<div1>fol. 89v (cont.)I</div1>
<foreign>pass<expan>us</expan> xvj<expan>us</expan></foreign>
<head><foreign><hi>Passus <orig><sic>xvj<add>j</add><expan>us</expan></sic><corr>xv[ii]j<expan>us</expan></corr></orig><reg><sic>septimus decim<expan>us</expan></sic><corr>[octauus] decim<expan>us</expan></corr></reg> de visione vt sup<expan>ra</expan> . <seg></seg> <seg></seg></hi></foreign> <note>R.18.0: An early user has attempted to correct the scribal passus number (which is now undercounted by two) by adding a single brown <j> after the <vj> of the heading.</note></head>
<l> <hi><hi>W</hi></hi>olward and wete<seg>-</seg>schode  wente I forth after .</l>
<l> As a reccheles renke  þat of no wo recchetth</l>
<l> And ȝede forth like a lorel  al my Iif<seg>-</seg>tyme .</l>
<l> Til I wex weri of þe worlde  and wilned efte <app><lem>slepe</lem></app><note>R.18.4: The other <hi>B</hi> witnesses read <hi>eft to</hi> for R's <hi>efte</hi>. Eight <hi>C</hi> manuscripts agree with R's omission of <hi>to</hi> but <hi>Cx</hi> presumably read as the <hi>B</hi> majority.</note> .</l>
<l> And lened me to a lentene  and longe tyme I sclepte .</l>
<l> And of cristes passiou<expan>n</expan> and penaunce  þe poeple þat of<seg>-</seg>rauȝte .</l>
<l> Rested me þere and rutte faste  til <foreign>ramis palmaru<expan>m</expan></foreign> .</l>
<l> Of gurles and of <foreign>gloria laus</foreign>  gretliche me dremed .</l>
<l> And how osanna by orgene  olde folke songen .</l>
<l> ¶ On semblable to þe samaritan  & su<expan>m</expan>del to peres þe plowman .</l>
<l> Barefoet on an asse bake  boteles cam prikyng<expan>e</expan><note>R.18.11: Only Cr agrees with R's form. Cf. beta's <hi>pryke</hi>. F reads <hi>springe</hi>, a variant that makes little sense. Presumably, in a copy between alpha and F someone had substituted the synonymous <hi>spurringe</hi> for alpha's <hi>prikyng<expan>e</expan></hi>, a mistake magnified by F's misreading. The reading of <hi>Cx</hi> here is uncertain, but a majority of the X family copies agree with R.</note> .</l>
<l> With<seg>-</seg>oute spores other sper<expan>e</expan><app><lem>spracliche</lem></app><note>R.18.12: This is an alpha variant; beta reads <hi>spakliche</hi>. However, <hi>Cx</hi> almost certainly agrees here with alpha. Cf. note at <ref>R.17.72:</ref></note> he lokede .</l>
<l> As is þe kende of a kniȝt  þat cometh to be dubbed .</l>
<milestone>fol. 90rI</milestone>
<l> To geten hym gulte spores  or galoches ycouped .<note>R.18.14: After this line, the R scribe failed to leave a blank line, his usual custom for dividing verse strophes. No reason beyond oversight is apparent.</note></l>
<l> ¶ Þanne was feith in a fenestre  and criede a <foreign>fili dauid</foreign> .</l>
<l> As doth an heraude of armes  whan auntrous cometh to iustes .</l>
<l> Olde Iewes of iherusalem  for ioye þei songe .</l>
<l> <hi><foreign>B<expan>e</expan>n<expan>e</expan>dictus qui venit in no<expan>m</expan>i<expan>n</expan>e d<expan>omi</expan>ni .</foreign></hi></l>
<l> ¶ Þanne I frayned at feith  what all<expan>e</expan> þat fare bemente .</l>
<l> And ho <app><lem>iuste</lem></app><note>R.18.20: After <hi>ho</hi>, R uniquely omits <hi>sholde</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> confirms that this omission is an error.</note> in iherusalem  ihesus he seyde .</l>
<l> And <app><lem>feccheth</lem></app><note>R.18.21: Cf. F's <hi>fettyn</hi> and beta's <hi>fecche</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with beta.</note> þat þe fende claymeth  peres fruit þe plowma<expan>n</expan> .</l>
<l> Is peres in þis place q<expan>uo</expan>d I  and he prent on me .</l>
<l> Þis <expan>ihesus</expan> of his <app><lem>gentrie</lem></app>  wol iuste in peres armes .</l>
<l> In his helme and in his haubergou<expan>n</expan><foreign>humana natura</foreign> .</l>
<l> Þat criste be nauȝt <app><lem>beknowe</lem></app> here  for <foreign>co<expan>n</expan>sum<expan>m</expan>atus d<expan>eu</expan>s</foreign> .</l>
<l> In peres paltok þe plowman  þis prikiar<expan>e</expan> schal ride .</l>
<l> For no dint schal hym dere  as <foreign>in deitate patris</foreign> .</l>
<l> ¶ Ho schal iuste with <expan>ihesus</expan> q<expan>uo</expan>d I  Iewes or scribes .</l>
<l> ¶ Nay q<expan>uo</expan>d <app><lem>faith</lem></app> <app><lem>but þe</lem></app><note>R.18.29: Where alpha reads <hi>faith but þe</hi>, beta has <hi>he þe foule</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with alpha.</note> fende  and fals dom <app><lem>to deye</lem></app> .<note>R.18.29: For alpha's <hi>to deye</hi>, beta reads <hi>& deth</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with alpha.</note></l>
<l> Deth seyth he schal fordo  and adoune bringe .</l>
<l> Alle þat lyueth <app><lem>and</lem></app><note>R.18.31: For alpha's <hi>and</hi>, beta reads <hi>or</hi>. A majority of <hi>C</hi> witnesses agrees with beta, but the P family subarchetype may have read <hi>oþer</hi>.</note> loketh  in londe or in water .</l>
<l> Lif seith þat he <app><lem>likth</lem></app><note>R.18.32: Among the beta manuscripts, only L shares alpha's <hi>lykth</hi>, a variant of <hi>lieth</hi>. Russell-Kane do not record any <hi>C</hi> manuscripts with this spelling.</note>  and leith his lif to wedde .</l>
<l> Þat for al þat deth can do  with<seg>-</seg>inne thre dayes .<note>R.18.33: An early reader has marked this line in the right margin with a small red cross or star.</note></l>
<l> To walke and fecche fro þe fende  peres fruit þe plowman .</l>
<l> And legge it þere hym liketh  and lucifer bynde .</l>
<l> And <app><lem>forbite</lem></app><note>R.18.36: R's reading is unique; both F and beta show <hi>forbete</hi>; some beta copies have corrupted this to <hi>for to bete</hi>. In the <hi>C</hi> tradition, three X family manuscripts and most of the P family agree with R's reading.</note> and doun bringe  bale deth for euere .</l>
<l> <hi><foreign>O <app><lem>mors mors tua ero</lem></app> . <seg></seg></foreign> <note>R.18.37: R's phrasing here is unique; the rest of the <hi>B</hi> manuscripts read <foreign>O mors ero mors tua</foreign>; however, the majority of the X family of <hi>C</hi> reads the line as R does.</note></hi></l>
<l> ¶ Þanne cam pilatus with muche poeple  <foreign>sede<expan>n</expan>s p<expan>ro</expan> tribunali</foreign> .</l>
<l> To se how douȝtiliche deth schulde do  & deme her<expan>e</expan> <app><lem>beither</lem></app><note>R.18.39: R's <hi>beither</hi> is a unique form; F has <hi>boþe</hi>; LWHm read <hi>botheres</hi>; M and Cr<hi>1</hi> have <hi>boþes</hi>. There is a similarly wide variety of lections in the <hi>C</hi> manuscripts at this point, but none of them shows R's form. However, at C2.69 (Russell-Kane), manuscript F has <hi>beither</hi>.</note> riȝte .</l>
<l> Þe iewes and þe iustice  aȝeine ih<expan>es</expan>u þei were .</l>
<l> And al here<note>R.18.41: Only L shares <hi>here</hi> with R; the other beta copies and F agree on <hi>þe</hi>. The <hi>C</hi> version agrees with the reading of F and the beta majority.</note> court on <app><lem>ih<expan>es</expan>u</lem></app><note>R.18.41: R's <hi>ihesu</hi> is unique; <hi>Bx</hi> has <hi>hym</hi>.</note> criede  <foreign>crucifige</foreign> scharpe .</l>
<l> ¶ Þo put hym forth a pilour<expan>e</expan>  bi<seg>-</seg>for pilat and seide .</l>
<l> Þis ih<expan>es</expan>us of oure<note>R.18.43: Here alpha omitted a stave word; cf. beta's <hi>iewes temple</hi>.</note> <app><lem>temple</lem></app>  iapede and despisede .</l>
