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passus xiiijus .
Passus xiiijusx[v]usquartus decimus[quintus] decimus de visione vt supra .

AcR.15.1: Inside the triangle formed by the top of the ornamental capital, the rubricator has drawn a nun's face. after my walkyngeR.15.1: R shares this error (walkynge for Bx's wakyng ) with Bm and Bo alone.  it was wonder longe .
Ar I coude kendely  knowe what was dowel .
And so my wit wexe and wanyed  til I a foel were .
And somme lakked my lif  alowed it fewe .
And leten me for a lorel  and lothe to reuerencen .
Lordes or ladyes  or any lif elles 
As persones in pelure  with pendauntes of suluer .
To seriauntz andR.15.8: R's and is an alpha variant; cf. beta's ne. to suche  and seideR.15.8: R's phrase, suche and seide, is unique; beta omits and, while F reads swiche men seyde. nauȝt ones .
God loke ȝow lordes  ne louted faire .
Þat folke helden me a foel  and in þat folye I raued .
Til reson hadde reuthe on me  and rokked me a slepe .
Til I seyȝ as it ofR.15.12: R's line closely parallels that of beta, but R's of is unattested in any beta witness. F includes of, but does so in a totally revised version of this a-verse. sorserie were  a sotil thynge with-alle .
One with-oute tonge and teth  tolde me wonder I schulde .
And where-of I cam and whider I schuldeR.15.14: R's b-verse is seriously corrupt, deploying the final phrase from the previous archetypal line (whider I schulde)—a phrase which he had miscopied in its proper place; by contrast, F has kendely here and beta manuscripts read what kynde. Moreover, R uniquely divides this botched passage so as to cause the final phrase of the Bx line to be displayed as a separate, following line, R15.15.
I coniured hym at þe laste 
If he were cristes creature  for cristes loue me to tellen :
¶ I am cristes creature quod he  and cristene in many place .
In cristes court I-knowe wel  and of his kynne a party .
Is noyther peter þe porter  ne powel with þeR.15.19: R's þe is unique; the other B manuscripts have his. Among the C copies, the X family agrees with R while the P family agrees with the others. fauchon .
Þat wole defende me þe dore  dynge ych neuer so late .
At mydnyȝte at mydday  my voys is so I-knowe .
Þat Ich a creature of his courte  welcometh me faire .
¶ What ar ȝe cald quod I  in þat courte  amonge cristes poeple .
¶ Þe whiles I quikye þe corps  quod he  I-cald am I anima .
And whan I wilne and wolde  animus Ich hate .
And for þat I can and knowe  cald am I mens . thouȝteR.15.26: R's thouȝte is a unique reading among the B copies and has the appearance of a scribal gloss erroneously incorporated into the text. F's line terminal ofte then would represent a fairly typical example of that tradition's tendency toward "smoothing" earlier mistakes. However that may be, thouȝte also appears at this point in a large number of C manuscripts of both major families, including XYcP2TH2Ch (of the X group) and PEcQZWaGcNcFcCa (of the P group); so if it is an error, its source is a manuscript prior to Bx in the line of transmission. .
And whanne I make mone to god .
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And whanne I make mone to god  memoria is my name .
And whanne I deme domes  and do as treuthe techeth .
Þanne is racio my riȝte name  resoun an englisch .
And whanne I fele þat folke telleth  my furst name is sensus .
And þat is wit and wisdome  þe welle of alle craftes .
And whanne I chalenge or chalenge nauȝte  chepe or refuse .
Þanne am I consience I-called  godes clerk and his notarie .
And whanne I loue lelly  oure lorde and alle other .
Þanne is lele loue my name  and in latyn amor .
And whanne I fle fro þe flesche  and forsake þe caroyne .
Þanne am I spirit speche-les  andR.15.37: RF are joined by L alone among the beta copies in adding the conjunction here. However, Cx clearly agrees with this LRF reading. spiritus þanne Ich hatte .
Austyn and Isodorus  ayther of hem bothe 
Nempned me þus to name  now þow miȝt chese .
How þow coueytest to calle me  now þow knowest alle my names .
Anima pro diuersis accionibus diuersa nomina sortitur .
Dum viuificat corpus anima est .
Dum wltR.15.43: R's wlt is a common English scribal spelling for Latin vult; it appears to have resulted from an association between the customary phonetic value assigned to Latin initial <v> (= /w/) and a popular sense of the origin of the <w> graph itself as a "double v." Because many other European languages, as well as Latin, had no <w> graph, and foundries therefore omitted the form from standard typographic templates, English printers often resorted to using the digraph <vv> to represent English <w> till the end of the seventeenth century. animus est 
Dum sits[c]it mens est .
Dum recolit memoria est .
Dum iudicat racio est .
Dum sentit sensus est
Dum amat amor est .
Dum negat vel consentit consiencia est . In the right margin, just inside the vertical boundary of the page ruling, someone has inscribed, in drypoint, a figure resembling a backwards Roman capital <N>; opposite line 51, in the same vertical column, a figure resembling a properly faced capital <N> has been inscribed; still lower, and slightly closer to the text, in the margin opposite line 53, another reversed <N> appears to have been entered in drypoint.
Dum spirat spiritus est .
¶ Ȝe ben as a bischope quod I  alle bourdynge þat tyme .
For bischopes I-blessed  þei bereth many names .
Presul and pontifex  and metropolanus .R.15.53: The term metropolanus (= metropolitanus in beta, seems to be an alpha error. However, this spelling is also found in about half of the C witnesses, including manuscript X.
And other names an hepe  episcopus and pastor .
¶ Þat is soth seyde he  now I se þi wille .
Þow woldest knowe and kunne  þe cause of alle here names .
And of myne if þow miȝtest  me thenketh by þi speche .
¶ Ȝe sire I seyde  by so no man were greued .
Alle þe science vnder sonne  and alle þe sotil craftes .
I wolde IchR.15.60: R's Ich is unique, but only in form; the other B manuscripts have I or y, as does Cx. knewe and coude  kendelyche in myn herte .
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¶ Þanne art þow inparfit quod he  and on of pruydes kniȝtes .
For suche a luste and likynge  lucifer fel fram heuene .
Ponam pedem meum in aquilone  et similis ero altissimo .
¶ It were aȝeynes kende quod he  and alle kyne resoun .
Þat any creature schuld kenne al  excepte criste .R.15.65: R here shows a unique omission; Bx reads cryste one. Cx agrees with the B archetype.
Aȝeynes suche salomon speketh  and despiseth here wittes .
And seith sicut qui mel comedit R.15.67: The scribe has included midline punctuation here, but he has partially obscured it by overwriting it with the first stroke of the following <m>. multum non est ei bonum .
Sic qui scrutator est maiestatis opprimaturR.15.68: Cf. F's opprimetur and beta's opprimitur. Cx agrees with R on this inflectional form. a gloria .
To englisch men þis is to mene  þat mowen speke and here .
Þe man þat muche hony eetR.15.70: This is an alpha variant; cf. beta's eteth. Most C copies agree with alpha, but some with beta.  his mawe is englaymed .
And þe more þat a man  of gode matere hereth .
But he do þere-after  it doth hym double skathe .
Beatus est seith seint bernarde  qui scripturas legit .
Et vertit verba in opera  follich to his powere .
Coueytyse to kunne  and to knowe science .
Pulte oute of paradys  adam and eue .
SciencieR.15.77: There is an otiose curl on the tail of the first <e> of Sciencie; it is not altogether different from a flourish that is part of the scribe's normal repertoire, but from its slightly altered position, it looks as though he was planning to bar the <e> to represent the following <n> but then changed his mind. appetitus hominem immortalitatis gloriam spoliauit .
And ȝetR.15.78: R's ȝet is unique; Bx and Cx = riȝte. as hony is euel to defie  and engleymeth þe mawe .
Riȝt so þat thurȝ resoun  wolde þe rote knowe 
Of god and of his grete miȝtes  his graces it letteth .
For in þe likynge lith a pruide  and a lycames coueytise .
A-ȝeynes cristes conselle  and alle clerkes techynge .
Þat is non plus sapere quam oportet sapere .
¶ Freres and otherR.15.84: After and beta supplies fele, a modifier omitted by G as well as alpha. maistres  þat to þe lewed men prechen .
Ȝe meuen materes vnmesurables  to tellen of þe trinite .R.15.85: Hereafter RF omit a line found in beta:
Þat ofte tymes þe lewed peple of her bileue douten.
