partial agreement with F in the a-verse shows that R's to heuenes descends from alpha. R's for is unique among the B copies. By contrast, the beta manuscripts show considerable variation in the a-verse but clearly attest the singular form heuene. However, the fact that the Cx phrasing for the a-verse is identical with R's strongly suggests that R's reading is the authorial one.
fol. 68vI
Riȝt as a seruaunt taketh his salarie by-fore . Alpha divides a Bx line here into two lines.
And sithe wald clayme huireR.14.156: R's huire is an alpha reading (cf. F's his heere eft-soones); beta shows more.
As he þat non neR.14.157: This double negative is unique to R. Beta has none while F reads non hevene. hadde  and hath heueneR.14.157: R's heuene is an alpha variant; cf. beta's huyre. at þe laste .
It may nauȝt be ȝe riche men  or mathew on god lyeth .
De delicijs ad delicias difficile est ascendereR.14.159: In place of alpha's ascendere, beta has transire. .
Ac if ȝe riche haue reuth  and rewarde wel þe pore .
And lyuen as lawe techeth  don leute to alle .R.14.161: Beta ends the line with hem alle. Only L agrees with R's omission of the pronoun, while F offers a completely different phrase, his brothir.
Crist of his curteysie  schal confort ȝow att þe laste .
And rewarde alle double richesse  þat rewful hertes habbeth .
And as an hyne þat hadde  his huire ar he bygunne
And whan he hath don his deuer wel  men doth hym other bounte .
Ȝiueth hym a cote aboue his couenaunt  riȝt so crist ȝiueth heuene .
Bothe to riche and to nauȝt riche  þat riȝtfullichR.14.167: Beta reads rewfullich. libbeth .
And alle þat don here deuer wel  han double huire for here trauaille .
Here for-ȝiuenesse of here synnes  and heuene blisse after .R.14.169: Hereafter alpha omits five lines present in beta (of which, the last two are also found in the C version):
Ac it nys but selde yseyn as by holy seyntes bokes
Þat god rewarded double reste to any riche wye
For moche murthe is amonges riche as in mete and clothyng
And moche murthe in Maye is amonges wilde bestes
And so forth whil somer lasteth her solace dureth
R.14.170: R uniquely omits a conjunction at the head of this line; beta reads Ac (which agrees with the reading of Cx) while F has But. Beggeres aboute missomer  bred-les þei soupe .R.14.170: In the left margin, extending from this line to R14.183, there is a black brace and a hand (at R14.178) pointing to these lines.
And ȝet is winter for hem wors  for watschod þei gange .
Afurst sore and affyngred  and foule I-rebuked .
And arated of riche men  þat reuthe is to here .
Now lorde send hem somer and somme maner ioye .
Heuene after here hennes-goynge  þat here han suche defaute .
For alle miȝtest þow haue mad  non mener þan other
And I-liche witty and wis  if þe wel hadde liked .
¶ And haue reuth on þis riche men  þat rewarde nauȝt þi prisonesR.14.178: Prisones, "prisoners." R's form of the word is unique; see the note at R.14.184:. F reads porayle while beta has prisoneres. .
Of þe gode þat þow hem gyuest  ingrati ben manye .
Ac god of þi godenesse  gyue hem grace to amende .
For may no derth ben hem dere  drouȝthe ne wete .
Ne noyther hete ne hayle  haue þei here hele .
Of þat þei wilnen and wolde  wanteth hem nauȝt here .
¶ Ac pore poeple þi prisones  loreR.14.184: R's prisones is simply an archaic formal variant for beta's prisoneres (cf. R15.207 and R15.380, where beta also shows this form). Perhaps because the F scribe was confused or troubled by this form (he uses prisoner in the other two instances mentioned), the a-verse in F seems completely rewritten: But þe poore in prisoun lyȝn. As for R's lore, see Richard Jordan, Handbook of Middle English Grammar: Phonology, translated and revised by Eugene Joseph Crook (The Hague: Mouton, 1974): §199, remark 3. The spelling occurs as well at R5.409 and R18.61. in þe put of mischief .
Confort þo creatures  þat muche care suffren .
Þoruȝ derthe þoruȝ drouȝthe  alle here dayes here .
Wo in wyntres tymeR.14.187: Beta reads wynter tymes.  for wantynge of clothes .