<l> To fordou<expan>n</expan> it <app><lem>in</lem></app><note>R.18.44: R's <hi>in</hi> is an alpha variant; beta has <hi>on</hi>. Though four <hi>C</hi> manuscripts agree with RF, it is clear that <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with beta.</note> a day  and in thre dayes after .</l>
<l> Edifien it eft newe  here he stant þat seyde it .</l>
<milestone>fol. 90vI</milestone>
<l> And ȝut maken it as muche  in al maner<expan>e</expan> poyntes .</l>
<l> Bothe as longe and as large  <app><lem>a<seg>-</seg>lofte</lem></app><note>R.18.47: Cf. F's <hi>on lofte</hi> and beta's <hi>bi loft</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with R.</note> and bi grounde .</l>
<l><foreign>Crucifige</foreign> q<expan>uo</expan>d a cacchepole  I warante hym a wicche .</l>
<l> <foreign>Tolle tolle</foreign> q<expan>uo</expan>d an<seg>-</seg>other  and toke of kene thornes .</l>
<l> And bygan of kene thorne  a gerland to make .</l>
<l> And sette it sore on his heued  & seyde in e<expan>n</expan>uye .</l>
<l> <foreign>Aue rabi</foreign> q<expan>uo</expan>d <app><lem>þe</lem></app><note>R.18.52: In this noun phrase, R's <hi>þe</hi> is unique; F has <hi>þo</hi> and beta has <hi>þat</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with beta. As for the following noun, the plural is an alpha variant; beta shows <hi>rybaud</hi> and <hi>Cx</hi> concurs.</note> <app><lem>ribaudes</lem></app>  and threwe redes at hym .</l>
<l> Nayled hym with thre<note>R.18.53: At this point, beta reads <hi>thre</hi> while F has <hi>fowre</hi>. Hand2 has written <hi>foure</hi> in the left margin and placed a caret before <hi>thre</hi> (the R scribe's choice). However, <hi>thre</hi> has not been struck through nor erased, and we see no evidence for Hand2's having had supervisory authority in the production of MS R. The marginal note engages a famous medieval controversy about the details of the Crucifixion. Skeat notes that a "long essay might be written on the wholly unimportant question whether <hi>three</hi> or <hi>four</hi> were used in the Crucifixion." <title>The Vision of William concerning Piers the Plowman, in Three Parallel Texts</title> (Oxford: Clarendon, 1886): 2.251. Because of the commonplace nature of the nail dispute, the reading of alpha itself must remain in doubt, but the usual patterns of copying in R and F suggest that alpha was much likelier to have read <hi>thre</hi> than <hi>foure</hi>. Kane-Donaldson certainly saw it that way: since R's original reading has not been subpuncted or struck out, they treat R's intended reading as <hi>thre</hi>, ignoring the marginal <hi>foure</hi>.</note> nailes  naked <app><lem>vp<seg>-</seg>on</lem></app><note>R.18.53: R's <hi>vp-on</hi> is unique; the other <hi>B</hi> witnesses show <hi>on</hi>. Nevertheless, <hi>vp-on</hi> may well represent <hi>Bx</hi> here since the X family of <hi>C</hi> manuscripts also attests this reading (the P family agrees with beta).</note> þe rode .</l>
<l> And poyson on a pole  þei <app><lem>putte</lem></app><note>R.18.54: R reads this line in harmony with beta except that after <hi>putte</hi>, R uniquely omits <hi>vp</hi> from the beta phrase. It is true that F also omits this word, but that fact has no importance for assessing the archetypal reading since F completely transposes the entire <hi>Bx</hi> line. The X family of <hi>C</hi> agrees with beta on this lection, but the P family agrees with R in omitting <hi>vp</hi>.</note> to his lippes .</l>
<l> And bede hym drinke his deth euel  hys dayes were I<seg>-</seg>done .</l>
<l> And ȝif þat þow sotyl be  helpe now þi<seg>-</seg>seluen .</l>
<l> Ȝif þow be criste and kynges sone  co<expan>m</expan>me doune of þe rode .</l>
<l> Þan schul we leue þat lif þe loueth  & wil nauȝt lete þe deye .</l>
<l><foreign>Consu<expan>m</expan>matu<expan>m</expan> est</foreign> q<expan>uo</expan>d criste  and comsed for to swowne .</l>
<l> Pitousliche and pale  as a prison þat deyeth </l>
<l> <app><lem>Til</lem></app> lore<note>R.18.61: F begins this line with <hi>Tyl þe lord</hi>; beta reads simply <hi>Þe lorde</hi>. For the spelling <hi>lore</hi>, see Richard Jordan, <title>Handbook of Middle English Grammar: Phonology</title>, translated and revised by Eugene Joseph Crook (The Hague: Mouton, 1974): §199, remark 3. Cf. <ref>R.5.409:</ref> and <ref>R.14.184:</ref>.</note> of lif and of liȝt  þo leyde his eyȝes to<seg>-</seg>gidres .</l>
<l> ¶ Þe day for drede with<seg>-</seg>drow  and derk bicam þe sonne .</l>
<l> Þe wal waged and clef  and al þe worlde quauede .</l>
<l> Dede men for þat dene  come oute of <app><lem>here</lem></app><note>R.18.64: Alpha had lost the alliterating stave from the b-verse, substituting <hi>here</hi> for <hi>depe</hi> (the reading of beta and of <hi>Cx</hi>).</note> graues .</l>
<l> And tolde whi þat tempest  so longe tyme dured .</l>
<l> For a bitter bataile  þe dede body seyde .</l>
<l> Lif and deth in þis derkenesse  her on fordoth her other .</l>
<l> Schal no wiȝte witte witterly  ho schal haue þe maystirie .</l>
<l> Er soneday aboute so<expan>n</expan>ne risynge  and sanke with þ<expan>a</expan>t til erthe .</l>
<l> Su<expan>m</expan>me seyde þat he was godes sone  þ<expan>a</expan>t so fair<expan>e</expan> deyede .</l>
<l> <hi><foreign>Vere filius dei erat iste </foreign></hi> </l>
<l> And so<expan>m</expan>me seyde he was a wicche  gode is <app><lem>assaye</lem></app><note>R.18.72: The beta b-verse (presumably = <hi>Bx</hi>) is <hi>good is þat we assaye</hi>. From this phrase, F omits <hi>þat</hi> and R leaves out <hi>þat we</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with beta.</note> .</l>
<l> Where he be dede ar nauȝte dede  dou<expan>n</expan> er he be takne .</l>
<l> ¶ To theues also  tholed dede þat tyme .</l>
<l> Vpon a cros bisides crist  so was þe comune lawe .</l>
<l> <app><lem>Ac</lem></app><note>R.18.76: F begins the line with <hi>But a</hi>; beta omits both conjunctions and opens with <hi>A</hi>. The P family of <hi>C</hi> manuscripts reads <hi>Qikliche cam a</hi>, but the X family agrees with beta.</note> a cacchepol cam forth  and craked bothe her legges .</l>
<l> And her armes after  of eyther of þo theues .</l>
<l> Ac was no boy so bolde  godes body to touche .</l>
<milestone>fol. 91rI</milestone>
<l> For he was kniȝt and kynges sone  kynde forȝaf þat <app><lem>th<add>r</add>owe</lem></app> .<note>R.18.79: For alpha's <hi>throwe</hi>, beta has <hi>tyme</hi>. Although beta's reading seems clearly inferior, <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with it.</note></l>
<l> Þat non harlot were so hardy  to leyn an hand<note>R.18.80: Here F reads the plural <hi>hondys</hi> while R's singular form agrees with beta. R's phrase, <hi>an hand</hi>, adds the determiner to <hi>Bx</hi>'s text (which reads <hi>leyne hande</hi>); the addition of <hi>an</hi> is shared by convergence with Bo, whose corrector caught and deleted it. </note> vppon hym .</l>
<l> ¶ Ac þere cam forth a kniȝt  with a kene spere I<seg>-</seg>grounde .</l>
<l> Hiȝt longeus as þe l<expan>ett</expan>re telleth  and longe had lore his siȝte .</l>
<l> Bi<seg>-</seg>fore pilat and other poeple  in þe place he houed .</l>
<l> Maugre his many teth  he was made þat tyme .</l>
<l> To take þe spere in his honde  and iuste with ih<expan>es</expan>us .</l>
<l> For alle þei were vnhardi  þat houed on hors or <app><lem>stede</lem></app> .<note>R.18.86: For alpha's redundant noun <hi>stede</hi>, beta attests the verb <hi>stode</hi>. Although the <hi>C</hi> line is revised, its sense and its final stave agree with beta's <hi>stode</hi>.</note></l>