Betere by-leue by moneR.15.86: Mone, "many."  doctoures techynge .R.15.86: The Bx version of this line seems much in doubt; there are complex textual variations among all the manuscripts. Likeliest to represent the beta version is L, whose rendering closely parallels that of Cr: Bettere byleue were mony doctoures such techyng. F has Bettre it were to be-leve on / as doctouris vs techeþ.
And telle menR.15.87: Here R is joined only by G in omitting of after men; F omits men. þe ten comaundementz  & touchen þe seuen synnes .
And of þe braunches þat bourgelethR.15.88: R's bourgeleth is unique. F reads burgoneþ and beta manuscripts show spelling variations of the same, e.g., burgeouneth.  of hem  and bringeth men to helle .
And how þat folke in folies  myspenden here fyue wittes .
As wel freres as other folke  folilich spenen .
In housynge in hateryngein-toR.15.91: Beta's phrase is and into. hey clergie schewynge .
More for pompe þanne for puire charite  þe pople wote þe sotheR.15.92: There is an ink smudge in the left margin at this point, apparently the result of blotting contact with the note in the right margin at R15.125 on the recto page.
Þat I lye nauȝt loo  for lordes ȝe plesen .
And reuerencen þe riche  ratherR.15.94: R uniquely omits þe before rather. Cx agrees with the other B manuscripts on this. for here suluer .
Confundantur omnes qui adorant sculptilia . et alibi .
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Vt quid diligitis vanitatem et queritisR.15.96: R uniquely omits mendacium after queritis. &cetera .
Go to þe glose of þe vers  ȝe grete clerkes .
If I lye on ȝowe to my lewed wit  ledeth me to brennynge .
For as it semeth ȝe forsaketh  no mannes almesse .
Of vsureres of hores  andR.15.100: R's and is unique; F reads & of while beta has of. auerous chapmen .
And louten to þis lordes  þat mowen lene ȝow nobles
Aȝeyne ȝoure reule & ȝoureR.15.102: Here R uniquely adds a second ȝoure to the line. religioun  I take recorde at Ihesus .
Þat seyde to his disciples  ne sitis acceptores personarum .R.15.103: Beta transposes the RF phrase to personarum acceptores.
¶ Of þis matere I miȝte  make a greteR.15.104: In place of R's grete, F reads mychil and beta shows longe. bible .
Ac of curatoures ouerR.15.105: R's ouer is unique; the other manuscripts read of. cristene poeple  as clerkes bereth witnesse .
I schal tellen it for treuthe sake  take hede ho-so lyketh .
As holynesse and honeste  oute of holy cherche spredeth . These lines are marked by a brace in the right margin, as well as a pointing hand. There is a brown ink stain immediately above the end of line 107.
Þoruȝ lele lybbynge men  þat godes lawes techeth .
Riȝt so oute of holy cherche  alle eueles spredeth .
Þere inparfit presthode is  andR.15.110: The beta manuscripts omit this conjunction. prechoures and techoures . Beginning just below the pointing hand referred to at R15.107, there is an erased note in the right margin, written horizontally in some 16 short lines that extend down the page to a point approximately 2.2 cm. below the last line of scribal text. The hand appears to be the same as that discernible in the extensive erased note on fol. 94r.
And se it by ensaumple  in somer tyme on trewes .
Þere somme bowes ben leued  and somme bereth none .
Þere is a meschief in þe more  of suche maner bowes .
Riȝt so persones and prestes  and prechoures of holy cherchesR.15.114: R uniquely deploys the plural; the other manuscripts read cherche. Cx agrees with them against R.
Is þeR.15.115: Where R reads Is þe, beta has Þat aren and F shows Þey sholde been. A majority of C manuscripts agrees with R. rote of þe riȝt faith  to reule þe poeple 
Ac þere þe rote is roten  reson wote þe sothe .
Schal neuere floure ne fruit  ne faire lefe be grene .
For-thi walde þe lettred  leue þe lecherie of clothynge .
And be kynde as byfel for clerkes  and curteys of cristes godes .
Trewe of ȝoure tonge  and of ȝoure taile bothe .
And hatyen to here herlotrie  and auȝtR.15.121: R uniquely reads auȝt; F reads looþ wrong; a majority of the beta copies show nouȝt. to vnderfonge .
Tythes of treweR.15.122: RF are in agreement on trewe (supported by CrWG), but most beta manuscripts read vntrewe. thynge  I-tyled or I-chafared .
¶ Lothe were lewed men  but þei ȝoure lore folwede .
And amenden hem þat þeiR.15.124: R's þei is unique; all the other manuscripts omit it. mysdon  more for ȝoure ensaumples .
Þan for to prechen and preue it nauȝt  ypocrisie it semeth .R.15.125: A sixteenth-century reader has inscribed in the right margin opposite this line Ipocrysye.
For ypocrisie in latyn  is likkned to a dongounR.15.126: Beta reads dongehul where RF have dongoun. In a substantially revised version of this line, the C version attests donghep, suggesting that beta's reading was original.
Þat were bi-snewed with snowe  and snakes with-Inne .
Or to a wal þat were white-lymed  and were foule with-Inne .
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Riȝt so many prestes  prechoures and prelates .
Ȝe ar enblaunched with bele paroles . and with clothes .R.15.130: F's final phrase is completely unique (blewe burnet cloþis), but beta differs here from R only by adding also at the end of the line. The C version attests with bele clothes.
And ȝoure werkes and ȝoure wordes  þere-vnder aren ful wlueliche .R.15.131: For R's wlueliche, F shows foxly and beta reads vnlouelich.R.15.131: The spelling wlueliche is probably not erroneous. Cf. R.15.43:, and the note on wlt.
¶ Iohannes criostomuscri[s]ostomus  of clerkes speketh and prestes .
Sicut de templo omne bonum proceditR.15.133: The form procedit is from alpha. Beta witnesses read progreditur, the same verb form found at this point in the C version.
Sic de templo omne malum procedit .
Si sacerdocium integrum fuerit  tota floret ecclesia .
Si autem coruptaR.15.136: Beta reads coruptum. Both inflectional forms are found in C witnesses, but distribution and numbers suggest that the alpha reading was archetypal in C. fuerit  omnium fides marcida est .
Si sacerdosR.15.137: Beta reads sacerdocium. Both inflectional forms are found in C witnesses, but the beta reading is archetypal in C. fuerit in peccatis  totus populus conuertitur ad peccatum .R.15.137: Beta reads peccandum. Both readings are found in C witnesses, but the beta reading is archetypal in C.
Sicut cum videris arborem pallidam & marcidam .
In tellisIntelli[gi]s quod vicium habet in radice .
Ita cum videris populum indisciplinatum & irreligiosum .
Sine dubio sacerdocium eius non est sanum .
¶ If lewed men wiste  what þis latyn meneth . In the left margin, a black brace extends the entire length of this verse paragraph.
And who was myn auctour  muche wonder me thenketh .
But if many preste bere  for here broches and for here baselardes .R.15.144: Most beta witnesses have But if many a prest bere for here baselardes and here broches, where the alliterative pattern suggests that Bx was already corrupt. R reads the nouns of beta's final phrase in transposed order. The R scribe's placement of a punctus elevatus after bere probably indicates that he did not take and for here baselardes to have constituted the b-verse by itself. F's line (But euery prest sholde bere / for here broode baselardis) is unique, revised in the light of a seemingly confused exemplar.
A peyre bedes in here honde  orR.15.145: R's or is an alpha reading; beta has and. a boke vnder here arme .
Sire iohan and sire gefferey  hath a gurdel of suluer .
A baselard or a ballok-knyf  with botones ouergilte .
Ac a portos þat schulde be his plow  placebo to segge .
Hadde he neuere seruise to haueR.15.149: For R's to haue, F reads ne; the other manuscripts read to saue. siluer þere-to  seith it with euelR.15.149: Most beta manuscripts have ydel; but L (= yvel) joins alpha in reading euel. wille .
Allas ȝe lewed men muche lese ȝe on prestes .
Ac þinge þat wikkedliche is wonne and with fals sleȝtes .
Walde neuere wit of witty god  but wikked men it maked .R.15.152: R's maked is an alpha reading (cf. F's made). Beta reads hadde. Cx agrees with beta.
Þe whiche aren prestes in-parfit  and prechoures after siluer .
Seketoures and sodenes  somnoures and here lemmanes .
