fol. 24v (cont.)I
. ra— —Passus Sextus de visione vt sup
R.6.3: There is no paraph marker here because there was no space for one (the passus initial extends down slightly beyond this line in the left margin). uatȝ Qerkyn þe plowma p by seint peter of rome . n
R.6.6: Among the other copies, only LCY share R's B (the rest read wil). That the latter form of the verb was original in the wolde version seems obvious (though three of its manuscripts—Ra, U, and La—support a future meaning in place of the conditional); but the reading of A is more problematic. Most Cx copies agree with the C majorities on AB, but three of the most authoritative X-family witnesses, XYcI, support the RLCY reading. wolde wenden with ȝow and þe weye teche .I wil
men werche mþereR.6.8: Most beta manuscripts of all other sub-groups read , but the LM pair agrees with alpha. þe whiles .What schuld we wo
wyues and wydewes .
aR.6.15: , "they." a lyggeth .Þe nedy and þe naked nemeth hede how
R.6.28: There is a mark above the <I> of . It appears to be a backwards <c> in brown, touched with red. In couenaut þat þow kepe holy cherche and my n-selue .In
bukkesR.6.31: Cf. beta's ; F rewrites the a-verse. Both brockes and Ax agree with R's lection. Cx þat breketh a-dou myn hegges . nTo bores and to
þiR.6.36: R's is unique; þi reads Bx, which is also the reading of a plurality of þis witnesses in a very similar rendering of this line. A forwarde þouȝ I fiȝte schulde .To fulfille
cy ermenR.6.40: Beta reads . In a slightly revised line, the hem tradition agrees here with alpha, reading C. men lat mercy be taxour . eAnd þouȝ ȝe mowe am
eȝourR.6.41: Both F and beta attest . The same is true of þi. Cx mayster maugre emedeR.6.41: R's uninflected form is unique among the manuscripts; the others have B. However, a majority of medes witnesses, including the best X-family copies, agree with R's form. C chekes .R.6.41: Here the scribe again omits his usual insertion of a blank line to mark a new paragraph, presumably because the next line is the last of the side.And mekenesse
þowR.6.43: R's is an alpha reading; beta has aunter þow; however, though five auenture ȝe witnesses support A, it seems clear that the entire phrase, in both auenture and Ax was rendered as in alpha. Cx mowe it nauȝt deserueNyme it nauȝt an aunter
a chanelR.6.50: , "charnel house." For the spelling, see chanel, MED s.v. n.(1). charnel at cherche clerkesR.6.50: Beta reads , which clearly reflects cherles (and agrees with Bx). Alpha's variant (F = C) is deficient in alliteration as well as less suitable to the context (levelling of social classes beyond death). a clerk ben euel to knowe .For in
tongeR.6.52: Beta reads tonge þi. Most of witnesses agree on this reading with beta, as does the X family of A manuscripts. However, four C copies (TDH A V) agree with alpha's omission of any determiner. Most of the P family in the 2 tradition attest the presence of C at this point. hys and tales þat þow hatie .And þat þow be trewe of
nauȝtR.6.54: No beta manuscript attests . Two nauȝt copies agree with alpha at this point, but most support beta. By contrast almost all A witnesses support alpha's use of the double negative in this a-verse, although the Russell-Kane edition emends this evidence away. C with non herlotes ne here nauȝt here tales .Holde
¶ And caste on me ¶R.6.61: Only L agrees with R in attesting . F and the other beta copies simply show me my. my and Ax agree against Cx in reading this phrase as third-person description: B caste on ( He = his) / ( A = hym his) cloþis C. It is interesting to note that the one difference between the and A phrases parallels the grammatical difference between LR and the other C witnesses. B my clothes I-clouted and -holeI .
hymR.6.69: Beta reads here, but both hem and Ax agree with alpha's Cx. hym merie þermyde maugre ho e-so it be-grucche .R.6.69: Beta transposes the final phrase as . This word order parallels that found in the X family of bigruccheth it (the P family omits C completely, as do several of the less authoritative copies in the it tradition). However, the B witnesses strongly support alpha's phrasing at this point. AAnd maken
R.6.71: Here the scribe again omits his usual insertion of a blank line to mark a new paragraph, presumably because the next line is the last of the side.I schal fynde hem fode þat feithfullyche libbeth .