<l> To <app><lem>touche</lem></app><note>R.18.87: The beta phrase is <hi>To touche hym</hi>. Though this line is slightly revised in the <hi>C</hi> version, it is clear that <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with beta on this variant.</note> or to taste hym  or take hym doun of rode .</l>
<l> But þis blinde bacheler<expan>e</expan><app><lem>þat</lem></app><note>R.18.88: Some beta copies omit <hi>þat</hi>; others read <hi>þanne</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees here with alpha.</note> bar<expan>e</expan> hym thoruȝ þe herte .</l>
<l> Þe blode sprange doune be þe spere  & <app><lem>opned</lem></app> <note>R.18.89: Alpha had lost the alliterating stave from the b-verse, substituting the common synonym <hi>opned</hi> for beta's <hi>vnspered</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> reads as beta.</note> þe kniȝtes eyȝes .</l>
<l> Þan fel þe kniȝte vpon knes  and criede <app><lem>ih<expan>es</expan>u</lem></app><note>R.18.90: Cf. F's <hi>crist</hi> and beta's <hi>hym</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with R.</note> mercy .</l>
<l> Aȝeine my will<expan>e</expan> it was lorde  to wounde ȝow so sore .</l>
<l> He siȝede and seyde  sore it me athenketh .</l>
<l> For þe dede þat I haue do  I do me in ȝour<expan>e</expan> grace .</l>
<l> Haue on me reuthe riȝtful ih<expan>es</expan>u  and riȝt with þat he wepte .</l>
<l> ¶ Þanne gan feith felli  þe fals iewes despise .</l>
<l> Called hem caytyues  acorsed <app><lem>hem</lem></app><note>R.18.96: Beta omits the second <hi>hem</hi> from this line. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with beta.</note> for euere .</l>
<l> For þis foule vilenye  veniaunce to ȝow alle .</l>
<l> To do þe blinde bete hym I<seg>-</seg>bounde  it was a boies conseile .</l>
<l> Cursed caityues  knyȝthod was it neuere .</l>
<l> To mys<seg>-</seg>do a dede body  bi day or bi niȝte .</l>
<l> Þe gre ȝut hath he geten  for alle his grete wounde .</l>
<l> ¶ For ȝoure champion chiualer<expan>e</expan>  chef kniȝt of ȝow alle .</l>
<l> Ȝelt hym recreaunt rennyng<expan>e</expan>  riȝt at ih<expan>es</expan>us wille .</l>
<l> For be this derkenesse I<seg>-</seg>do  <app><lem>deth</lem></app> worth <app><lem>I<seg>-</seg>venkesched</lem></app> .<note>R.18.104: In place of alpha's <hi>deth worth I-venkesched</hi>, beta's b-verse reads <hi>his deth worth avenged</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with alpha.</note></l>
<l> And ȝe lordeynes han I<seg>-</seg>loste  for lif schal haue þe maistri .</l>
<l> And ȝoure fraunchise þat fre was  fallen is in thraldam .</l>
<l> And ȝe cherles and ȝour<expan>e</expan> children  cheue schal ȝe neuere .</l>
<l> Ne haue lordeschip<expan>pe</expan> in londe  ne none lond tulye .</l>
<l> But alle barayne be  and vsurie vsen  </l>
<l> Whiche is lif þat oure lorde  in alle lawes acorseth .</l>
<l> Now ȝoure gode dayes be do  as daniel p<expan>ro</expan>phecide .</l>
<l> Whan crist cam <app><lem>þe</lem></app> kyngdom<note>R.18.112: R's <hi>þe kyngdom</hi> is unique; F shows <hi>to his kyngdom</hi> while beta reads <hi>her kyngdom</hi> (though the CrWHm subset attests <hi>of hir kyngdom</hi>).</note>  þe crou<expan>n</expan>ne schulde <app><lem>lese</lem></app> .</l>
n ii<supplied>ij<expan>us</expan></supplied><note>R.18.112: A fragment of a signature remains at the bottom right margin of this leaf: <hi>n ii</hi>.</note>
<milestone>fol. 91vI</milestone>
<l> <hi><foreign>Cu<expan>m</expan> veniat sanct<expan>us</expan> <app><lem>sanctor<expan>um</expan></lem></app><note>R.18.113: Alpha omits the rest of the verse, which beta completes by adding <foreign>cessabit vnxio vestra</foreign>. The beta version of this citation is also that of the P family of <hi>C</hi> manuscripts; the X family shows more internal variation, with some of the best witnesses ending the citation at <foreign>cessat</foreign>.</note> .</foreign></hi></l>
<l> ¶ What for fere of þis ferly  and of <app><lem>þo</lem></app><note>R.18.114: R's <hi>þo</hi> is unique; F and beta have <hi>þe</hi>. Some <hi>C</hi> manuscripts read <hi>thes</hi>, but <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with beta and F.</note> fals iewes .</l>
<l> I drouȝ me in þat derknesse  to <foreign>descendit ad inferna</foreign> .</l>
<l> And þere I seiȝ sothly  <foreign>secundu<expan>m</expan> scripturas</foreign> .</l>
<l> Out of þe west cost  a wenche as me thouȝte .</l>
<l> Cam walkyng<expan>e</expan> in <app><lem>þat</lem></app><note>R.18.118: R's <hi>þat</hi> is unique; F and beta read <hi>þe</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with the <hi>B</hi> majority.</note> weye  to helwarde sche lokede .</l>
<l> Mercy hiȝt þat mayde  a meke thyng<expan>e</expan> with<seg>-</seg>alle .</l>
<l> A ful benygne burde  and buxu<expan>m</expan> of speche .</l>
<l> Hire suster as it semede  cam sofly walkyng<expan>e</expan> .</l>
<l> Euene out of þe est  and westwarde sche lokede .</l>
<l> A ful co<expan>m</expan>mely creatur<expan>e</expan>  treuthe sche hiȝte .</l>
<l> For þe v<expan>er</expan>tue þat hire folwed  aferde was sche neu<expan>er</expan>e .</l>
<l> <app><lem>And</lem></app> whan<note>R.18.125: Beta omits alpha's <hi>And</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with beta.</note> þis maydenes mette  m<expan>er</expan>cy and treuthe .</l>
<l> Eyther asked other  of þis grete wonder .</l>
<l> Of þe dene and of þe derkenesse  & how þe day rowede .</l>
<l> And <app><lem>swich</lem></app><note>R.18.128: For alpha's <hi>swich</hi>, beta reads <hi>which</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with beta.</note> a liȝte and a lem  lay byfor helle .</l>
<l> Ich haue ferly of þis fare  in feith seide treuthe .</l>
<l> And am wendyng<expan>e</expan> to witte  what þis <app><lem><sic>wonde</sic><corr>wonde[r]</corr></lem></app> meneth .</l>
<l> ¶ Haue no m<expan>er</expan>uayle q<expan>uo</expan>d m<expan>er</expan>cy  murthe it betokneth .</l>
<l> A <app><lem>mayde</lem></app> þat hat marie  and moder with<seg>-</seg>oute felyng<expan>e</expan> .</l>
<l> Of any <app><lem>kende</lem></app><note>R.18.133: For alpha's <hi>kende</hi>, beta reads <hi>kynnes</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> reads either <hi>kynde</hi> (X family) or <hi>kynde of</hi> (P family).</note> creatur<expan>e</expan>  co<expan>n</expan>seyued thoruȝ speche .</l>
<l> And grace of þe holy gost  wex grete with childe .</l>
<l> With<seg>-</seg>outen wem  in<seg>-</seg>to þis worlde sche brouȝte hym .</l>
<l> And þat my tale be trewe  I take god to witnesse .</l>
<l> Sith þis barne was bore  ben thretty wynter passed .</l>
<l> Wich deyede and deth tholede  þis day aboute mydday .</l>
<l> And þat is cause of þis clipps  þ<expan>a</expan>t closeth now þe sonne </l>
<l> In menyng<expan>e</expan> þat man schal  fro merkenesse be drawe .</l>
<l> Þe while þis liȝte and þis lem  schal lucyfer ablende .</l>
<l> For patriarkes and p<expan>ro</expan>phetes  han p<expan>re</expan>ched here<seg>-</seg>of often .</l>
<l> Þat man schal man saue  thoruȝ a maydenes helpe .</l>
<l> And þat was tynt þoruȝ tre  tre schal it wynne .</l>
<l> And þat deth dou<expan>n</expan> brouȝt  deth schal releue .</l>
<l> ¶ Þat þow tellest q<expan>uo</expan>d treuthe  is but a tale of waltrott</l>
<milestone>fol. 92rI</milestone>
<l> For adam & eue  and abrah<expan>a</expan>m with other .</l>
<l> Patriarkes and p<expan>ro</expan>phetes  þat in peyne lygen .</l>