Þis þat with gile was gete  vngraciousliche is spened .R.15.155: R's spened is unique; F and most beta copies have spended, from the R verb's etymological parent—though W reads despended. The P family of C agrees with W (and by implication beta and F), but the majority of the X family supports R (reading yspened).
So harlotes and hores  aren hulpen with suche godethgode[s] .
Ac godes folke for defaute þere-of  forfaren and spillen . .
¶ Curatoures of holy cherche  and clerkes þat ben auerous .
Liȝteliche þat þei leuen  loseles it habbeth 
Or deyeth intestate  and þanne þe bischope entreth .
And maketh murthe þere-with  and his men bothe .
And seggen he was a nygarde  þat no gode miȝt aspare .
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To frende ne to fremede . þe fende haue his soule .
For a wreched hous he helde  al his lyf-tyme .
And þat he spared and bi-sperred  spene we in murthe .
¶ By lered by lewed  þat lothe is to spene .R.15.166: R's spene is unique; F and most beta copies have spende, from the R verb's etymological parent—though W reads despende. Cf. R.15.155: above.
Þus goen here godes  be þe goste faren .
Ac for gode men god wote  grete doel men maketh .
And bymeneth gode meteȝiueres  and in mynde hem haueth .
In preyeres and in penaunces  and in parfite charite .
¶ What is charite quod I þo  a childisch þinge he seyde .
Nisi efficiamini sicut paruuli  non intrabitis in regnum celorum .
Withoute fauntelte or folye  a fre liberal wille .
Where schuld men fynde suche a frende  with so fre an herte .
Longe WylleR.15.175: This decorative, rubricated marginal, very unusual in the typical pattern of Piers Plowman glosses, may offer evidence for how early in the transmission chain MS R stands: MSS L and M both have sixteenth-century glosses taking note of Longe Wylle (M repeating the actual textual phrase, as in R); but among beta copies, only MS O (which Ralph Hanna dates to the first quarter of the fifteenth century) shows this gloss in a hand contemporary to its main scribal hand. Another alpha/beta shared gloss, involving MSS R and L, occurs somewhat later in this passus with the unexpected and atypical Isa. 3 note at R15.582, attested solely by MSS L, R and F.
¶ Ich haue lyued in londe quod I  my name is longe wille .
And fonde I neuere ful charite  by-fore ne byhynde :
Men beth merciable to mendinaunsR.15.177: R uniquely reads to; cf. beta's & to and F's ne to. to pore .
And wole lene þere þei leue  leleliche to ben apayed .
Ac charite þat powel preyseth best  and moste plesaunt to god .R.15.179: F reads the end of this line as god in heuene while beta reads owre saueoure.
As non inflatur non est ambiciosa non querit que sua sunt .
I seiȝ neuere suche a man  so me god helpe .
Þat he ne wolde aske after his  and other-while coueyte .
Þinge þat hym nededR.15.183: R's hym neded is an alpha reading transposed in beta to neded hym. The beta order is also that found in Cx. nauȝt  and nyme it if he miȝte .
¶ Clerkes kennethR.15.184: R uniquely reads kenneth; All other manuscripts have kenne(n). me þat criste  is in alle places .
Ac I seyȝ hym neuere sothly  but as my-sulue in myroure .
Hic in enigmate tunc facie ad faciem :
And so I trowe trewely  by þat men telleth of charite .
It is nouȝt championes fiȝt  ne chaffare as I trowe .
¶ Charite quod he ne chaffareth nouȝte  noþerR.15.189: R uniquely reads noþer at the head of the b-verse; the other copies have ne. chalengeth ne craueth .
As proude of a peny as of a pounde of golde .
And is as glad of a gowne  of a grayregraye russet .
As of a tunicle of tars  or of trie skarlet .
He is gladde with alle glade  and gode til alle wikked .
He leuethR.15.194: R's He is an alpha lection; beta has And; R's leueth is matched only in Cr; F reads beleviþ while beta manuscripts are ambiguous. Kane and Donaldson read them as leneth, but Skeat construed L's reading as leueth. and loueth alle  þat oure lorde made .
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Curseth he no creature  ne he can bere no wrathe
Ne no likynge haueR.15.196: R's haue is unique; beta reads hath to; F transposes the opening of the a-verse as Ne he haþ lykynge to. Cx supports beta here. lye  ne lawhe meR.15.196: R's me is unique; cf. beta's men and F's non. Cx supports beta here also. to scorne .
Alle þat men seith  he let it sothe  and in solace taketh .
And alle maner meschiefes  in myldenesse he suffreth .
Coueyteth he non erthely godesR.15.199: Alpha shows the plural; beta reads the singular, good.  but heuene-riche blisse .
¶ Hath he any rentes or richesse  or any riche frendes .
¶ Of rentes ne of richesse  ne recheth he neuere .
For a frende þat fyntR.15.202: R's fynt is a unique form of the verb; most of the other manuscripts, including F, read fyndeth. The Cx reading is uncertain: most P family copies support the F/beta reading, but most X family witnesses agree with R. hym  failed hyhy[m] neuere at nede .
Fiat voluntas tua  fynt hym euer-more .
And if he soupeth eet but a soppe  of spera in deo .
He can portreye wel þe paternoster  and peynten it with aue .R.15.205: Alpha shows the singular; beta reads the plural, aues (as does the C version).
And other-while is woneR.15.206: R uniquely omits a pronoun reference from is wone. Most beta manuscripts read he is wone; others (LMHm) read is his wone; F has he is wont. Cx attests his wone is. to wende o pilgrimage .
Þere pore men and prisones liggeth  here pardoun to haue .
Þouȝ he bere hem no brede  he bereth hem swettere liflode .
Loueth hem as oure lorde bit  and loketh how þei fare .
¶ And whan he is weri of þat werke  þan wole he sum-tyme .
Labory in a lauandrie  wel þe lengthe of a myle .
And ȝerne in-to ȝouthe  and ȝepliche secheR.15.212: R's seche is unique; cf. beta's speke and F's þere seken. Cx's reading (secheth) supports R here. .
Pruide with alle þe purtenaunce  and pakken hem to-gyderes .
And bouken hem at his breste  and beten hem clene .
And leggen on longe  with laboraui in gemitu meo .
And with warme water at his eyȝes  waschen hem after
ÞanneR.15.217: Beta's opening phrase reads And þanne. In a slightly revised line, Cx supports alpha, omitting And. he sengeth whan he doth so  and sumtyme seith wepinge .
Cor contritum & humiliatum deus non despicies 
¶ By crist I wold þat I knewe hym quod I  no creature leuere .
¶ With-outen helpe of peres þe plowman quod he .R.15.220: R uniquely divides a Bx line in half here, rendering it as two.
His persone seest þow neuere 
¶ Where clerkes knowen hym quod I  þaþa[t] kepen holy cherche .
¶ Clerkes han no knowlechyngeR.15.223: R's knowlechynge is unique; the other manuscripts read knowyng. quod he  but by werkes & by wordes .
Ac peres þe plowman  parseyueth more deppere .
fol. 75rI
Þat is wilR.15.225: After is alpha omits þe, which is present in beta. and wherefore  þat mony witR.15.225: R's wit is unique in form but probably represents the same word as beta's wyȝte and F's whyȝt. Both MED and OED2 document this spelling s. v. wight. suffreth .
AndR.15.226: R's And is unique; the other manuscripts read Et. Cx supports the majority here. vidit deus cogitaciones eorum .
For þere are ful proude herteR.15.227: R's herte is unique. Other B manuscripts read herted. men  pacient of tonge .
And buxum as of berynge  to bugrgeysR.15.228: The <r> of burgeys appears to have been written over another character. and to lordes .
And to pore peple  han peper in þe nose .
And as a leon he loketh  þere men lakketh his werkes .
¶ For þere aren beggeres and bydderes  bedmen as it were .
Loketh as a lambroun  and semedR.15.232: R's semed is unique; cf. beta's semen and F's seme of. lif-holy .
Ac it is more to haue here mete  on suche an esye manere
Þanne for penaunce & parfitnesse  þe pouerte þat such taketh .
¶ Þere-for by coloure ne by clergie  knowe schal þow hym neuere .
Noyther þoruȝ wordes ne werkes  but þoruȝ wil one .
And þat knoweth no clerke  ne creature an erthe .
But peres þe plow-man  petrus id est christus .
For he nis nauȝt in lolleres  ne in lande-leperes eremites .