And in somer tyme selde  soupen to þe fulle .
fol. 69rI
Conforte þi carfulle criste  in þi riche .R.14.189: The top right margin of fol. 69r has a tear in it that was long ago repaired by stitching. The tear extended diagonally downwards and to the right for approximately 3.8 cm.
For how þow confortest alle creatoures  clerkes bereth witnesse .
Conuertimini ad me & salui eritis .
Þus in genere of alle his genitriceR.14.192: R's phrase, of alle his genitrice, is part of a complex variation. Most beta copies read of gentries; L, which overlaps with R here, reads of his genitrice; and F also shows partial agreement with R, reading of alle Ientylis.  ihesu crist sayde .
To robberes toR.14.193: All other B manuscripts have robberes and to. reueres  to riche and to pore .
To hores to harlotes  to alle maner poeple .R.14.194: Beta omits this line. F renders its central phrase as harlotys & to hoorys & to all oþer.
Þow tauȝtest hem in þe trinite  to take bapteme .
And be clene thoruȝ þat cristenynge  of alle kynnes synnes .
And if vs fel thoruȝ folye  to falle in synne after .
Knowlechynge and confessionR.14.198: This pair of nouns is transposed to Confessioun and knowlechyng in the beta copies; F reads & be-knowleche it In confessioun.  and crauynge þi mercy .
Schuld amende vs as many sithes  as man walde desire .
And if þe poukeR.14.200: Beta reads pope. wolde plede þere-aȝeine  & punischen onR.14.200: R's on is a unique addition to the text witnessed by the other B manuscripts. vs in consience.
HoR.14.201: Ho is unique; cf. beta's He and F's We. schulde take þe a-quitaunce as quik  & doR.14.201: R's do is unique; the other manuscripts show to. þe qued schewe it .
Pateat &cetera per passionem domini .
And putten of so þe pouke  and preuen vs vnder borwe .
Ac þe parchemyn of þis patent  of pouerte be moste .
And of puir pacience  and parfit byleue .
¶ Of pompe and of pruide  þe parchemyn decoureth .
And principaly of alle poeple  but þei be pore of herte .
Elles is alle an ydel  alle þat euere we writen .
Paternoster and penauncesR.14.209: With the exception of Hm, which here joins alpha, the beta copies show the singular penaunce. In a revised version of this line, Cx agrees with alpha, attesting a plural.  and pilgrimage to rome .
AndR.14.210: Cf. beta's But, which agrees with the opening of the line in Cx; on the other hand, at the end of the a-verse, Cx agrees with R, which uniquely reiterates the possessive, reading oure spendynge where beta merely has spendyng. F completely rewrites the a-verse: With oure spendyng of spekynge. oure spenses and oure spendynge springe  of a trewe welle .
Elles is alle oure labour lost  lo how men writeth .
In fenestres at þe freres  if fals be þe fundement .
For-thi cristene schuld be in comune riche  non coueytous for him-selue .
¶ For seuene synnes þat þere ben  assailen vs euere .
Þe fende folweth hem alle  and fondeth hem to helpe .
Ac with richesse þo ribaudesR.14.216: Beta shows the singular þat Ribaude. Cx agrees with alpha.  rathest men by-gyleth .
For þere þat richesse regneth  reuerencesR.14.217: Beta has the singular reuerence. Most C manuscripts concur, but three important ones, XYcUc, agree with alpha's plural. folweth .
And þat is plesaunt to pruide  in pore and in riche .
AcR.14.219: Beta has And; F reads But. The C manuscripts divide by major families on this lection, the P family completely omitting the conjunction while the X family, like beta, attests And. þe riche is reuerenced  bi reson of his richesse .
Þere þe pore is put by-hynde  and par-auenture can more .
Of wit and of wisdome  þat fer weiR.14.221: Most beta copies read awey. F omits the entire line. Among the C manuscripts, KcUcDcZN agree with beta while the others agree with R. is bettere .
Þan richesse or reaute  and rather I-herd in heuene .
For þe riche hath muche to rekne  and riȝt softe walketh .
fol. 69vI
Þe riȝtR.14.224: Here G joins the defective alpha reading; other beta copies have the correctly alliterating heigh. The a-verse of this line also occurs unrevised in C, in the same form as represented in beta. weye to heuene-warde  ofte richeR.14.224: Beta reads ricchesse. letteth .
Ita possibile diuiti &cetera .