<l> Leue þow neu<expan>er</expan>e þat ȝone liȝte  hem on lofte<note>R.18.149: In place of alpha's <hi>on lofte</hi>, beta reads <hi>alofte</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with beta.</note> brynge .</l>
<l> Ne haue hem oute of helle  halde þi tonge mercy .</l>
<l> It is <app><lem>but</lem></app> trufle þat þow telleste  <note>R.18.151: Beta begins the b-verse with a reiterated pronoun reference: <hi><hi>I</hi> treuth wote</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with beta.</note> <app><lem>treuthe</lem></app> wote þe sothe .</l>
<l> For þat is ones in helle  out cometh it neuere .</l>
<l> Iob þe p<expan>ro</expan>phete patriarche  rep<expan>re</expan>ueth þi sawes .</l>
<l> <hi><foreign>Quia in inferno nulla e<expan>st</expan> redempc<expan>i</expan>o .</foreign></hi></l>
<l> ¶ Þanne m<expan>er</expan>cy ful myldly  mouthed þes wordes .</l>
<l> Þoruȝ exp<expan>er</expan>ience q<expan>uo</expan>d he I hope <app><lem>þow schalt</lem></app><note>R.18.156: R's <hi>þow schalt</hi> is unique; F has <hi>y shal</hi> while beta reads <hi>þei shal</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with beta.</note> be saued .</l>
<l> For venym fordoth venym  and þat I p<expan>ro</expan>ue be resou<expan>n</expan> .</l>
<l> For of alle venymes  foulest is þe scorpiou<expan>n</expan> .</l>
<l> May no medicyne helpe  þe place þere he stengeth .</l>
<l> Til he be dede and do þere<seg>-</seg>to  þe euel he destruyeth .</l>
<l> Þe furst venymouste  þoruȝ <app><lem>v<expan>er</expan>tue</lem></app><note>R.18.161: For alpha's <hi>vertue</hi>, beta reads <hi>venym</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with alpha.</note> of hym<seg>-</seg>sulue .</l>
<l> So schal þis deth <app><lem>do</lem></app><note>R.18.162: Cf. beta's <hi>fordo</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with beta.</note>  I dar my lif legge .</l>
<l> Alle þat deth dede furste  þoruȝ þe deueles entysyng<expan>e</expan> .</l>
<l> And riȝt as þoruȝ gile  man was bigyled .</l>
<l> So schal grace þat bigan  make a gode sleyȝte .</l>
<l> <hi><foreign>Ars vt artem <app><lem><sic>fallereth</sic><corr>falleret</corr></lem></app><note>R.18.166: This obvious Latin spelling mistake is probably attributable to the same general pattern of final <-t> being often equated to final <-th> in this tradition's English spellings (discussed in the Introduction <xref>III.2.2.10</xref>.</note></foreign></hi> </l>
<l> ¶ Now suffre we seyde treuthe  I se as me thenketh .</l>
<l> Oute of þe nippe of þe north  nauȝt ful fer hennes .</l>
<l> Riȝtwisnesse come rennyng<expan>e</expan>  rest we þe while  </l>
<l> For he<note>R.18.170: <hi>He</hi>, "she."</note> wote more þan we  he<note>R.18.170: <hi>He</hi>, "she."</note> was er we bothe .</l>
<l> Þat is soth seide m<expan>er</expan>cy  & I se here bi southe .</l>
<l> Where <app><lem>cometh pes</lem></app><note>R.18.172: R's phrase is reversed in F and beta to <hi>pees cometh</hi>, but <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with R.</note> pleyinge  in pacience I<seg>-</seg>clothed .</l>
<l> Loue hath coueyted hir<expan>e</expan> longe  leue I non other</l>
<l> But he sent hir som<expan>m</expan>e l<expan>ett</expan>re  what þis liȝt bimeneth .</l>
<l> Þat ou<expan>er</expan>houeth helle þus  <app><lem>he</lem></app><note>R.18.175: <hi>He</hi>, "she."</note><note>R.18.175: Where alpha and L read <hi>he</hi> (altered to <hi>she</hi> in L), the other beta copies read <hi>she</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with alpha and L's original reading.</note> vs schal telle .</l>
<l> ¶ Whan pes in pacience clothed  aproched ner<expan>e</expan> hem tweyne .</l>
<l> Riȝtwisnesse hir<expan>e</expan> reuerenced  for hir<expan>e</expan> riche clothyng<expan>e</expan> .</l>
<l> And preied pes to tel hir<expan>e</expan>  to what place <app><lem>he</lem></app><note>R.18.178: R's <hi>he</hi> is an alpha variant; beta has <hi>she</hi>, and <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with beta.</note> wolde .</l>
<l> And in hir<expan>e</expan> gay garmentz  wham <app><lem>he</lem></app><note>R.18.179: <hi>He</hi>, "she."</note><note>R.18.179: R's <hi>he</hi> is an alpha variant; beta has <hi>she</hi>, and <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with beta.</note> grete thouȝte .<note>R.18.179: R omits his usual blank line between verse strophes after this line, presumably because the next line is the last ruled one on this side.</note></l>
<l> ¶ Mi wille is to wende q<expan>uo</expan>d <app><lem>he</lem></app><note>R.18.180: <hi>He</hi>, "she."</note><note>R.18.180: R's <hi>he</hi> is an alpha variant; beta has <hi>she</hi>.</note>  and welcome hem alle .</l>
<milestone>fol. 92vI</milestone>
<l> Þat many day miȝte I nouȝte se  for merknesse of synne .</l>
<l> Adam and eue and other mo in helle .</l>
<l> Moyses and many mo  mercy schal haue .<note>R.18.183: Alpha omits the following line from <hi>Bx</hi>:<lb/>
<hi>And I shal daunce þerto do þow so sustre</hi>. This beta-attested line also occurs in the <hi>C</hi> version.
<l> For ih<expan>es</expan>us iusted wel  ioye bigynneth dawe .</l>
<l> <hi><foreign>Ad vesperu<expan>m</expan> demorabitur fletus & ad matutinu<expan>m</expan> leticia .</foreign></hi></l>
<l> Loue þat is my le<expan>m</expan>man  suche l<expan>ett</expan>res <app><lem>he</lem></app><note>R.18.186: R's <hi>he me</hi> is unique among the <hi>B</hi> copies, the others all omitting <hi>he</hi>. However, a majority of the X family of <hi>C</hi> reads this phrase in agreement with R. The other <hi>C</hi> manuscripts agree with beta.</note> me sent .</l>
<l> Þat <app><lem>mercy</lem></app><note>R.18.187: Alpha has obviously dropped a stave. Beta manuscripts add <hi>my sustre</hi> after <hi>mercy</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with beta.</note> and I  mankende schulde saue .</l>
<l> And þat god hath forgyue  & graunted me pes & m<expan>er</expan>cy .</l>
<l> To be mannes meynp<expan>er</expan>nour<expan>e</expan>  for euer<expan>e</expan><seg>-</seg>more after .</l>
<l> Lo here þe patent q<expan>uo</expan>d pees  <hi><foreign>In pace in idip<expan>su</expan>m .</foreign></hi></l>
<l> And þat þis dede schal dur<expan>e</expan><hi><foreign>dormiam & requiescam .</foreign></hi></l>
<l> ¶ What rauestow q<expan>uo</expan>d riȝtwisnesse  or þow art riȝt dronke .</l>
<l> Leuestow þat ȝonde liȝte  vnlouke miȝte helle .</l>
<l> And saue mannes soule  suster wene <app><lem>þow</lem></app><note>R.18.194: Beta omits alpha's <hi>þow</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with beta.</note> it neuer<expan>e</expan> .</l>
<l> At þe bigynnyng<expan>e</expan> god  gaf þe dome hym<seg>-</seg>sulue .</l>
<l> Þat adam and eue  and alle þat hem sued .</l>
<l> Schulde deye dou<expan>n</expan><seg>-</seg>riȝt  and dwelle in peyne after .</l>
<l> Ȝif þat þei touched a tre  and þe fruit eten .</l>
<l> Adam afterwarde  aȝenes his defence .</l>
<l> Frette of þat fruit and forsoke as it were .</l>
<l> Þe loue of oure lorde and his lore bothe .</l>
<l> And folwed þat þe fende tauȝte  & his felawes wille .<note>R.18.202: Hereafter, alpha omits a line preserved in beta and in most <hi>C</hi> version witnesses:<lb/>
<hi>Aȝeines resoun I riȝtwisnesse recorde þus with treuth</hi>. A related problem is that the single best <hi>B</hi> witness, manuscript L, reads <hi>I</hi> rather than <hi>and</hi> in the middle of the line, a superior choice also attested by a select group of the <hi>C</hi> manuscripts (XYcI).