Ne at ancres þere a box hangeth  alle suche þei fayten .
Fy on faitoures  and in fautores suos .
¶ For charite is godes chaumpion  & as a gode childe hende .
And þe muriest of muthe  at mete where he sitteth .
ToR.15.244: R's To is unique error; all the other manuscripts read Þe. loue þat lyth in his herte  maketh hym liȝt of speche .
And is companable and confortatif  as crist bit hym-selue .
Nolite tristes fieri sicut yporcriteypocrite .R.15.246: Kane-Donaldson note R's unique phrasal variation for this Latin line (the other manuscripts have Nolite fieri sicut ypocrite tristes &c), but they overlook the erroneous spelling, yporcrite. Cx supports R's phrasing of this tagline.
¶ For I haue seyne hym in silke  & sum-tyme in russet .
Bothe in gray and in gris  and in gulte herneys .
And as gladliche he it gaf  to gomes þat it neded .
¶ Emund and edwarde  eyther were kynges .
And seyntes I-sette  soR.15.251: For RF's so, beta reads tyl or for. charite hem folwede .
¶ Ich haue I-seyn charite al-so  syngen and reden .
Riden and rennen  in ragged wedes .
Ac biddynge as beggeres  byhelde I hym neuere .
Ac in riche robes  rathest he walketh .
l iiij
fol. 75vI
I-called and I-crymeled  and his croune yschaue .
And in a frereR.15.257: R's frere (an unmarked genitive) is unique; all the other manuscripts read freres however, the preponderance of C evidence (most of the X family and some of the P family) supports R's reading. frocke  he was Ifounde ones .
Ac it is ferre agoo  in seynt fraunceys tyme .
In þat secte sitthe  to selde hath he be knowe .
¶ Riche men he recomendeth  and of here robes taketh .
Þat with-oute wiles  leden here lyues .
Beatus est diues qui &cetera .
¶ In kynges court he cometh ofte þere þe conseil is trewe .
Ac if coueytise be of þe conseil  he wol nauȝt come þer-inne .
In court amonges iaperes  he cometh but selde .
For braulynge and bagbytynge  and berynge of fals witnesse .
¶ In þe constorie byfore þe comissarie  he cometh nauȝt ful ofte .
For here lawe dureth ouer-longe  but if þei lacchen suluer
And matrimonye for mone  maken and vn-maken .
And þat consience and criste  hath yknyt faste .
Þei vndon it vnworthiliche  þo doctoures of lawe .
Amonges erchebischopes and oþer bischopes These lines are unique to alpha and there are line-division problems. Moreover, there are sufficient differences between R and F in these lines to justify reproducing the latter's lines verbatim (cf. Appendix 1, R15.272-77, for details and any cross-references to the C version):
¶ With Bisshopis & abbotys / & prelatis of holy chirche.
For to wone with hem / hys wone was sum-tyme.
& cristis parsymonye to þe pore / parcel-mel þey deltyn.
But Auerise hathorn; þe keyȝes /& kepithorn; for hise kenysmen.
& for hise seketouris & seruauntis /& summe for hise chirdryn
And prelates of holy cherche 
Forto wonye with hem  his wone was sum-tyme .
And cristes patrimonye to þe pore  parcel-mel dele .
Ac auerice hath þe keyes now  and kepeth for his kynnesmen .
And for his seketoures & his seruantz  & somme for here childrun .
Ac I ne lak no lif  but lord amende vs alle .
And gif vs grace gode god  charite to folwe .
For ho-so miȝt mete with hym  suche maneres hym aileth .
Noyther he blameth ne banneth  bosteth ne preyseth .
Lakketh ne loseth  ne loketh vp sterne .
Craueth ne coueyteth  ne crieth after more .R.15.283: Immediately after this line, alpha omits a Latin line found in beta:
In pace in idipsum dormiam &c. OC2 have this line in the margin, suggestive of how it might have been overlooked in alpha if this were its location in Bx.
Þe moste lyflode þat he lyuethR.15.284: After lyueth R uniquely omits by.  is loue in godes passioun .
Neyther he neR.15.285: R's first ne in this line is unique; all the other B manuscripts omit it. However, among the C manuscripts, most of the X family agrees with R, while the others agree with beta. byddethR.15.285: There is a discoloration in the parchment (resembling a large punctus) immediately after byddeth, but it has no significance. ne beggeth  ne borweth to ȝelde .
Misdoth he no man  ne with his mouth greueth .
¶ Amonges cristene men  þis myldnesse schuld laste .
fol. 76rI
In alle maner angres  haue þis atte herte .
Þat þouȝ þei suffred alle þis  gogo[d] suffred for vs more .
In ensaumple we schulde do so  and taketake [no] veniaunce .R.15.290: R inadvertently (and uniquely) omits no before veniaunce, causing the statement to express a very uncharitable outlook.
Of oure foes þat doth vs falsenesse  þat is oure faderes wille .
For euery man may welR.15.292: Beta transposes the opening phrase of this line as For wel may euery man. wite  if godR.15.292: With the exception of G, which here joins alpha, the beta manuscripts read god hadde wolde here. wolde hym-sulue .
Schulde nereR.15.293: R's nere is unique; the other manuscripts read neuere. iudas þeR.15.293: R's þe is shared only with BmBoCot; F reads hise and beta reads ne. Beta's reading is unquestionably the original. Iewe  haue ihesu done on rode .
Ne haue martyred peter ne powel  ne in prisone holde .
Ac he suffrede in ensaumple  þat we schuld suffre also .
And seide to suche þat suffre wolde  þat pacientes vincunt .
Verbi gracia quod he  and verrey ensaumples manye .
In legenda sanctorum  þe lif of holy seyntes .
What penaunce and pouerte  and passion þei suffred .
In hunger in hete  in alle maner angres .
Antonye and egidie  and oþer holy faderes .
Woneden in wildernessesR.15.302: R's wildernesses is unique; the other manuscripts read wildernesse.  amonges wilde bestes .
Monkkes and mendynans  men by hem-selue .
In spekes and spelonkes  selde speken to-gyderes .
Ac noyther antonye ne egydie  ne eremite þat tyme .
Of lyons ne of leopartz  no lyflode neR.15.306: A brown stain makes ne almost illegible. toke .
But of þeR.15.307: Beta here omits þe. foules þat fleeth  þus fynt men in bokes .
Excepte þat egide  after an hynde criede .
And þoruȝ þe melke of þat mekeR.15.309: F shows no adjective (= þe beeste), while R's meke is replaced in beta with mylde. beste  þe man was ysusteyned .
AcR.15.310: R's Ac is unique; beta reads And while F shows an omission. day by day hadde he hire nauȝt  his honger forto slake .
But selden and sundry tymeR.15.311: Where alpha has the unmarked plural tyme, beta has tymes.  as seith þe boke and techeth .
¶ Antonye on a day  aboute none-tyme 
Hadde a bridde þat brouȝte hym  hisR.15.313: R's hym his is unique; beta reads hym and F has hym to. brede þat he by lyuede .
And þouȝ þe gome hadde a geste  god feddeR.15.314: Cf. beta's fonde. hem bothe .
¶ Powel primus heremita  hadde parroked inR.15.315: Beta omits alpha's in. The C version agrees with beta's omission. hym-selue .
Þat no man miȝt hym se  for mosse and for leues .
Foules hym feddeR.15.317: An ink blot covers the -ed of fedde.  fele wyntres with-alle .
Til he founded freres  of austynes ordre .
Powel after his prechynge  payneres he made .
And wan withR.15.320: Virtually all beta manuscripts (and F) add his before hondes. hondes  þat his wombe nedede .
Peter fischede for his fode  and his felawe andrewe .
fol. 76vI
Somme þei solde and somme þei eetenR.15.322: Alpha's eeten is an easier replacement for the correctly alliterating sothe(n) found in the best beta manuscripts. Cf. R.15.468:. The C version incorporates this same line, but the lemma in question shows a wide range of attested readings among C witnesses.  & so þei lyued bothe .
And also marie maudeleyne  by mores and byR.15.323: Alpha omits lyued after mores; beta omits the second by from this b-verse, as witnessed by alpha. On both of these issues, Cx agrees with beta. dewes .
Ac moste thoruȝ deuocion  and mynde of god almiȝty .
I schulde nouȝt þis seuen dayes  seggen hem alle .
Þat lyueden þus for oure lordes loue  amonges wilde bestes .R.15.326: For alpha's amonges wilde bestes, beta (and the C version) read manye longe ȝeres.