aske .R.6.78: R's is unique; both beta and F read aske. However, both take and Ax agree with R's reading. CxFor holy cherche is hote of hem no tythe to
nowR.6.80: Beta reads in place of alpha's auenture, but auntour and Ax agree with alpha's form. Also, most beta copies omit alpha's Cx, but its occurrence in LM clearly attests its authenticity, both in beta and now. Almost all Bx witnesses—and a majority of C copies—attest the presence of this adverb. A god hem amende .Þei ben aschaped good auntour
haueR.6.83: Beta reads hauen to. A majority of the witnesses supports beta (none supports alpha), but A clearly agrees with alpha in omitting Cx. to here wille .His sone hiȝt suffre þi souereynes
-thy I wil ar I wende do write my queste .R.6.88: R's is unique in form but identical in sense to beta's reading (See queste, MED s. v. [n.]); cf. F's quiste and beta's enqweste. Both biqueste and Ax agree with beta's form. CxFor
i me amen nIn dei no I make it my-selue he schal haue my soule .R.6.89: Here alpha differs from beta by merging the opening phrase from the archetype's next line (= ) with this one, and then truncating the third line by deleting its final phrase (= He shal haue my soule ), so that the three lines in Langland's presumptive original are reduced to two non-alliterating ones. for so I bileue
-serued it and fro þe fende -keped itIR.6.90: R's -keped is unique; F rephrases this verse, with his own unique verb phrase ( I); the cognate beta reading is weyvid fram yt. Both it defende and Ax substantially agree with beta's phrasing in this entire passage, where alpha was clearly corrupt (cf. note at R6.89). Cx .Þat best hath I
tilR.6.91: R's before til is unique among the his acountes witnesses. B, like beta and F, shows Ax here, but to agrees with R. Cx his acountes as my crede tellethR.6.91: Beta adds before me. A majority of telleth manuscripts agrees with beta on this addition, but a minority (ChHaLaEWaMa) supports alpha's omission of the pronoun. Moreover, A clearly supports alpha in omitting Cx. me .Til I come
tithe .R.6.94: R uniquely omits a determiner before . Most tithe witnesses agree with B in attesting Ax before the noun; however, Cr agrees with þe in reading Cx at this point. myFor of my corne and catel he crauede
echildresR.6.99: R's form is unique; all other witnesses in the tradition have B. Two children manuscripts (XI) agree with R, but most agree with the C majority. B .And dele amonge my douȝteres and my der
deyedeR.6.100: Beta's form agrees with the reading of both and Ax. Cx to-day my dette is Iquited .R.6.100: R's singular is unique; F shows a plural, , and beta attests a slightly different plural phrasing, dettys ben alle qwitte. The dettes ar quitte tradition clearly supports the F/beta plural format here, but the A tradition is divided, much of the P family concurring with F/beta while the X family (and a few P copies) support R's singular. CFor þouȝ I
Now is p ¶kyn and erþeseR.6.107: Beta reads ; F has his. Most þe copies support F's reading. Among the A manuscripts, the P family also agrees with F, but the X family reading, C, concurs with R's þis. þese pilgrimes to þe plow faren .