¶ Þere þe pore prechethR.14.226: R's form is probably a distortion of alpha's procheþ (a reading preserved in F) through misunderstanding a scribal suspension; cf. beta's preseth. The lection in C agrees with that of beta. byfore þe riche  with a pakke at his rugge .
Opera enim illorum sequntur illos 
Batauntliche as beggeres doun  and baldelich he craueth .
For his pouerte and his pacience  a perpetuel blisse .
Beati pauperes quoniam ipsorum est regnum celorum .
AcR.14.231: Beta has And; F reads But. C manuscripts attest either And (mostly in the X family) or Also (P family). pruide in richesse regneth  rather þamþa[n] in pouert
OrR.14.232: For alpha's Or, beta shows Arst; later in this a-verse, where alpha repeats or, Cr agrees with alpha but beta has þan. On both of these readings, it appears that Cx agrees with alpha (although a cluster of five C manuscripts—P2TH2PEc—reads oþur in place of or on both occasions). in þe maister or in þe man : sum manseon hauethR.14.232: R uniquely omits he before haueth. Cx confirms the correctness of the majority reading. .
Ac in pouerte þere pacience is  pruid hath no miȝt .
Ne non of þe seuene synnes  sitten ne mow þere longe .
Ne haue powere in pouerte  if pacience it folwe .
For þe pore is ay preste  to plese þe riche 
And buxum at his biddynge  for his broke loues .
And buxumnesse and bost  aren euermore at werre .
And ayther hateth other  in alle maner werkes .
If wrathe wrastel with þe pore  he hath þe worse ende .
For if þei bothe pleyne  þe pore is but feble .
And if he chide or chatere  hym cheueth þe worse .
For loulich he loketh  and loueliche is his speche . These lines are not found in beta. There are sufficient differences between R and F in these lines to justify reproducing the latter's lines verbatim (cf. Appendix 1, R14.243-53, for details and any cross-references to the C version):
For lowly he lookeþ / & lovely is his speche.
Þat ony meete or monee / of oþere men mote asken.
¶ & if Glotenye greve pouerte / he gadreþ þe lasse.
For hise rentys wil not reche / no ryche meetys to bygge.
& þowh his glut be in good ale / he gooþ a-cold to bedde.
& hys hevid euele y-helyd / & vnesely y-wryȝe.
For whan he streyneþ hym to strecche / þe straw is his schete.
So for his grete glotenye / he haþ a greuous penaunce.
Þat is wellawo whan he wakeþ / & wepiþ sore . for colde.
& sum-tyme for hise synnes / so he is neuere merye.
With-outyn moornynge a-moong . & myche myschef to boote.
Þat mete or mone  of other men mote asken .
And if glotonie greue pouerte  he gadereth þe lasse .
For his rentes ne wol nauȝte reche  no riche metes to bugge.
And þouȝ his glotonye be to gode ale  he goth to cold beddynge .
And his heued vn-heled  vn-esiliche I-wrye .
For whan he streyneth hym to streche  þe strawe is his schetes .
So for his glotonie and his grete scleuthe  he hath a greuous penaunce .
Þat is welawo whan he waketh  and wepeth for colde .
And sum-tyme for his synnes  so he is neuere murie .
Withoute mornynge amonge  and mischief to bote .
¶ And þouȝR.14.254: Cf. R's þouȝ (shared with F) with the beta reading, if. Cx agrees with alpha. coueytise walde cache þe pore  þei may nouȝt come togideres .
And bi þe nekke nameliche  her non may henten other .
For men knoweth wel þat coueytise  is of a kene wille .
And hath hondes and armes  of longe lengthe .R.14.257: For R's longe lengthe, beta reads a longe lengthe; F has an huge lengthe. Cx agrees with beta.
fol. 70rI
And pouerte ne isR.14.258: R's ne is is unique in form but substantively in agreement with the best of the early beta copies (LMWHmC), which read nis; F and other beta witnesses (CrGYOC2) read is. Cx agrees with F and the inferior beta group. but a pety thynge  apereth nauȝt to his nauele .
And louely layke was it neuere  by-twene þe longe and þe schorte .
And þouȝ auerice wald angre þe pore  he hath but litel miȝte .
For pouerte hath but pokes  to putten in his godes .
Þere auerice hath almaries  and Iren bounden cofferes .
And whether be liȝter to breke  lasse bost it maketh .
A beggeres bagge  þan an Iren bounde coffre .