Ac þere ne was lyon ne leopartzR.15.327: R uniquely shows the plural; F and beta read the singular, leopart.  þat on laundes wente .
Noyther bere ne bore  ne other best wilde .
Þat ne fel to hire fete  and fauned with þe taile .
And ȝif þei couthe haue I-carped  by crist as I trowe .
Þei wolde haue I-fedde þat folke  by-fore wilde foules .
For alle þe curteisie þat bestes kunneR.15.332: R's curteisie þat bestes kunne is unique; F reads kyȝndenesse þat þey cowde and beta omits the entire line.  þei kidde þatR.15.332: R's second þat is unique; F reads to. Beta omits this entire line as well as the next one. folke ofte .
In likkyng and in lowynge  þere þei on laundes ȝede .R.15.333: R's in lowynge is unique; F reads lovynge. R's ȝede is unique; F reads wentyn. Beta omits the entire line.
Ac god sent hem fode by foules  and by no ferce bestes .
In menynge þat meke thynge  mylde þinge schulde fede .
As ho seith religiouse  riȝtful men schulde fynde .
And lawful men to lif-holy men  liflode brynge .
And þanne wolde lordes and ladyes  byR.15.338: R's by is unique here; based on the scribe's uniform spelling of the linking verb elsewhere (= be), this occurrence may be an error, but it cannot be so designated conclusively. It may represent another example of R's many relict forms. MED, s. v. ben, attests to the viability of by in this sense with citations from both the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, including one from the Ayenbite of Inwyt (He haþ niede, by hit to þe bodie, by hit to þe zaule—BL Arundel 57) and The Seven Sages (He schal dwelle on lyue tyl to morwe day, And by than as hit may—Cam. Dd.1.17). Moreover, at R16.166, the scribe demonstrates his comfort with the inverse situation, signifying ModE "by" with be, a form that OED2, s. v. by (prep., adv.), attests as viable for this period. lothe to agulte .
And to take of here tenauntz  more þan treuthe wolde .
Fonde þei þat freres  wolde forsake here almesse .
And bidden hem beren it  þere it was borwed .
For we beth goddes foules  and abyden alwey .
Til briddes bringen vs  þat we schulde leueR.15.343: R's leue is unique among the B manuscripts (cf. R15.400), but OED2 attests it as a recognized form for liue. (See Trevisa, 1387, s. v. live (v. 1). by .
For hadde ȝe potage and payne I-now  and peniale to drinke .
And onR.15.345: In place of alpha's on or oo (= F), beta here shows a. messe þere-myde of on manere kende .
Ȝe hadde riȝt I-now ȝe religious  & so ȝoure ordreR.15.346: Alpha here substitutes non-alliterating ordre for Bx's reule (attested in beta). me tolde .
Numquam dicit Iob rugietR.15.347: Beta reads rugit, but Cx agrees with alpha's verb form. onager cum habuerit herbam .R.15.347: Beta transposes this phrase as herbam habuerit, but Cx agrees with alpha's phrasing.
Aut mugiet bos cum ante plenum presepe steterit .R.15.348: Here alpha drops a long passage from the Latin citation as witnessed by both beta and the C version: brutorum animalium natura te condempnat quia cum eis pabulum comune sufficiat.
Ex adipe prodijt iniquitas tua 
¶ If lewed men knewe þis latyn  þei wold loke wham þei ȝeue .
And auise hem byfore  R.15.351: The beta phrasing is a fyue dayes. fyue dayes or sixe .
Ar þei amortised to monkes  or chanounes here rentes .
Allas lordes and ladyes  lewed conseil haue ȝe .
To ȝyue fram ȝoure heyres  þat ȝoure ayeles ȝow lefte .
And ȝiueth to bydde for ȝow  to suche as ben riche .
And ben I-founded and feffed eke  to bydden for other .R.15.356: The scribe fails here to skip a line between strophes, as is his custom, presumably because the next line is the last ruled one for this side.
¶ Ho parfourneth þis prophecie  of þe peple þat now libbeth 
fol. 77rI
Dispersit dedit pauperibus &cetera .
Ȝif any poeple parforne þat tixte  it are þis pore freres
For þat þei beggen aboute  in buyldynge þei spende .
And on hem-selue sum  and suchR.15.361: R's such is followed by a unique omission; most beta copies follow such with as and BF read þat. ben here laboreres .
And of hem þat habbeth þei taketh  and ȝiueth hem þat ne habbeth .
¶ Ac clerkes and kniȝtes  and comuneres þat ben riche .
Fele of ȝow fareth  as if I a forest hadde .
Þat were ful of feire tres  and I founded and caste .
How I miȝte mo þere-inne  amonges hem sette .
Riȝt so ȝe riche  ȝe robbethR.15.367: In this case (cf. R15.371), RF share with some beta copies a root form, Robbe, classified by OED2 as a sixteenth-century variant spelling for robe, v. (= ModE "clothe"); it is traceable to OF robbe (= ModE "robe"), derived from the same root as OF rob since the original meaning of "robe" was "booty, spoils." þat bethR.15.367: R's beth is unique; all other witnesses read be(n). riche .
And helpeth hem þat helpeth ȝow  & ȝyueth þere no nede is .
As ho-so fulled a tonne ful  of a fulR.15.369: R's second ful is unique; beta reads fressh and F has an omission. ryuere .
And wente forth with þat water  to woke with temese .
Riȝt so ȝe riche ȝe robbethR.15.371: See note at R.15.367:. and fedeth 
Hem þat han as ȝe han  hem ȝe make at ese .
Ac religious þat rich ben  schulde rather fedeR.15.373: In place of alpha's fede, beta has feste. beggeres .
Þan burgeys þat riche ben  as þe boek techeth .
Quia sacrilegium est res pauperum non pauperibus dare .
Item idem peccatoribus dare est demonibus immolare .R.15.376: Here alpha drops a long passage from the Latin citation as witnessed in beta: Item monache si indiges et accipis pocius das quam accipis Si autem non eges & accipis rapis.
Porro non indiget monachus si habeat quod nature sufficit .
For-thi I conseille alle cristene  to conformen hem to charite .
FoR.15.379: Neither MED nor OED2, s. v. for, cites an example of fo as viable for the preposition signified here, but it occurs in R in four widely separated contexts (cf. R2.64, R14.60, and R20.224) and probably represents an instance of idiolect apocope. Cf. R's common use of fro (= ModE "from") and mo (= ModE "more"). charite with-oute chalengynge . vnchargeth .R.15.379: R uniquely omits the end of Bx's b-verse: þe soule.
And many a prison fram purgatorie  þoruȝ his preyeres is deliuered .R.15.380: For R's is deliuered, F reads ben dylyuered; beta reads (he) delyureth.
¶ Ac þere is a defaute  in þe folke þat þe feith kepeth .
WhereR.15.382: R is almost unique (cf. Cot) in this reading; F and the other beta copies read Wherfore. folke is þe feblere  and nouȝt ferme of byleue .
As in lossheborues is a lither alay  & ȝut loketh he like a sterlynge .
Þe merke of þat mone is gode  ac þe metal is feble .
And so it fareth by sum folke nowe  þei han a faire speche .
Croune and cristendom  þe kynges merke of heuene .
Ac þe metal þat is mannes soule  with synne is foule alayed .
Bothe lettred and lewed beth  alayed now with synne .
Þat no lyf loueth other ne oure lorde as it semeth .
For what þoruȝ werre and wikked werkes  & wederes vnresonable .
Wederwise schipmen  and witty clerkes al-so .
Han no byleue to þe lift  ne to þe lore of filisofres .
fol. 77vI
¶ Astrimyanes al-day  in her art failen .
Þat whilum warned bifore  what schuld byfalleR.15.394: R's byfalle is unique; all the other manuscripts read falle(n). However, most of the C manuscripts agree with R. after .
Schipmen and schepherdes  þat with schipe and scheppe wenten .
Wisten by þe wakknewa[l]kne  what schuld by-tyde .
As of wederes and of wyndes  þei warned men ofte .
¶ Tilieres þat tiled þe erthe  tolden here meystres .
By þe seed þat þei sewe  what þei selle miȝte .
And what to leue and to leueR.15.400: Cx agrees here with R's unique form, against lyue found in most B witnesses. See note at R.15.343:. by  þe londe was so trewe .
Now faileth þe folke of þe floed  and of þe londe bothe .