And ȝeedR.6.115: R's is unique; otherwise R reads the line as beta does (which begins the line simply with And ȝeed to . F completely rephrases the line, but the fact that F's rewritten line begins To indicates that R's unique opening probably derives from alpha. Both the & wente and A versions begin this line by omitting R's opening (the former reading the phrase exactly as beta does). C to ouer-sen hem hym-self and ho-so best wrouȝte .
deyedeR.6.122: R's is unique. All other deyede manuscripts show a present-tense form here, as do the B and A versions. C for deul þe deuel haue þat recche .And þouȝ ȝe
ÞoR.6.132: R's reading is unique and clearly defective; beta has and F reads Ȝe. Both the Þat ȝee and A versions confirm the correctness of beta's reading. C ben wastoures I wot wel treutheR.6.132: R's omission of at the beginning of the b-verse is unique. The and version confirms the presence and location of this conjunction, as found in beta and F. A wot welR.6.132: R's redundancy (reiterated in the b-verse) is unique. wel þe sothe .
apayreth .R.6.134: Beta reads . F has appeyred. a-peyreWhiche þei weren in þis world his werkemen
blyndeR.6.138: R's omission of the verb here is unique; cf. F's and beta's he þat is blynd. he be blynde or brokelegged or bolted with yrenes . .But if he
¶ In lecherie and in losyngrie ¶lyue[ȝe] lyue and in sleuthe .R.6.145: There is an ink blot, probably the result of offset, that has the appearance of a second punctus far to the right of the intended line terminal punctus and just inside the ruling margin.
my catel to cope hem with þat haue cloystres kerkes niR.6.149: R's is unique; the other in kerkes witnesses read B. and cherche(s) .And of
che co rene and nȝutR.6.151: R's is a unique addition to the text of ȝut. Bx haue pouer of þe bisshopp . eNe postles but þei p
¶ A bretoner ¶ a braggere eabosteda bostedR.6.156: , "he." A peres alse .
onR.6.157: Beta reads . Both with and Ax agree with beta. Cx his plow forpyned schrewe .And bad hym go pissen
And ofR.6.159: R's is an alpha phrase (F omits And of). The X family of of also begins the line with C. Though two And manuscripts (KMa) also begin the line exactly as R does, A, like beta, omits Ax. And þi flour and of þi flesch e fecche whanne vs liketh . e
-kynnes þat maketh þisR.6.163: Although G agrees with R, beta reads ; F omits the entire line. þe supports the RG reading. Cx world der . eAnd fram þes wastoures wolues
poepleR.6.165: R uniquely omits before þe. poeple þe while my plow liggeth .Worth neuer plente amonge
withR.6.168: R's is unique. The other with manuscripts read B. by þe lawe by þe ordre þt I bere . aOr þow schalt abugge
¶ I was nouȝt ¶woneR.6.169: R's form here is unique; reads Bx. wont to werche qd wastour & now wil I nouȝt bygynne . uo
¶R.6.173: Beta begins this line with . The same phrase as beta's occurs in Now by and opens a revised version of the line in AxCx Be þe perel of my soule qd peres I schal apeyre ȝow alle . uo
d he þat þis world schenden . uoR.6.175: Though manuscripts O and G agree with R's terminal inflection for this verb, ( a feature also mirrored by several witnesses), beta itself, as with A, presumably read Ax. F has schendeth. shendeAwreke me of þis wastoures q
al watred his eyȝes .R.6.177: R's b-verse is unique; F and beta agree in reading . However, R's b-verse agrees exactly with the same phrase in both þat bothe his eyen wattered and Ax; it is, therefore, presumably the original reading in Cx. BAnd wronge hym so by þe wombe þat
sese .R.6.181: Cf. beta's cesse to. Both hunger and Ax agree on a different phrase, with a less obvious verb, for this line's ending: Cx. hym byleueNe hadde peres with a pese lofe preyed honger
Faytoures for fere hereof flowen ¶inR.6.186: All other witnesses read B; both into and Ax agree with them against R. Cx bernes .
ger was nouȝt nhardyR.6.188: Although G agrees here with alpha, beta itself reads , a reading also attested by half of the so hardy manuscripts (RaUHaJEWaMaH). On the other hand, A clearly agrees with alpha's reading (i.e., the omission of Cx). so on hem for to loke .Þat hu
to manyR.6.196: Beta reads , the same phrase as in for many. F substitutes Cx for the phrases found here in R and beta. þe hungri .For þat was bake for bayarde was bote
for benes efayneR.6.197: R's is unique; cf. F's fayne and beta's ful bown. buxome was to swynke .And many a begger
for toR.6.199: R's is not attested by any other B manuscript. for do as prest as a sparhauke .And what peres preyed hem
ye be so wanton so proe so .