¶ Lecherie loueth hym nouȝt  for he ȝiueth but litel siluer .
Ne doth hym nauȝt dine delicatly  ne drinke wyn ofte .R.14.266: Immediately following this line, alpha omits two lines present in beta (and in the C version, though somewhat garbled there):
A strawe for þe stuwes it stode nouȝt I trowe
Had þei none but of pore men her houses were vntyled
¶ And þouȝ sleuthe sue pouerte  and serue nauȝt god to paye .
Meschief is his meyster  and maketh hym to thenke .
Þat god is grettestR.14.269: Alpha and B omit his before grettest. In correcting the error, F presumably misplaced the possessive and ended by creating the phrase, grettest his helpe. helpe  and no gome elles .
And he isR.14.270: R's he is is unique in the B tradition but agrees with the vast majority of C manuscripts (of both major families). F and several beta witnesses (Cr W—and M after alteration above the line) read he his. A few C manuscripts support this reading. Most beta copies (including LHmOG—and M before alteration) show simply his. seruaunt as he seith  and of his sute bothe .
And whereR.14.271: R's where, a contracted form of beta's whether, is shared, among the B manuscripts, only with L. However, most of the X family in the C tradition supports the RL reading. The P family tends to support the common beta reading. he be or be nauȝt  he bereth þe sygne of pouerte .
And in þat secte oure saueoure  saued alle mankende .
For-thi alle pore þat pacient is  may claymen and asken .
After here endynge here  heuene-riche blisse .
¶ Muche hardier may he asken  þat here miȝt haue his wille .
In lordeR.14.276: Alpha almost certainly read lorde at the beginning of the a-verse (cf. F's As a lord of) and seems a classic case of scribal anticipation of lordschipe later in the line. Beta, by contrast, has londe. Cx agrees with beta. and in lordschipe and lykynge of body .
And for godes loue leueth al  and lyueth as a beggere .
And as a mayde for aR.14.278: R's a is a unique addition to the text witnessed by the other B manuscripts; however, the vast majority of C copies agree with R's reading, so it is probably authorial in B as well. mannes loue  hire moder for-saketh .
Hire fader and alle hire frendes  and folwedR.14.279: R uniquely deploys the past tense; all others read folweth. But see the Introduction III.2.2.10 on tense ambiguities in this manuscript's tradition. hire make .
Muche is þatR.14.280: In place of alpha's þat, beta seems to have read suche a. Cx certainly attests such a. mayde to louie  of hym þat suche on taketh .
More þan a mayden is  þat is maried þoruȝ brocage .
As by assent of sondri parties  and siluer to bote .
More for coueytise of gode  þan kende loue of bothe .
¶ So it fareth be vch a persone  þat possession forsaketh .
And put hym to be pacient  and pouerte weddeth .
R.14.286: R uniquely omits Þe at the head of this line. Cx agrees with the B majority. Which is sib to god hym-selue  and so neyȝ is pouerte .R.14.286: Beta's b-verse is entirely different, reading and so to his seyntes. The b-verse of C is completely revised and distinct from alpha or beta: and semblable bothe.
¶ Haue god my treuthe quod haukyn  þat huyreR.14.287: R's meaning is unclear. Bx itself may have been corrupt at this point. Cf. F's y heere and beta's ȝe. faste preyseR.14.287: R's word order is unique; F omits faste while beta reads preyse faste. pouerte .
What is pouerte pacienceR.14.288: Beta here reads pouerte with pacience. F omits the phrase entirely. The X family of C agrees with R. Some P manuscripts read patient instead of pacience. quod he  proprely to mene .
Paupertas quod pacience  est odibile bonum .
fol. 70vI
Remocio curarum possessio sine calumpnia .
Donum dei semitaR.14.291: R's semita is unique (Bx / Cx = sanitatis), an obvious error by anticipation of the same word later in the citation. mater absque solitudine semita .
Sapiencie temperatrix  negocium sine dampno .
Incerta fortuna . absque solicitudine felicitas .
¶ I can nauȝt construe al þis quod haukyn  Here R divides one Bx line into two.
Ye moste kenne me þis an englische .
In englisch quod pacience it is wel harde  wel to expounen .
And some-del I schal seyn it  by so þow vnderstande .
Pouerte is þe furste poynte  þat pruide moste hateth .
Þan is it goed by goed skil  al þat agasteth pruide .