Scheperdes and schipmen  and so doen þis tilieres .R.15.402: An early reader has inserted a red star or cross in the right margin at this point.
Nother þei kunneth ne knoweth  on cours by-for an-other .
Astrimyanes also  are att here wittes ende .
Of þat was calkuled of clementR.15.405: For alpha's of clement, beta reads of þe element(s). Alpha's reference is opaque; but at least, unlike beta's, it alliterates. Schmidt conjectures clemat, based on the unquestioned reading of the C version at this point, clymat.  þe contrarie þei fynde .
Gramere þe grounde of alle  bygileth now childurne .
For is non of þis new clerkeR.15.407: R's apparent singular, clerke, is unique; the other copies have the explicit plural required by immediate context, clerkes.  ho-so nymeth hede .
Þat can versifie faire  ne formeliche endentenend[i]ten .
Ne nauȝt on amonges an hundreth  þat an autour can construe .
Ne rede a lettre in any langage  but in latyn or in englische .
Go now to any degre  and but if gyle be maister .
R.15.412KD.15.379, 378
And flatreR.15.412: For R's flatre, "flatterer, one who flatters" from OF flatour, Bx reads flaterere, the same form found in Cx. his felawe  vnder hym to fourmen .
AndR.15.413: And is alpha's erroneous addition to the text of Bx. muche wonder me thenketh  amonges vs alle .
Doctoures of decres  and of diuinite maystres .
Þat schulde kunne and knowe  alkynne clergie .
And answere to argumentz  and also to a quod-libet .
I dar nouȝt seggen it for schame  if suche weren apposed .
Þei schulde faile in here filosophie  & in fisike bothe .
Wherefore Ich am afered  of folk of holy cherche .
Lest þei ouer-hippen as other don  in offices and in houres
Ac þouȝR.15.421: R's þouȝ is unique; beta reads if and F shows an omission. þei oueoue[r]-hippe as I hope nauȝt  oure bileue sufficit .R.15.421: For alpha's Latin, beta provides an English equivalent: suffiseth.
As clerkes in corpus christi fest  syngen and reden .
Þat sola fides sufficit  to saue with lewed peple .
¶ And so may sarasynes be saued  scribes and Iewes .
Allas then but oure lores-men  lyuen as þei leren vs .
And for here liuynge þat lewed men be  þe lother god agulten .R.15.426: There is a superfluous tilde over the -en of agulten.
For sarasynes han sumwhat  semynge to oure bileue .
fol. 78rI
For þei loue and bileue  in on persone almiȝty 
And we lered and lewed  in on god by-leueth .
Cristene and vncristene  on one god bileueth .R.15.430: Beta omits this line.
Ac oen machometh  a man in mysbileue .
Brouȝt sarasenes of surrie  and se in what manere .
Þis macumeth was cristene man  and for he most nauȝt be a pope .
in-to surrie he souȝte  and thoruȝ his sotil wittes .
Daunted a dowue  and day and niȝt hire fedde .
Þe corne þat sche cropped  he caste hit in his here .R.15.436: Hereafter alpha omits two lines found in beta, presumably on account of eyeskip (the second of the omitted lines ends with ere):
And if he amonge þe poeple preched or in places come
Þanne wolde þe coluer come to þe clerkes ere
Menynge as after mete  þus macumeth hire chaunted .R.15.437: Beta reads enchaunted, while F shows a present-tense form of alpha's apheretic verb: chawnteþ. Cx agrees with beta.
And dede folke þanne falle on knes  for he swore in his prechinge .
Þat þe culuer þat come so  cam fram god of heuene .
And messagerR.15.440: Where alpha has And messager, beta reads As messager. to macumeth  men for to teche .
And þus þoruȝ wiles of his wit  and a white dowue .
Macumeth in misbileue  men and wymmen brouȝte .
Þat lered there and lewed  ȝut leuen on his lawes .
¶ And sitthe oure saueoure suffred  þe sarasynes so bygiled .
Þoruȝ a cristene clerke  acursed in his soule .
Ac for drede of þe deth  I dar nauȝt telle treuthe 
How englische clerkes a culuere feden  þat coueytise hatte .
And ben manered after macumeth  þat no man vseth treuthe .
¶ Ancres and heremites  and monekes and freres .
PeresR.15.450: Cf. alpha's noun form, Peres, to beta's verb form, Peren. to apostles  thoruȝ here parfit lyuynge .
Wolde nere þe faithful fader  þat his minstres schulde .
Of tyrauntes þat teneth trewe men  taken any almesse .
But doen as antonye dede  dominik orR.15.453: For alpha's or, beta reads and. fraunceys .
Benet orR.15.454: For alpha's or, beta reads &. bernarde  þe which hem furste tauȝte .
To lyue by litel and in lowe houseR.15.455: R uniquely shows the singular; the other manuscripts read houses.  by lele mennes fyndynge .
Grasse schulde growe and be grene  þoruȝ here leleR.15.456: For alpha's lele, cf. beta's correctly alliterating good. lyuynge .
And folke schulde fynde  þat ben in diuers syknesse .
Þe bettere for here biddynges  in body and in soule .
Here preyeres and here penaunces  to pees schuld hemR.15.459: Beta omits hem. bringe .
Alle þat ben at debate  and bede-men were trewe .
Petite et accipietis &cetera .R.15.461: The R scribe here deviates from his usual practice of inserting a blank line between strophes, presumably because the next line is the last one ruled for this side.
¶ Salt saueth catel  seggeth þis wyues 
fol. 78vI
Vos estis sal terre &cetera . F omits these 68 lines (= KD15.429α-92), reflecting the contents either of a single leaf or (more likely) an opening from his exemplar. E. Talbot Donaldson noted this fact in "MSS R and F in the B-Tradition of Piers Plowman," Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences (1955): 185 n. 19, rightly attributing the error to a copyist between F and alpha. More recently Sean Taylor, "The F Scribe and the R Manuscript of Piers Plowman B," English Studies 77 (1996): 530-48, has pointed out that this lacuna coincides with the opening of fols. 78v-79r in R; he argues, we think unconvincingly, that this coincidence supports the proposition that F was copied directly from R.
Þe heuedes of holy cherche  and þei holy were .
Crist calledR.15.465: Beta here shows the present-tense form, calleth. F omits the line. hem salt  for cristene soules 
Et si sal euanuerit in quo salietur .
Ac fresche flesch ortherother fische  whan it salt faileth .
It is vnsauori for-sothe  seothen or baken .
So is mannes soule sothly  þat seth non gode saumple .
Of hem of holy cherche  þat þe heye wey schulde teche .
And be gyde and go before  asR.15.471: The beta version of the phrase shows a determiner: as a good baneoure. F omits the line. goed baneoure .
And hardy hem þat byhynde ben  and ȝif hem gode euydence .
¶ Elleuene holy men  al the worlde torned .
in-to lele byleue  þe liȝtloker me thenketh .
Schulde al manere men  we han so many maystres .
Prestes and prechoures  and a pope aboue .
Þat godes salt schulde be  to saue mannes soule .
¶ Al was hethenesse sum-tyme  england and wales .
Til gregori and greteR.15.479: Only B supports R's inferior reading (and grete); the other beta manuscripts read garte or gerte. F omits the line. clerkes  to go and to preche .
Austyn at canterbirie  cristened þe kynge þere .R.15.480: R's kynge þere is unique; the beta copies have kynge while F omits the line.
And þoruȝ miracles as men may rede  al þat marche he turned .
To crist and to cristendom  and cros to honoure .
And fulled folkeR.15.483: After folke, beta adds faste. F omits the line.  and þe faith tauȝte .
More þoruȝ miracles  þan þoruȝ muche prechynge .
As wel þoruȝ his werkes  as with his holy wordes .
And seide hem what fullynge  and feith was to mene .
¶ Clothe þat cometh fro þe weuynge  is nauȝt comely to werie
Til it is fulled vnder fote  or in fullynge stokkes .
I-waschen wel with water  and with taseles cracched .
I-touked and tentted  and vnder tailoures handes .
And so it fareth by a barne  þat boren is of wombe .
Til it be cristened in cristes name  & confermed of þe bischoppe .
It is hethen as to heuene-warde  and helples to þe soule .
¶ Hethene is to mene after heth  and vntiled erthe .