d peres uoþoR.6.205: Beta omits . þo to honger .Ac I preye þe ar þow passe q
is to doneR.6.206: R's in this b-verse is shared only with F and Y; the entire phrase shows considerable minor variation among the is witnesses, but the original reading of beta is probably that of the majority of beta copies, B. This agrees with the reading of what best be to done. By contrast, R's b-verse agrees exactly with Kane's reconstruction of the phrase in Cx (though a majority of Ax manuscripts reverse the key phrase to A). is best .Of beggeres and of bydderes what best
ItR.6.210: R's is unique among the It manuscripts; most, including F, read B. However, R's reading agrees with that found in Þey and Ax, both of which begin the line Cx. And (h)it aren arenaren my blody bretheren qd peres uo&R.6.210: Both F and beta have where R reads for. & and Ax agree with F/beta here. Cx god bouȝte vs alle . The parchment here was torn long ago and repaired by stitching. The tear extended the length of these nine lines and is approximately 6 cm. long from its beginning at the page edge, running diagonally inwards and downwards. At its bottom it is approximately 2.5 cm. in from the page margin.
¶I here nowR.6.215: R's is unique; cf. F's I here now and beta's Now here wel me. The beta variant is identical with that found in Here now. Ax qd hunger and holde it for a wisdome . uo
andR.6.219: Beta here omits , a feature also found in half of the and manuscripts and in a majority of the P family of the A version. C swynke .R.6.219: Alpha omitted the following line attested by beta manuscripts (and by both of the other versions of the poem):And if þe gomes grucche bydde hem go
. And he shal soupe swettere whan he it hath deseruid
. And he shal soupe swettere whan he it hath deseruid
¶ ¶AcR.6.220: Both F and beta have , which is also the reading of seven And and of seven A copies; R's C is probably archetypal in the Ac version but may not be original in C. A if þow fynde any freke þat falshedR.6.220: R's is unique; cf. F's falshed and beta's False. The fortune reading is Ax, but the fortune variant, in a slightly revised line, is Cx. fals men hath apayred .
R.6.228: Only L supports R's attestation of here; all other þow copies omit it. B god a-worthe .Þeyȝ þei don euel lat þow
beR.6.230: R uniquely omits the modal before wilt. be gracious to god do as þe gospel techeth .And if þow
-loweR.6.231: Most beta manuscripts read , but LM support the alpha reading, which is clearly the subtler, harder word. biloue þe amonges lowe men so schaltow lacche gce . raAnd by
Facite vobis amicos de mamona iniquitatis .R.6.232: Here the R scribe fails to insert his customary blank line between verse strophes; no reason for this omission is apparent.
¶ Ȝe I be ¶-hote godR.6.235: Beta reads . Both þe and Ax agree with beta's reading. Cx qd hunger or elles þe bible lyeth . uo
And sapience seith þe same I ¶seyȝR.6.239: R uniquely omits a word in this phrase; beta reads in it. seigh agrees with beta. Ax in þe bible .
¶ Matheu with ma ¶nes face nmouthethR.6.242: Beta reads a past-tense form of the same verb: . Though mouthed manuscripts offer a striking variety of possibilities at this point , Kane chose the alpha form as likeliest to represent Langland's original. But the alpha form may not, in fact, signify any real difference from beta anyway (i.e., the alpha scribe may not be intending a present-tense inflection with his "-eth" suffix. See the Introduction A for a complete discussion. III.2.2.10 þis wordes .