<l> Þat her<expan>e</expan> peyne be p<expan>er</expan>petuel  & no preyere hem helpe .</l>
<l> For<seg>-</seg>thi late hem chewe as þei chose  & chide we nauȝte sustres .</l>
<l> For it is botles bale  þe bitte þat þei eten .</l>
<l> ¶ And<note>R.18.206: L and Y join R in merely implying, rather than stating, the pronoun subject here, but F agrees with the other beta copies in reading explicitly <hi>And I shal</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with F and the beta majority.</note> schal <app><lem>preie</lem></app><note>R.18.206: R's <hi>preie</hi> is an alpha variant. Beta has <hi>preue</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with alpha.</note> q<expan>uo</expan>d pees  her<expan>e</expan> peyne mote haue ende .</l>
<l> And wo into wel  mowe wende at þe laste .</l>
<l> For <app><lem>þei</lem></app> wiste<note>R.18.208: Beta reads <hi><hi>had</hi> þei wist</hi>. Almost certainly alpha omitted <hi>had</hi> since the only evidence for it in that family is in the form of a supralinear correction in the scribal hand of F, which, as a result, reads <hi>þey <hi>hadde</hi> wiste</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with beta.</note> of no wo  wele hadde þei nauȝte knowe .</l>
<l> For no wiȝt wote what wele is  þ<expan>a</expan>t neu<expan>er</expan>e wo suffrede .</l>
<l> Ne what is hote hunger<expan>e</expan>  þat hadde neu<expan>er</expan>e defaute .</l>
<l> ¶ If no niȝt ne were  no man as I leue .</l>
<l> Schuld witte witt<expan>er</expan>ly  what day is to mene .</l>
<l> Schuld neu<expan>er</expan>e riȝt riche man  þat lyueth in reste and ese .</l>
<l> Wite what wo is  ne wer<expan>e</expan> þe deth of kende .</l>
<milestone>fol. 93rI</milestone>
<l> So god þat bigan alle  of his gode wille .</l>
<l> Bycam man of a mayde  mankende to saue .</l>
<l> And suffre<note>R.18.217: R's error here (<hi>Bx</hi> = <hi>suffred</hi>) is almost unique, being shared only with Cr<hi>2-3</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with the <hi>B</hi> majority.</note> to be solde  <app><lem>and</lem></app><note>R.18.217: For alpha's <hi>and</hi>, beta reads <hi>to</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with beta.</note> se þe sorwe of deying<expan>e</expan> .</l>
<l> Þe whiche vnknitteth alle care  and comsyng<expan>e</expan> is of rest .</l>
<l> For til <foreign>modicu<expan>m</expan></foreign> mette with vs  I may it wel auowe .</l>
<l> Wote no wiȝte as I wene  what is <app><lem>nouȝte</lem></app><note>R.18.220: R's <hi>is nouȝte</hi> is unique; F shows <hi>it is</hi>, while beta has <hi>is ynough</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with beta, reading <hi>is ynow</hi>.</note> to mene .</l>
<l> Forthi god of his godenesse  þe furste gome adam .</l>
<l> Sette hym in solace  and in sou<expan>er</expan>eyne <app><lem>ioye</lem></app> .<note>R.18.222: Beta has <hi>myrthe</hi> in place of alpha's <hi>ioye</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with beta.</note></l>
<l> And sitthen he suffred hym synege<note>R.18.223: R's <hi>synege</hi> is a unique form here; cf. <ref>R.17.242:</ref>.</note>  sorwe to fele .</l>
<l> To wite what wele <app><lem>is</lem></app><note>R.18.224: Beta has the past form, <hi>was</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with beta.</note>  kendeliche to knowe it .</l>
<l> And after god auntred hym<seg>-</seg>selue  & toke adames kende .</l>
<l> To wite what he hath sufred in thre sundri places .</l>
<l> Bothe in heuene and in herthe  and nowe til helle he thenketh .</l>
<l> To wite what alle wo is  þat wote of alle ioye .</l>
<l> ¶ So it schal far<expan>e</expan> be þis folke  here foly and here synne .</l>
<l> Schal lere hem what langour<expan>e</expan> is  and blisse<note>R.18.230: R's <hi>blisse</hi> agrees only with G; F omits the word, merging this b-verse with the next line, while beta has <hi>lisse</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with beta.</note> with<seg>-</seg>outen ende .</l>
<l> Wote no wiȝte what werr<expan>e</expan> is  þere þat pees regneth .</l>
<l> Ne what is witt<expan>er</expan>ly wele  til weyleweye hym teche .</l>
<l> ¶ Þanne was þer<expan>e</expan> a wiȝte  with to brode eyȝes .</l>
<l> Boek hiȝte þat bewpere  a bolde man of speche .</l>
<l> By godes body q<expan>uo</expan>d þis boke  I wil bere witnesse .</l>
<l> Þat þo þis barne was I<seg>-</seg>bore  þer<expan>e</expan> blased a sterre .</l>
<l> Þat alle þe <app><lem>men</lem></app><note>R.18.237: Alpha's <hi>men</hi> breaks the alliterative pattern of the a-verse; cf. beta's <hi>wyse</hi>. Cr may have consulted both alpha and beta copies and tried to split the difference with its <hi>wise men</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with beta.</note> <app><lem>in</lem></app> þis worlde  in o witt acordeden .</l>
<l> Þat swilk a barn was yborn  in bethlem þe<note>R.18.238: R's <hi>þe</hi> is supported only by W; all other <hi>B</hi> copies, including F, omit it. However, <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with RW on the presence of <hi>þe</hi> here.</note> cite </l>
<l> Þat mannes soule schulde saue  and synne <app><lem><sic>destuye</sic><corr>dest[r]uye</corr></lem></app> .</l>
<l> And alle þe elementz q<expan>uo</expan>d þe boke  her<expan>e</expan><seg>-</seg>of bereth witnesse .</l>
<l> Þat he was god þat alle wrouȝte  þe walkne furste schewede .</l>
<l> Þo þat weren in heuene  token <foreign>stella comata</foreign> .</l>
<l> And tendeden her<expan>e</expan> as a torche  to reu<expan>er</expan>encen his burthe .</l>
<l> Þe liȝte folwed þe lorde  in<seg>-</seg>to þe lowe erthe</l>
<l> Þe water witnesseth þat he was god  for he wente on it .</l>
<l> Peter þe apostle parceyued his gate .</l>
<l> And as he wente on <app><lem>þat</lem></app><note>R.18.247: R's <hi>þat</hi> is unique; the other <hi>B</hi> witnesses have <hi>þe</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with the <hi>B</hi> majority.</note> wat<expan>er</expan>  wel hym knewe and seyde .</l>
<l> <hi><foreign>Iube me venire ad te super aquas .</foreign></hi></l>
<l> And lo how þe so<expan>n</expan>ne gan <app><lem>loke</lem></app>  hire liȝte in hire<seg>-</seg>selue .</l>
<milestone>fol. 93vI</milestone>
<l> Whan sche sey hym suffre  þat sonne and <app><lem>mone</lem></app><note>R.18.250: Beta reads <hi>se</hi> in place of alpha's <hi>mone</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with beta.</note> made .</l>
<l> Þe erthe for heuynesse  þat he wolde suffre .</l>
<l> Quakede as quikke thyng<expan>e</expan>  & al <app><lem>biquasche</lem></app><note>R.18.252: R's <hi>biquasche</hi> is an alpha variant; beta shows a preterite form, <hi>biquasht</hi>. Though many <hi>C</hi> manuscripts agree with beta on the tense of the verb (= <hi>toquasched</hi>), the best X family copies, as well as some in the P family, read <hi>toquasch</hi>, agreeing with alpha.</note> þe roche .</l>
<l> Lo helle miȝte nouȝte holde  but opnede þo god tholed .</l>
<l> And lete oute symondes sones  to sen hym hange on rode .</l>
<l> And now schal <app><lem><sic>lucifer it</sic><corr>lucifer [lese] it</corr></lem></app><note>R.18.255: R uniquely omits an essential word at this point; the beta manuscripts read <hi>leue</hi> while F reads <hi>leese</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with beta.</note>  þow hym lothe thenke .<note>R.18.255: Immediately hereafter, alpha omitted the following lines from <hi>Bx</hi>: <lb/>
<hi>For gygas þe geaunt with a gynne engyned <lb/>
To breke & to bete dounn þat ben aȝeines ihesus</hi>
. A revised version of these two lines appears in the <hi>C</hi> version.