As in wild wildernesse  wexeth wilde bestes .
fol. 79rI
Rude and vnresonable  rennynge with-oute keperesR.15.496: R's keperes is unique; beta's variants seem nonsensical: LYOGC2 have crep(e)res while WHmCrCBM show crop(i)ers. F omits the line. .
¶ Ȝe take wel hedeR.15.497: In place of R's non-alliterating take wel hede, beta reads menen wel. F omits the line. whateR.15.497: Here only G joins R in reading what; the other beta manuscripts show how. mathew sayth  how a man made a fest .
He fedde hem with no venison  ne fesauntes Ibake .
But with foules þat fram hym nolde  but folwed his whistlynge .
Ecce altilia mea et omnia parata sunt &cetera .
And with calues flesch he fedde  þe folke þat he louede .
Þe calf bitokneth clennesse  in hem þat kepeth lawes .
For as þe cow thoruȝ kende melke  þe calf norischeth til an oxe .
So doth loue & lewte  and leleR.15.504: In the a-verse, doth is a unique addition to the text of this line as witnessed by beta; in the b-verse, the same is true of and (before lele). F omits the line. men susteyneth .
And maydenes and mylde men  mercy desiren .
Riȝt as þe cow calf  coueyteth swete melke .
So doth riȝtful men  mercy and treuthe .
And by þe hande fedde foules  hisR.15.508: His, "is." These lines are omitted by all beta manuscripts and survive in R alone. folk vnderstonde .
Þat loth ben to louye  with-outen lernynge of ensaumples .
Riȝt as capones in a court  cometh to mennes whistlynge .
In menynge after mete  folweth men þat whistlen .
Riȝt so rude men  þat litel reson cunneth 
Louen and byleuen  by lettred mennes doynges .
And by here wordes and werkes  wenen and trowen .
And as tho foules to fynde  fode after whistlynge .
So hope þei to haue  heuene þoruȝ her whistlynge .
And by þe man þat made þe feste  þe mageste bymeneth .
Þat is god of his grace  gyueth al men blisse .
With wederes and with wondres  he warneth vs with a whistlere .
Where þat his wille is  to worschipen vs alle .
And feden vs and festen vs  for euere-more at ones .
¶ Ac who beth þat excuseth hemR.15.522: Here the beta copies add þat. aren persones and prestes .
Þat heuedes of holy cherches  ben þat han here wille here .
With-oute trauaile þe tithe del  þat trewe men by-swynken .
Þei wole be wroth for I write þus  ac to witnesse I take .
Bothe mathew and marke  and memento domine dauid .
Ecce audiuimus eum in effrata  &cetera .R.15.527: Beta omits this Latin citation and F has omitted at least a folio of surrounding material, including this phrase.
What pope or prelate nowe  perforneth þat criste hiȝte .
Ite in vniuersum mundum . et predicate . &cetera .R.15.529: Here the R scribe omits his usual line break before a new strophe, presumably because the next line is the last one ruled for this side.
AllsAll[a]sR.15.530: R's Alls is undocumented in MED or OED2 s. v. alas and is, presumably, a unique spelling error; F omits this line, beta has Allas, the same form that occurs in Cx. þat men so longe  on macumeth schullenR.15.530: R's schullen is unique; most beta copies read schulde(n) or sholde. byleue .
fol. 79vI
So many prelates to preche  as þe pope maketh .
Of nazareth of nynyue  of neptalym and damaske .
Þat þei ne wenten as criste wisseth  sithen þei wilneR.15.533: Alpha's wilne derives from a different verb stem than beta's wil, but it is doubtful that Langland saw these forms as distinct since they share virtually identical semantics. The C manuscripts, in a revised b-verse, split on these two verb forms (the majority agreeing with alpha), thus confirming their status as twins in early fifteenth-century usage. a name .
To be pastores and preche  þe passion of ihesus .
And as hym-sulue saide  so to lyue and deye .
Bonus pastor animam suam ponit &cetera .
And seyde it in sauacion  of sarasynes and other .
ToR.15.538: Beta reads For in place of alpha's To. Beta omits the second to in this a-verse. cristene and to vncristene  criste seyde to prechoures .
Ite vos in vineam meam
And sitthen þat þis sarasines  scribes and iewes .
Han a lippe of oure byleue  þe liȝtloker it semethR.15.541: For alpha's it semeth, beta and the C version read me thynketh. .
Þei schulde turne ho-so trauaile wolde  & techenR.15.542: R's & techen is unique; all other B copies read to teche. hem of þe trinite .
Querite et inuenietis &cetera .
For al paynymes preyeth  to on persone to helpe .R.15.544: In place of R's softened b-verse (which F varies from with of helpe), beta copies read and parfitly bileueth. Cx agrees with beta.
On o god þei greden  and his grace asken .R.15.545: R's b-verse is virtually identical to beta's (which reads and his grace þei asken), but the a-verse in the two subarchtypes is radically different. Beta's version of the latter reads In þe holy grete god.
And maken here mone to macumeth  here message to schewe .
Þus in a feith lyueth þat folk  and in a fals mene .
And þat is reuth for þeR.15.548: In place of R's for þe), most beta copies and F read for while Cr has of. The reading of Cx is uncertain here, the P family agreeing with R while the X family reads for tho. riȝtfulmenriȝtful men  þat in þe reume wonyen .
And a peril to þe pope  and toR.15.549: R uniquely attests this preposition; F omits the line. prelates þat he maketh .
Þat bereth bischopes names  of bethleem and of babyloyne .
¶ Whan þe heye kynge of heuene  sent his sone to erthe . Beta omits these lines. The differences between F's version of these lines and that attested in R are sufficiently numerous to make full citation of F's passage here advisable (cf. Appendix 1, R15.551-68, for details and any cross-references to the C version):
Whan þe hyȝe kyng of heuene / sente his sone to erþe.
Manye myraclis he wroghte / man for to turne.
In ensaumple þat sholde seen / þat by sad resoun.
Men myghte not ben savid / but þorghȝ mercy & grace.
& þorghȝ penaunce & passioun / & parfyȝt beleve.
& by-cam of a mayde / & metropolitanus after.
& was baptyzed & y-sygned / with þe blood of his herte.
Alle þat wilned & wolde / with wit be-leve it.
Manye a seynt sytthen / haven suffred to dyȝen.
Al for to ferme þe fayȝþ / in fele contrees dyȝen.
In yȝnde in Alysaundre / in Armonye in spayne.
& in doolful deþ þey dyeden / for þeyre feyþis sake.
In savacioun of þe fayþ / seynt Thomas was y-martred.
And a-mong vnkyȝnde cristene / for cristis he dyȝede.
& for þe ryght of al þis rewme / & alle rewmes cristene.
Holy chirche ys honoured / hyȝlyche þorghȝ his dyȝenge.
He is be-leve to alle bisschopis / & a bryght merrour.
& souereynly to swiche / þat of surrye beren þe name
Many miracles he wrouȝte  man for to turne .
In ensaumple þat men schulde se  þat by sadde resoun .
Men miȝt nouȝt be saued  but þoruȝ mercy and grace .
And thoruȝ penaunce and passion  and parfit bylebyle[ue]
And by-cam man of a mayde  and metropolitanus .
And baptised and bischined  with þe blode of his herte .
Alle þat wilned and woled  with inne-wit byleue it .
Many a seint sytthen  hath soffred to deye .
Al for to enforme þe faith  in fele contreyes deyeden .
In ynde and in alisaundre  in ermonye and in spayne .
In delfol deth deyeden  for there faith sake .
In sauacioun of þe fayth  seynt t....homasR.15.563: The erasure is not original; the first and last letters of the deleted name appear to have been <t> and <s> respectively. The name is obvious both historically and textually. was ymartired.
Amonges vnkende cristene  for cristes loue he deyede .
And for þe riȝt of al þis reume  and al reumes cristene
Holy cherche is honoured  heyȝliche þoruȝ his deynge .
he is a for-bysene
fol. 80rI
He is a forbysene to alle bishopes  and a briȝt myroure .
And souereyneliche to suche  þat of surrye bereth þe name .
And nauȝt to huppe aboute here in englande  forto halwe autres .R.15.569: Although it begins in harmony with R, F's version of this line is unique in several ways (& nowht to hoppe here & þeere / for halwen awteris). Beta differs from R in three respects: (1) where R's opening reads And nauȝt to, beta has Þat; (2) beta omits R's here later in the a-verse but (3) adds mennes after halwe in the b-verse.