Riȝt as contricion is confortable thynge  consience wote wel .
And a sorwe of hym-selue  and a solace to þe soule .
So pouerte propreliche  penaunce and ioye .
Is to þe bodye  puir spirituale helthe .
Ergo paupertas est odibile bonum .
¶ And contricion conforte  and cura animarum .
Selde sit pouerte  þe sothe to declare .
Or as iustice to iuge menR.14.307: The b-verse of this line was either garbled beyond hope or completely lost by alpha; R omits it entirely while F repositions the caesura and fleshes out the line with of gyltys. Beta reads enioigned is no pore, which is similar to the reading of Cx.
Ne for toR.14.308: R's Ne for to is a unique version of this line's opening. F reads Ne as while beta has Ne to. Cx agrees with beta on this phrase. be a meyre ouereR.14.308: R's ouere is unique; F reads on while beta has aboue. Cx agrees with R. men  ne ministre vnder kynges
Selde is enemye poreR.14.309: The problem here seems to have its source in alpha. R's enemye pore is an obvious corruption of beta's any pore; F's þe poore looks like a typical effort to repair the alpha damage merely reflected thoughtlessly by R. Cx agrees with beta. y-put  to puneschen eny poeple .
Remocio curarum .
Ergo pouerte and pouer men  parfournen þe comaundement .
Nolite iudicare quemquam  . The thredde .
¶ Selde is pore riȝtR.14.313: The majority of beta manuscripts has any pore in place of alpha's pore riȝt. Cx agrees with alpha. riche  but of hisR.14.313: R's but of his is unique among B copies; F has but it be of while beta reads but of. However, Cx agrees with R's phrasing. riȝtful heritage .
Wynneth he nouȝt with wittes falsR.14.314: F seems to have been unhappy with alpha's reading, (presumably identical to R's) and smoothed it to hise wyȝles. Beta's reading (weghtes fals = "false weights") seems more vivid and stylistically superior to R's wittes fals. Most P family copies within the C tradition agree with beta. Nevertheless, R's relatively bland reading may in fact be authorial; a comparison with C shows that five of the best X family manuscripts (XYcKcTH2) agree with R on this lection. This agreement is highly unlikely to have resulted from merely random convergence; at the very least, the bipolar confusion of this variant array appears to reflect an ambiguously spelled form in the common archetype of both versions. R's reading may, in fact, be no more than a formal variant of beta's; cf. the comments on wit at R.15.225:.  ne with vnseled mesures .
Ne borweth of his neyȝebores  but þat he may wel paye .
Possessio sine calumpnia 
¶ Þe ferthe it is a R.14.317: R's it represents a unique addition to the text witnessed by the other B manuscripts (including F), but it is supported as authorial by a majority of C copies, including the most reliable members of the X family. fortune  þat florescheth þe soule .
With sobrete fram alle synne  and also ȝet more .
It affaiteth þe flesche  fram folies ful manye .
A collateral conforte  cristes oune ȝifte .
Donum deiR.14.321: R omits his usual blank line before the next verse paragraph, presumably because the next line is the last one ruled for this side.
¶ Þe fifte it is þe moderR.14.322: Cf. R's it is þe moder to F's is þe Moodir and beta's is moder. of heleR.14.322: Cf. RF's hele to beta's helthe .  a frende in alle fondynges .
fol. 71rI
And for þe lawdeR.14.323: This variant array shows a truly puzzling configuration of attestation, with C offering no help because of an extensive revision to fix the confusion found in B witnesses. R's lawde agrees with the beta copies CY but makes no obvious sense; F uniquely reads lawe, which is probably no more than a typical piece of that scribe's speculative reconstruction. The most trustworthy beta copies (LMCrWHm) all agree on land, which has the advantage of making ordinary sense, but Kane and Donaldson prefer lewde, the reading of GOC2B. euere a-liche  a lemman of alle clennesse .
Sanitatis mater .
¶ Þe sixte it isR.14.325: R's it is is unique among the B copies; both F and beta read is. However, a large majority of C manuscripts agrees with R (though five C witnesses support with beta. a path of pees  ȝe þoruȝ þe papa[s] altoneR.14.325: R uniquely omits the preposition of before altone. G's source may also have omitted it since that manuscript supplies at. .
Pouerte miȝt passe  withoute peril of robbynge .
For þere þat pouerte passeth  pees folweth after .