<l> And I boek wil be brente  but ih<expan>es</expan>us rise to lyue .</l>
<l> In alle miȝtes of <app><lem>a</lem></app> man<note>R.18.257: Beta omits the determiner, reading simply <hi>of man</hi>.</note>  and his moder gladie .</l>
<l> And co<expan>n</expan>forte al his kyn  and oute of care brynge .</l>
<l> And alle þe iewene ioye  vnioynen and vnlouken .</l>
<l> And but þei reuerencen  his rode & his resurrecc<expan>i</expan>ou<expan>n</expan> .</l>
<l> And bileue on a newe lawe  be lost lif and soule .</l>
<l> ¶ Suffre we seide treuthe  I her<expan>e</expan> and se bothe .</l>
<l> <app><lem>A</lem></app><note>R.18.263: Beta begins this line with <hi>How a</hi>; <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with alpha in omitting <hi>How</hi>.</note> spiriȝt speketh to helle  and bitt vnsperre þe ȝates .</l>
<l> <hi><foreign>Attollite <app><lem>portas</lem></app></foreign>  a uoys loude i<expan>n</expan> þ<expan>a</expan>t liȝt  to lucifer crieth .</hi><note>R.18.264: Beta reads this passage as two lines, dividing alpha's line between the Latin and the English. Though most <hi>C</hi> manuscripts agree with the line division of beta, some of the best X family witnesses (XIP<hi>2</hi>K) agree with alpha.</note></l>
<l> Princes of þis place  vnpinneth & vnlouketh .</l>
<l> For here cometh with croune  þ<expan>a</expan>t kyng<expan>e</expan> is of glorie .</l>
<l> ¶ Þanne siȝede<note>R.18.267: Alpha's form (i.e., R's <hi>siȝede</hi>), though semantically identical to beta's <hi>syked</hi>, was sufficiently unfamiliar to the F scribe to cause him to flounder, producing <hi>seyde</hi>. However, <hi>Cx</hi>'s <hi>syhed</hi> is clearly identical to alpha (phonologically) and distinct from beta.</note> sathan  and seide to <app><lem>helle</lem></app> .</l>
<l> Swiche a liȝte aȝeynes our<expan>e</expan> leue  lazar it fette .</l>
<l> Kare and combraunce  is come to vs alle .</l>
<l> If þis kynge come in  mankende wil he fecche .</l>
<l> And lede <app><lem>hem</lem></app><note>R.18.271: Beta reads <hi>it</hi> in place of alpha's <hi>hem</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with beta.</note> þere <app><lem>lazar is</lem></app>  and liȝtliche me bynde .</l>
<l> Patriarkes and p<expan>ro</expan>phetes  han parled here<seg>-</seg>of longe .</l>
<l> Þat swhich a lorde and a liȝte  <app><lem>schal</lem></app><note>R.18.273: For alpha's <hi>schal</hi>, beta reads <hi>shulde</hi>. Although a few <hi>C</hi> manuscripts support beta, <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with alpha.</note> lede he<expan>m</expan> all<expan>e</expan> he<expan>n</expan>nes .</l>
<l> ¶ Listeneth q<expan>uo</expan>d lucifer  for I þis lorde knowe .</l>
<l> Bothe þis lorde and þis liȝte  is longe ago I knewe hym .</l>
<l> May no deth <app><lem>þis lorde</lem></app><note>R.18.276: For alpha's phrase, <hi>þis lorde</hi>, beta reads <hi>hym</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with alpha.</note> dere  ne no deueles queyntise .</l>
<l> And where he wil is <app><lem>weye</lem></app><note>R.18.277: R uniquely omits a word here; all but one of the other <hi>B</hi> copies, including F, read <hi>is his waye</hi>; Bm transposes to <hi>his is</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with the <hi>B</hi> majority.</note>  ac ware hym of þe p<expan>er</expan>ils .</l>
<l> If he reue me <app><lem>of</lem></app><note>R.18.278: Beta apparently omitted <hi>of</hi>. But Cr agrees with alpha on the presence of this preposition; <hi>Cx</hi> concurs.</note> my riȝte  <app><lem>& robbe</lem></app><note>R.18.278: For alpha's <hi>& robbe</hi>, beta reads <hi>he robbeth</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with beta.</note> me be maistrie .</l>
<l> For be riȝt and be resou<expan>n</expan>  þe renkes þat ben here .</l>
<l> Body and soule be myne  bothe gode and ille .</l>
<l> For hym<seg>-</seg>self seide  þat sire is of heuene .</l>
<l> <app><lem>Þat</lem></app><note>R.18.282: Beta omits <hi>Þat</hi>.</note> ȝif adam <app><lem>ete</lem></app><note>R.18.282: R uniquely omits <hi>þe apple</hi> from the end of this a-verse.</note>  alle schulde deye  </l>
<l> And dwelle with vs deueles  þis thretyng<expan>e</expan> he made .</l>
<milestone>fol. 94rI</milestone>
<l> <app><lem>And</lem></app><note>R.18.284: R uniquely omits <hi>he</hi> from the <hi>Bx</hi> phrase <hi>And <hi>he</hi> þat</hi>. <hi>Bx</hi> was already lacking an alliterating initial stave.</note> þ<expan>a</expan>t sothenesse is  seide þese wordes .</l>
<l> And I sitthen I<seg>-</seg>sessed<note>R.18.285: The readings of alpha and of <hi>Bx</hi> are doubtful here. Cf. F's <hi>Sytthe y was sesed</hi>. Beta reads <hi>And sitthen I seised</hi>.</note><app><lem>þise seue</lem></app> hundreth wynter .</l>
<l> I leue þat lawe nil nauȝte  late hym þe leste .</l>
<l> ¶ Þat is soth seide sathan  but I me sore drede .</l>
<l> For þow gete hem with gile  and his gardyn breke .</l>
<l> And in semblaunce of a s<expan>er</expan>pent  sete on þe appeltre .</l>
<l> And eggedest hem to ete  eue be hire<seg>-</seg>sulue .</l>
<l> And toldest hire a tale  of tresou<expan>n</expan> were þe wordes .</l>
<l> And <app><lem>al<seg>-</seg>so</lem></app><note>R.18.292: R's <hi>al<seg>-</seg>so</hi> is the alpha reading; beta has <hi>so</hi>. The X family of <hi>C</hi> agrees with beta. The P family reads <hi>Thus</hi> at this point.</note> þow haddest hem oute  and hider atte laste .</l>
<l> It is nouȝt greythely gete  þere gile is þe rote .</l>
<l> For god wil nouȝt be bigiled  q<expan>uo</expan>d gobelyn ne be<seg>-</seg>iapede .</l>
<l> We han no trewe <app><lem><sic>tilyle</sic><corr>ti[t]yle</corr></lem></app> to hem  for þoruȝ tresou<expan>n</expan> were þei dampned .</l>
<l> Sertes I drede me q<expan>uo</expan>d þe deuel  lest treuthe wil hem fecche .</l>
<l> ¶ Þis thretty winter as I wene  <app><lem>he wente aboute</lem></app><note>R.18.297: Cf. alpha's <hi>he wente aboute</hi> to beta's <hi>hath he gone</hi>. Beta's reading is obviously defective in alliteration. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees here with alpha.</note> & p<expan>re</expan>chede .</l>
<l> Ich haue assailed hym with synne  and <app><lem>some</lem></app><note>R.18.298: In place of alpha's <hi>some</hi>, beta reads <hi>sometyme</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with beta.</note> I asked .<note>R.18.298: RF's basic agreement here attests that alpha read <hi>I asked</hi> (F reads the b-verse as <hi>summe y have hym asked</hi>). <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with R, reading <hi>ich askede</hi>. By contrast, beta (reflected by LMW) appears to have construed this form as a past-participle, <hi>yasked</hi>.</note></l>
<l> Where he were god or godes sone  he gaf me schorte answer<expan>e</expan> .<note> In the right margin opposite these lines, there is a partially erased and illegible (under ultraviolet light) note in a near-contemporary hand. It is ten lines long: 4 lines + a signature line and then the same pattern repeated with the same signature, which might be <hi>Robert Smith</hi> or <hi>Robin Swift</hi>.</note></l>
<l> And þus <app><lem>he hath</lem></app><note>R.18.300: Beta transposes this phrase as <hi>hath he</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with beta.</note> trolled forth  þis to and thretty wynter</l>
<l> And whan I seyȝ it was so  slepyng<expan>e</expan> I wente .</l>
<l> To warne pilates wif  what done man was ih<expan>esu</expan>s .</l>
<l> For iewes hateden hym  and han don hym to deth</l>
<l> <app><lem>And</lem></app><note>R.18.304: Beta omits the conjunction <hi>And</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with beta.</note> I wolde haue lengthed his lif  for I <app><lem>leue</lem></app><note>R.18.304: This is an alpha reading; beta shows the preterite, <hi>leued</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with beta.</note> ȝif he deyede .</l>
<l> Þat his soule walde <app><lem>nauȝt</lem></app><note>R.18.305: Beta omits <hi>nauȝt</hi>.</note> suffre  no synne i<expan>n</expan> his siȝte .</l>
<l> For þe body while it on bones ȝede  aboute was euere .</l>
<l> To saue men fram synne  ȝif hem<seg>-</seg>self wolde .</l>
<l> And now I se wher<expan>e</expan> a soule  cometh hyderward sailyng<expan>e</expan> .</l>
<l> With glorie <app><lem>and</lem></app><note>R.18.309: Beta reads <hi>& with</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with beta.</note> grete liȝte  god it is I wote wel .</l>
<l> I rede we fle q<expan>uo</expan>d he  fast alle hennes .</l>
<l> For vs were better nauȝt be  þan biden his siȝte .</l>
<l> For thi lesinges lucifer<expan>e</expan>  lost is alle our<expan>e</expan> preye .</l>
<l> ¶ Furst þoruȝ þe we felle  fram heuene so hiȝe .</l>
<l> For we leuede þi lesynges  we loupen oute alle <app><lem>with þe</lem></app> .<note> These verses are attested only in alpha, beta having lost them by eyeskip. In addition, only R shows the final phrase of 314b, <hi>with þe</hi>. The <hi>C</hi> version attests the authenticity of alpha's phrases in a revised version, where the second of these half-lines is clearly derived from a source common with alpha (cf. Russell-Kane 20.348: <hi>And now for a later lesynge</hi>).</note></l>
<l> And now for thi last lesynge  I<seg>-</seg>lore <app><lem>haue we</lem></app> adam .</l>
<l> And al our<expan>e</expan> lordschip<expan>pe</expan> I leue  a londe and a water .</l>
<l> <hi><foreign>Nunc p<expan>ri</expan>nceps <app><lem>mu<expan>n</expan>di hui<expan>us</expan></lem></app><note>R.18.317: R here shows a unique transposition of the <hi>Bx</hi> phrasing, <foreign>huius mundi</foreign>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with <hi>B</hi> majority on the order of this phrase.</note> eicitur foras .</foreign></hi><note>R.18.317: In the left margin, beginning at this point, the leaf was torn on an inward and downward diagonal for a space of some 5.5 cm.; it was long ago repaired by stitching. No text is affected.</note></l>
<milestone>fol. 94vI</milestone>
<l> ¶ Efte þe liȝt bad vnlouke  and lucifer answered .</l>
<l> What lorde art þow q<expan>uo</expan>d lucifer  <foreign>quis est iste</foreign> .</l>
R.18.320KD.18.317α, 318
<l> <hi><foreign>Rex glorie</foreign> þe liȝte <app><lem>seide</lem></app><app><lem>þe</lem></app> lord of miȝt & of ma<expan>n</expan> & all<expan>e</expan> man<expan>er</expan> v<expan>er</expan>tues .</hi><note> Alpha obviously had a different arrangement of text here from the beta witnesses, which read: <lb/>
<hi>Rex glorie þe liȝte sone seide <lb/>
And lorde of myȝte & of mayne & al manere vertues. <lb/>
<foreign>Dominus virtutum</foreign> <lb/>
Dukes of þis dym place anon vndo þis ȝates</hi>
By contrast, R makes two lines of the passage, omits beta's <hi>sone</hi> before <hi>seide</hi> (as does F) and, with W, reads <hi>ma(n)</hi> for beta's <hi>mayne</hi> (F here reads <hi>man(er)e</hi>). F deviates from the line division found in R (which presumably reflects alpha) and abbreviates the passage, omitting <foreign>Dominus virtutum</foreign>.