And crepe in amonges curatoures  and confesse menR.15.570: R's confesse men is unique; F and most beta copies read confesse(n), while GC2B read confessyon. Cx agrees with the majority F/beta reading. aȝeyne þe lawe .
Nolite mittere falsem in messemR.15.571: R's omission of text after messem is unique; all the other manuscripts of B read alienam after messem. Cx agrees with the Bmajority. &cetera .
¶ Many a man for cristes loue  was martired amongesR.15.572: R's amonges is unique; all the other manuscripts of B read in. However, Cx agrees with R. romaynesR.15.572: R's romaynes is unique; most beta copies read Romayne; CrCot have Rome, while F shows grete roome. However, Cx agrees with R. .
Ar cristendom were knowe þere  or any cros þereR.15.573: R's cros þere is unique; all the other manuscripts of B read cros. Cx agrees with the majority against R. honoured .R.15.573: Immediately hereafter, the beta manuscripts witness to some 35 lines of text not present in alpha but clearly attested in the C version. The entire question of the order of these complementary omissions (with alpha witnessing uniquely to KD15.511-28 and beta now uniquely attesting KD15.533-69—and short neighboring passages seemingly out of their logical order as well) is discussed by Kane-Donaldson on pp. 176-79. Cf. section II.2.5, esp. paragraphs 5 and 6, of our Introduction for a different assessment of the cause of this dislocation (but complete agreement with Kane-Donaldson on the proper ordering of the text). The lines here omitted by alpha read as follows in beta:
It is reuth to rede how riȝtwis men lyued
How þei defouled her flessh forsoke her owne wille
Fer fro kitth and fro kynne yuel yclothed ȝeden
Badly ybedded no boke but conscience
Ne no richchesse but þe Rode to reioyse hem Inne
Absit nobis gloriari nisi in cruce domini nostri &c
And þo was plente & pees amonges pore & riche
And now is routhe to rede how þe red noble
Is reuerenced or þe Rode receyued for þe worthier
Þan crystes crosse þat ouercam deþ and dedly synne
And now is werre and wo and whoso why axeth
For coueityse after crosse þe croune stant in golde
Bothe riche and religious þat Rode þei honoure
Þat in grotes is ygraue and in golde nobles
For coueityse of þat crosse men of holykirke
Shul tourne as templeres did þe tyme approcheth faste
Wyte ȝe nouȝt wyse men how þo men honoured
More tresore þan treuthe I dar nouȝt telle þe sothe
Resoun & riȝtful dome þo Religious demed
Riȝt so ȝe clerkes for ȝowre coueityse ar longe
Shal þei demen dos ecclesie and ȝowre pryde depose
Deposuit potentes de sede &c.
Ȝif knyȝthod & kynde wytte and comune conscience
Togideres loue lelly leueth it wel ȝe bisshopes
Þe lordeship of londes for euere shal ȝe lese
And lyuen as leuitici as owre lorde ȝow techeth
Per primicias & decimas
Whan costantyn of curteysye holykirke dowed
With londes and ledes lordeshipes and rentes
An Angel men herde an heigh at Rome crye
Dos ecclesie þis day hath ydronke venym
And þo þat han petres powere arn apoysoned alle
A medecyne mote þer-to þat may amende prelates
Þat sholden preye for þe pees possessioun hem letteth
Take her landes ȝe lordes and let hem lyue by dymes
If possessioun be poysoun & inparfit hem make
Good were to dischargen hem for holicherche sake
And purgen hem of poysoun or more perile falle
Ȝif presthod were parfit þe peple sholde amende
Þat contrarien crystes lawe and crystendome dispise
¶ Euery bischope þat bereth cros  by þatR.15.574: Before is, R uniquely omits he. is holde .
Þoruȝ his prouince to passe  and to his peple to schewe hym .
Tellen hem and schewenR.15.576: R's schewen is an inferior alpha reading; cf. beta's properly alliterating techen. hem  on þe trinite to byleue .
And feden hem with gostly fode  and nedy folke to fynden . Beta omits these lines.
AcR.15.578: R's Ac is unique; beta omits the entire line while F reads But. ysaie of ȝow spekethR.15.578: R's of ȝow speketh is unique; beta omits the entire line while F reads how þou spekist.  and osyas bothe .R.15.578: Beginning here, there is another long, erased note in the right margin, most of it in the same hand as the example on fol. 94r. The hand appears to be nearly contemporary to that of the main scribe. However, the first three lines of the erased note appear to be in a secretary hand. Total length of the note is some 23 short, horizontally arranged lines, extending to a point approximately 3.5 cm. below the last ruled text line.
Þat no man schuld be bischope  but if he hadde bothe .
Bodily fode and gostly fodeR.15.580: R's fode is unique; beta omits the a-verse while F omits the word.  to gyue þere it nededeR.15.580: R's nedede is unique; the other manuscripts all read nedeth. .
In domo mea non est panis  neque vestimentum .
Et ideo nolite constituere me regem  y 3 .R.15.582: R's y 3 is an abbreviated reference for the biblical citation immediately preceding (from Isa. 3). Such references are rare in the B manuscripts; this one clearly derives from alpha, at least, since a very similar reference occurs in F here, but what is especially noteworthy is that an absolutely identical citation occurs at this point in L, one of the oldest beta manuscripts.
Ozias seith for suche  þat syke ben and feble .
Inferte omnes decimas in oreum meum  vt cibus in domo mea &cetera .
Ac we cristene creatures  þat on þe cros byleuen .
Aren for me[forme]R.15.586: R's for me probably is a misreading of forme in alpha. F tried to rationalize this variant as formed. Beta reads ferme. as in þe faith  godes forbode elles .
And han clerkes to kepen vs þere-inne  & hem þat schal come after vs .
¶ And Iewes lyuen in lele lawe  oure lorde wrote it hym-selue .
In stone for it stedfast was  and stonde schulde euere .
Dilige deum et proximum is parfit iewen lawe .
And toke it moyses to techen it hemR.15.591: For alpha's defective it hem, beta correctly reads men.  til messye come .
And on þat lawe þei leue  and leten it þe best .
And ȝut knewe þei criste  þat cristendom tauȝte .
AndR.15.594: Alpha's And is omitted by beta but included in Cx. for a parfit prophete  þat muche poeple saued .
Of selcuth sores  þei seyen it ofte .
Bothe of miracles and meruayles  and howR.15.596: Before men, R uniquely omits he. men festede .
With to fisches and fyue loues  fyue thousend poeple .
And by þat mangerie þei miȝt wel se  þat messye he semed .
And whan he lufte vp lazar  þat leyde was in graue .
And vnder stone stanke and dedeR.15.600: Beta merely transposes R's phrase to ded & stanke, but F is unique: he stank ded.  with stif voys hym calde .
m jus
fol. 80vI
Lazar veni foras 
Dede hym rise and rome  riȝt byfore þe iewes 
Ac þei seyde and sworen  with sorcerie he wrouȝte .
And studieden to struyen hym  and struyeden hem-sulue .
And þoruȝ his pacience here poere  to puir nauȝt he brouȝte .
Pacientes vincunt  .
¶ Daniel of here vndoynge  dyuined and seide .
Cum veniat sanctus sanctorum &cetera .R.15.608: Beta's version of this citation is fuller than alpha's, and the opening is transposed: Cum sanctus sanctorum veniat cessabit vnxio vestra.
And ȝet wenen þo wrecches  þat he were seudo-propheta .
And þat his lore be lesynges  and lakken it alle .
And hopen þat he be to come  þat schal hem releue .
Moyses eft or messye  ȝet here maystriesR.15.612: Beta transposes this phrase to here maisteres ȝet. dyuineth .
¶ Ac farisewes and sarasines  scribes and grekes .
Aren folke of o faith  þe fader god þei honouren 
And sithe þat þe sarasynes  and also þe iewes .
Kunnen þe furst clause  of oure byleue  Beta presents these two alpha lines as a single line.
Credo in deum patrem omnipotentem &cetera .
Prelates of cristene prouinceR.15.618: R's singular form is unique; the other manuscripts read prouynces.  schulde proue if þei miȝte .
Lere hem litlum and litlum& in ihesum christum filium .
Til þei coude speke and spelle  andR.15.620: R's and is unique; beta shows et while F reads Credo. Although a few C manuscripts (PVcAcZ) agree with R, Cx clearly agrees with beta on this lection. in spiritum sanctum .
And reden it and recorden it  with remissionem peccatorum .
Carnis resurrexionem  et vitam eternam amen .