And euer þe lasse þat he bereth  þe hardierR.14.328: R's omission of he at this point is distinctive. F omits this entire line; beta reads the phrase as hardyer he is. is of herte .
For-thi seith senecca . Paupertas est absque solitudineR.14.329: This error (for solicitudine) is shared with F and thus derives from alpha, but it is also found in several beta manuscripts, indicating that an uncommon Latin suspension in Bx may have been the original stimulus to what seems, at first glance, an unlikely mistake. semita .
And an hardy man of herte  amonge an hepe of theues .
Cantabat paupertas coram latrone viator .
¶ Þe seuenthe it is R.14.332: R's it is is, once more, unique among the B copies; both F and beta simply read is. Most of the X family in the C tradition agrees with beta; however, a simple majority of C manuscripts (including some of the X set and most of the P set) agrees with R. wel of wysdom  and fewe wordes scheweth .
For lordes aloweth hym liteR.14.333: All the other B and C witnesses read litel.  or listeneth to his resoun .
He tempreth þe tonge to trewthe-warde  þatR.14.334: At the head of the b-verse, beta reads and in place of alpha's þat; however, all of the C manuscripts agree with alpha here. no tresor coueyteth .R.14.334: Immediately hereafter, alpha (as well as a majority of C witnesses) omitted a Latin line on poverty found in beta:
Sapiencie temperatrix.
¶ Þe eyȝtethe it is R.14.335: R's it is is, once more, unique among the B copies; both F and beta simply read is. However, most of the C copies agree with R (though half a dozen—UcDcChEcGcN—support beta). a lele laborere  and lothe to take more .
Þan he may wel deserue  in somer or in wynter .
And if he chafareth he chargeth no losse  mowe he charite wyntewyn[n]e .
Negocium sine dampno .
¶ Þe nythe it isR.14.339: R's spelling, nythe, is unique among the B copies and may seem an obvious error of the simplest sort: inadvertent omission of a nasal bar; but virtually all of the C manuscripts share this spelling of nyneth Both MED, s. v. ninthe, and OED2, s. v. ninth and nineth, acknowledge the possibility of this spelling of the ordinal in Middle English.R.14.339: Once more, R uniquely reads it is where the other B witnesses have is. As in earlier instances in this listing passage, however, though a few C manuscripts agree with beta's simpler rendering, the vast majority supports R's reiterative phrase. swete to þe soule  no sugur is swettere .
For pacience is payne  for pouerte hym-selue .
And sobrete swete drinke  and goed leche in sekenesse .
Þus lered me a leredR.14.342: R's form is shared with F; beta has lettred. Several variants (including lewed!) occur at this position in C witnesses, but the majority agrees with alpha on lered. man  for oure lordes loue .
Seynt austyn a blissed lif  with-outen busynesse .
For body and for soule  solicitudine felicitas .R.14.344: Among the B copies, R uniquely omits absque at the head of the Latin phrase. The same omission occurs in three C manuscripts of the X family (TH2Ch), but Cx supports the B majority.
Now god þat alle gode gyueth  graunte his soule reste .
Þat þus furst wrote to wisse men  what pouerte was to mene .
¶ Allas quod haukynR.14.347: R completely drops the second stave of the a-verse (Bx = þe actyf man þo ), probably mirroring alpha in this loss, while F gives the appearance of trying to repair the damage, replacing the missing material with a simple þanne.  þat after my cristendom 
I ne hadde be dede and doluen  for doweles sake .
So harde it is quod haukyn  to lyue and to do synne .
Synne schewethR.14.350: R's scheweth is an alpha error shared with F; beta's suweth is obviously correct. vs euere quod he  and sori gan wexe .
And wepte water with his eyȝesR.14.351: R shares this version of the plural with F; the beta form is eyghen.  and weyled þe tyme .
Þat euere he dede dede  þat dere god displesed 
Swowed and sobbed  and siked ful ofte .
Þat euere he had londe or lordschipe  lasse other more .
fol. 71vI
Or meistrie ouer any man  mo þan of hym-selue .
I were nauȝt worthi  wite god R.14.356: Cf. R's wite god to beta's wote god. F and some of the beta manuscripts completely omit the phrase woot god. quod haukyn  to werie any clothes .
Ne noyther scherte ne schone  saue for schame one .
To keuere my caroyne quod he  and cried mercy faste .
And wepte and weyled  and þere-with I awaked .