<l> <hi><foreign>D<expan>omin</expan>us v<expan>ir</expan>tutu<expan>m</expan> .</foreign></hi> <app><lem>Duk</lem></app><note>R.18.321: The singular is an alpha variant; beta has <hi>Dukes</hi>. Among the <hi>C</hi> manuscripts, the P family agrees with alpha while the X family agrees with beta.</note> of þis dym place  anone vndo þis ȝates .</l>
<l> Þat crist may come in  <app><lem>kynges</lem></app><note>R.18.322: Here R shows a unique omission; the other <hi>B</hi> witnesses have <hi><hi>þe</hi> kynges sone</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with the <hi>B</hi> majority.</note> sone of heuene .</l>
<l> And with þat breth helle <app><lem>braste</lem></app><note>R.18.323: The beta variant here is <hi>brake</hi>, which agrees with the reading of <hi>Cx</hi>.</note>  with belialles barres .</l>
<l> For any wey or warde  wide opned þe ȝates .</l>
<l> ¶ Patriarkes and p<expan>ro</expan>phetes  <foreign>populus in tenebris</foreign> .</l>
<l> Songen seint Iohanes songe  <foreign>Ecce agnus dei</foreign> .</l>
<l> Lucifer loke ne miȝte  so liȝt hym a<seg>-</seg>blente .</l>
<l> And þo þat oure lorde loued  in<seg>-</seg>to his liȝt he lauȝte .</l>
<l> And seide to sathan  lo here my soule to amendes .</l>
<l> For alle synful soules  to saue þo þat be worthi .</l>
<l> Myne þei ben and of me  I may þe bet hem cleyme .</l>
<l> Alle<seg>-</seg>þouȝ reson recorde  and riȝt of my<seg>-</seg>sulue .</l>
<l> Þat ȝif þei ete þe apple  alle schulde deye .</l>
<l> I be<seg>-</seg>hiȝt hem nouȝt here  helle for euer<expan>e</expan> .</l>
<l> For þe dede þat þei dede  þi deseite it made .</l>
<l> With gile þow hem gete  ageynes alle resou<expan>n</expan> .</l>
<l> For in my paleis paradys  in p<expan>er</expan>sone of an addre .</l>
<l> Falsliche þow <app><lem>fecchest</lem></app> þere  þing<expan>e</expan> þat I louede .</l>
<l> ¶ Þus I<seg>-</seg>like a lusarde  with a ladi visage .</l>
<l> Theueliche þow me robbedest  þe olde lawe graunteth .</l>
<l> Þat gilours be bigiled  and þat is gode resou<expan>n</expan> .</l>
<l> <hi><foreign>Dente<expan>m</expan> p<expan>ro</expan> dente <expan>et</expan> oculu<expan>m</expan> p<expan>ro</expan> oculo .</foreign></hi></l>
<l> <foreign>Ergo</foreign> soule schal soule quite  and synne to synne wende .</l>
<l> And al þat man hath mys<seg>-</seg>do  I man wol amende <app><lem>it</lem></app><note>R.18.344: R's <hi>it</hi> is unique in line-terminal position and is entirely omitted by beta. Nevertheless, while R's phrasing here differs from F's, their common witness to the presence of the pronoun indicates that alpha's b-verse, unlike that of beta, attested <hi>it</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi>, which is revised here, also shows the pronoun in line-terminal position, reading <hi>to amenden it</hi>.</note> .</l>
<l> Membre for membre  be þe olde lawe was amendes .</l>
<l> And lif for lif al<seg>-</seg>so  and be þat lawe I <app><lem>clayme</lem></app> .</l>
<l> Adam and alle his issue  at my wille here<seg>-</seg>after .</l>
<l> And <app><lem><sic>at</sic><corr>[þ]at</corr></lem></app> deth in hem fordede  my deth schal releue .</l>
<l> And bothe quik and quite  þat quent was þoruȝ synne .</l>
<l> And þat grace gile <app><lem>destruyeth</lem></app>  gode feith it asketh .</l>
<l> So leue <app><lem>it</lem></app> <app><lem>neuer<expan>e</expan></lem></app><note>R.18.351: For alpha's <hi>neuere</hi>, beta reads <hi>nouȝte</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with beta.</note> lucifer<expan>e</expan>  aȝeyne þe lawe I fecche hem .</l>
<l> But bi riȝt and resou<expan>n</expan>  raunsou<expan>n</expan> here my leges .</l>
<milestone>fol. 95rI</milestone>
<l> <hi><foreign>Non veni soluer<expan>e</expan> legem sed <app><lem>implere</lem></app><note>R.18.353: R's verb here is unique; the other <hi>B</hi> manuscripts read <foreign>adimplere</foreign>. <hi>Cx</hi> also reads <foreign>adimplere</foreign>.</note></foreign></hi></l>
<l> Þow fetteste myne in my place  aȝeynes <app><lem>resou<expan>n</expan></lem></app><note>R.18.354: In place of R's <hi>resoun</hi>, the beta phrase reads <hi>al resoun</hi> while F shows <hi>ryght & resoun</hi>.</note> .</l>
<l> Falsliche and felounliche  gode feith me it tauȝte .</l>
<l> To recouer hem thoruȝ raunsou<expan>n</expan>  and be non resou<expan>n</expan> elles .</l>
<l> So þat <app><lem>with</lem></app><note>R.18.357: For L's and alpha's <hi>with</hi>, most beta witnesses have <hi>þorw</hi>. Among the <hi>C</hi> copies, the P family agrees with the beta error while most of the X family agrees with L and alpha.</note> gile þow gete  þoruȝ grace it <app><lem>was</lem></app><note>R.18.357: Beta reads <hi>is</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with beta.</note> I<seg>-</seg>wonne .</l>
<l> Þow lucifer in liknesse  of a lither addre .</l>
<l> Gete be gile  <app><lem>þing</lem></app><expan>e</expan><note>R.18.359: For alpha's <hi>þinge</hi>, beta reads <hi>þo</hi>.</note> þat god louede .</l>
<l> ¶ And I in liknesse of a lede  þ<expan>a</expan>t lorde am of heuene .</l>
<l> Graciousliche þi gile haue quit  go gile a<seg>-</seg>gayne gile .</l>
<l> And as adam and alle  thoruȝ a tre deyeden . .</l>
<l> Adam and alle þoruȝ a tre  schule <app><lem>turne</lem></app><note>R.18.363: Beta reads <hi>torne aȝeine</hi>; <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with alpha.</note> to lyue .</l>
<l> And gile is begiled  and in his gile fallen  </l>
<l> <hi><foreign>Et cecidit in foueam qua<expan>m</expan> fecit .</foreign></hi></l>
<l> Now begynneth þi gile  agayne þe to turnen .</l>
<l> And my grace to growen  ay gretter<expan>e</expan> and <app><lem>gretter<expan>e</expan></lem></app> .<note>R.18.367: Rather than repeat <hi>grettere</hi> as alpha does, beta reads <hi>wyder</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with beta.</note></l>
<l> Þe bitternesse þat þow hast browe  now brouke it þi<seg>-</seg>selue .</l>
<l> Þat art dottour<note>R.18.369: This form is unusual but not unparalleled; cf. <ref>R.13.117:</ref></note> of deth  drinke þat þow madeste .<note>R.18.369: After this line, the R scribe failed to leave a blank line, his usual custom for dividing verse strophes. No reason beyond oversight is apparent.</note></l>
<l> ¶ For I þat am lord of lif  loue is my drinke .</l>
<l> And for þat drinke to<seg>-</seg>daye  I deyede vppon erthe .</l>
<l> I fauȝte so me thurstes<note>R.18.372: The verb form is that of alpha, but it also occurs in L; cf. the majority beta form <hi>þursteþ</hi>. The inflectional ending of <hi>Cx</hi> (= <hi>fursteth</hi>) agrees with the prevalent beta form.</note> ȝut  for mannes soule sake .</l>
<l> May no drinke me moiste  ne my threst slake .</l>
<l> Til þe vendage falle  in þe vale of iosephath .</l>
<l> Þat I drinke riȝt ripe most  <foreign>resurrexio mortuor<expan>um</expan></foreign> .</l>
<l> And þan schal I come as a kynge  crouned with angeles .</l>
<l> And han oute of helle  alle mennes soules .</l>
<l> ¶ Fendes and fendekynnes  bifor me schul stonde .</l>
<l> And be at my bidyng<expan>e</expan>  where<seg>-</seg>so<seg>-</seg>euer<expan>e</expan> me liketh .</l>
<l> <app><lem>Ac</lem></app><note>R.18.380: R's <hi>Ac</hi> is unique among the <hi>B</hi> witnesses; F has <hi>But</hi> while beta reads <hi>And</hi>. However, <hi>Ac</hi> is also the reading of <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> <app><lem>merciable</lem></app><note>R.18.380: R's reading is unique, presumably because alpha here suffered a loss of text; cf. beta's <hi><hi>to be</hi> merciable</hi>." F weakly attempts a repair with <hi><hi>not so</hi> merciable</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with beta.</note> to man   <app><lem>my kende þanne</lem></app> it<note>R.18.380: Beta shows a transposed form of R's phrase: <hi>þanne my kynde</hi>. F rephrases the entire b-verse as <hi>my keende may not aske</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with beta.</note> asketh .</l>
<l> For we beth bretheren of blode  but nouȝte in bapteme alle .</l>
<l> Ac alle þ<expan>a</expan>t beth myn hole bretheren  in blode and in bapteme .</l>
<l> Schal nouȝt be dampned to þe deth  þat is with<seg>-</seg>outen ende .</l>
<l> <hi><foreign>Tibi soli <app><lem>p<expan>ec</expan>caui</lem></app> .</foreign></hi></l>
<l> It is nouȝt vsed <app><lem>on</lem></app><note>R.18.385: R's preposition is unique; the other <hi>B</hi> witnesses show <hi>in</hi>. Nevertheless, though a few <hi>C</hi> manuscripts support the <hi>B</hi> majority reading, <hi>Cx</hi> agrees here with R.</note> erthe  to hangen a feloun .</l>
<l> Ofter þen ones  þouȝ he were a tretour .</l>
<l> And if þe kynge of þat kyngedom  come in þat tyme .</l>
<milestone>fol. 95vI</milestone>
<l> Þere þe felon thole shulde  deth or other<seg>-</seg>wise .</l>
<l> Lawe wolde he ȝaf hym lif  <app><lem>and</lem></app><note>R.18.389: In place of alpha's <hi>and</hi>, beta reads <hi>if</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with alpha.</note> he loked on hym .</l>
<l> And I þat am kynge of kynges  schal come suche a tyme .</l>
<l> Þere dome to þe deth  dampneth alle wikked .</l>
<l> And ȝif lawe wil I loke on hem  it lyth in my grace .</l>
<l> Whether þei deye or deye nauȝte  for þat þei deden ille .</l>
<l> Be it any<seg>-</seg>thinge abouȝte  þe boldenesse of here synnes .</l>
<l> I <app><lem>may</lem></app><note>R.18.395: L here uniquely joins the alpha reading (the other beta copies omit <hi>may</hi>). <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with alpha and L.</note> do mercy þoruȝ riȝtwisnesse  and alle my wordes trewe .</l>
<l> And þouȝ holy writ wil I<note>R.18.396: In place of R's <hi>wil I</hi>, beta reads <hi>wil <hi>þat</hi> I</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with beta.</note> be wroke  of hem pat deden ille .</l>
<l> <hi><foreign><hi>N</hi>ullu<expan>m</expan> malu<expan>m</expan> <app><lem>inpunitu<expan>m</expan></lem></app> .</foreign></hi></l>
<l> Þei schul be clensed clereliche  & waschen of her<expan>e</expan> synnes .</l>
<l> In my p<expan>ri</expan>sone purgatorie  til <foreign>parce</foreign> it hote .</l>
<l> And my mercy schal be schewed  to many of my bretheren .<note>R.18.400: There is a long, superfluous bar extending from above the <-en> of <hi>bretheren</hi> far into the right margin beyond the vertical ruling.</note></l>
<l> For blode may suffre blode  bothe hungri and akale .</l>
<l> Ac blode may nouȝte se <app><lem>his</lem></app><note>R.18.402: Beta omits <hi>his</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with beta.</note> blode  blede but hym rewe .</l>
<l> <hi><foreign><hi>A</hi>udiui archana verba  q<expan>ue</expan> no<expan>n</expan> licet ho<expan>min</expan>i loqui .</foreign></hi></l>
<l> Ac my<note> At the beginning of these two lines there is a slight ink stain from offset of the Bodleian ownership stamp in the margin of 96r.</note> riȝtwisnesse and riȝte  schal reulen alle helle .</l>
<l> And m<expan>er</expan>cy al mankende  by<seg>-</seg>for me in heuene .</l>
<l> For I were an vnkende kyng<expan>e</expan>  but I my <app><lem>kyn</lem></app><note>R.18.406: Beta reads <hi>kynde</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with beta.</note> holpe .</l>
<l> And namelich at swich a nede  þer<expan>e</expan> nedes help<expan>e</expan> bihoueth .</l>
<l> <hi><foreign><hi>N</hi>on intres i<expan>n</expan> iudiciu<expan>m</expan> cu<expan>m</expan> s<expan>er</expan>uo tuo .</foreign></hi></l>
<l> Þus be lawe q<expan>uo</expan>d our<expan>e</expan> lorde  lede I wil fram hennes .</l>
<l> Þo þat <app><lem>I</lem></app><note>R.18.410: For alpha's <hi>I</hi>, beta reads <hi>me</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with alpha.</note> louede  & leuede i<expan>n</expan> my comyng<expan>e</expan> .</l>
<l> And for þi lesing<expan>e</expan> lucifer  þat þow lowe<note>R.18.411: This form, found in alpha and L, is an obsolete past tense and past participle of LIE (= "to tell an untruth"); the majority beta reading, <hi>leighe</hi>, is substantively the same. <hi>Cx</hi>'s form for this verb is the same as in alpha and L.</note> to eue .</l>
<l> Þow schalt a<seg>-</seg>bye it bitter<expan>e</expan>  and bonde hym with cheynes .</l>
<l> Astarot and alle þe route  hudden hem in hurnes .</l>
<l> Þei durst nauȝt loke on our<expan>e</expan> lorde  þe boldest of hem alle .</l>
<l> But leten hym lede forth  what hym liked  & lete what hym lyste .</l>
<l> <hi></hi> Many hundreth of angeles  harpeden and songen .</l>
<l> <hi><foreign>Culpat caro purgat caro regnat deus dei caro .</foreign></hi></l>
<l> <hi></hi> Þanne pipede pees  of poysye a note .</l>
<l> <hi><foreign><hi>C</hi>larior est <app><lem>solitus</lem></app><note>R.18.419: R's uninflected form of this word is unique; the other <hi>B</hi> copies read <foreign>solito</foreign>. <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with the <hi>B</hi> majority.</note>  post maxi<expan>m</expan>a nebula phebus .</foreign></hi><note>R.18.419: In the left margin opposite this line, there is a pointing hand, drawn in black ink.</note></l>
<l> <hi><foreign><hi>P</hi>ost inimicicias  clarior est et amor .</foreign></hi></l>
<l> After <app><lem>scharpest</lem></app><note>R.18.421: Beta reads <hi>sharpe</hi>. Though a few <hi>C</hi> manuscripts concur with beta's reading, <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with alpha's <hi>scharpest</hi>.</note> schoures  q<expan>uo</expan>d pes  moste schene is þe sonne .</l>
<foreign>desunt</foreign><note>R.18.422: In the bottom right margin of this page, there is a symbol resembling a modern script capital H, beneath which is written the word <foreign>desunt</foreign> in what appears to be an early-modern italic hand. The note was clearly intended to draw attention to the textual gap that occurs here. Leaves including the last twenty-three lines of Passus 18, all of Passus 19, and the first twenty-six lines of Passus 20 were detached from R and lost long ago.</note>
<l> Is no weder warmer  þan after wateri cloudes .</l>