uus neq erm ua had a smanR.6.243: Although , MED s. v., lists mnam as a possible form taken by man, it seems clear that this spelling is merely a scribal error (Langland is the only source cited by the dictionary for the word itself) evoked by an unfamiliar foreign term. Alpha passed this error to R and F, which share it with BoCot (and with AH of the mnam tradition). A & for he wolde nouȝt chaffar . eÞat
-nam hym his napm This word is foreign in origin and quite rare, and spellings of it vary considerably on that account. and OED2 identify the headword as MED. mnam lists OED2 as the only recognized variant and Langland as the only citation. However, among the nam copies, Vernon shows another presumably valid spelling variation, rendering the word at 7.225 (Kane) as A. npnam also cites MED as the only source but lists a wider variety of forms, including Piers Plowman, mnamme, namp, and mam. In light of the fact that Langland is the only source cited, however, it seems probable that several of these "variant forms" are merely scribal errors. man for he ne wold werche .And by
for toR.6.250: Beta reads , which is also the reading of both wel to and the X family of Ax (most of the P family simply omit the phrase). C haue I wil it hym bi-reue .And þat he weneth
R.6.261: , "week." Woke werche nauȝt so oure wombe aketh .Of alle a woke
hoteEte nouȝt I R.6.266: Among copies, R uniquely omits B in the phrase, þee er þe. Though four hote manuscripts (JLaAMa) share this omission, it seems clear that A read as beta does, including Ax. However, þee omits the pronoun and renders this phrase exactly as R does. Cx er hunger þe take .
knappesR.6.275: F reads , while beta has with knoppis. alle þe knappes appears to read this b-verse as Ax. & þe knoppis of gold of golde .And his cloke of calabre with alle
Þer aren mo morareres þanR.6.278: R's is a nonce word, apparently meaning "killers, murderers." The presence of morareres in F suggests that some version of the reading was in alpha. Most beta witnesses have moraynerys as their a-verse. The defective alliteration of both sub-archetypes suggests that For morthereres aren mony leches itself was corrupt here. The likeliest authorial reading for Bx is that of B: A. Þere arn mo liȝeris þan lechis leches lord hem amende .
þow be eue . erR.6.281: Cf. F's and beta's þe betyȝde. In his parallel-text edition of be þow euere, A. V. C. Schmidt errs by listing R's reading here as a dittography, Piers. Apparently, this error stems not from R itself, which is quite clear, but from Schmidt's reliance on the apparatus of Kane-Donaldson, which here displays a rare mistake. In any event, the correct reading is probably that of beta since it matches the reading of yow yow and of a majority of Ax witnesses for this phrase. However, key X family witnesses (XIUcDc) reverse the crucial phrase, reading C and thus agreeing with the thow be-version's manuscript R against beta. BWend now hunger whan þow wilt þat wel
queynte herbes .R.6.291:R's is unique. Cf. F's queynte herbes and beta's propre herbys. Most kole plantes witnesses agree with beta's reading (albeit non-alliterating), but Kane has changed his mind since 1960 and in the revised Athlone edition of A opines that the metrically appropriate reading of manuscripts AMaH ( A) is likelier to be original (461). plante colisAc I haue percyle and porett and many
lappe .R.6.298: R's singular is unique among the copies; the others read B. However, R's reading is supported by lappes and by three important Cx witnesses (TDCh). The other A manuscripts agree with the A majority. BBenes and baken apples þei brouȝten in here
R.6.303: R's plural is the same alpha form attested in F (); the beta plural, also found in a majority of pesis copies, reads A. pesen to poyson hunger þei thouȝte .With grene poret and peses
¶ And þo ¶ne wolde no wastourR.6.307: R's is a unique addition to this phrase. F has ne while beta reads þan wolde no. Beta's phrase is identical to the wording of þo wolde wastour noȝt and probably to that of Cx (some Ax copies attest A for nolde). wolde werche but wandren aboute .
ofR.6.309: R's is a unique addition to this line. of clerematyn or elles of clene whete .But of coket or
DeynedR.6.313: Beta reads to dyne nouȝt. F completely rewrites the line. Though Deyned clearly agrees with beta, most Ax manuscripts omit C in this phrase, but three (IP noȝtAc) include it and X has it added by another hand. 2 to dyne o-day niȝte-olde wortes .R.6.313: There is an apparently random ink blot (having the appearance of a second punctus) approximately 1.3 cm. to the right of the intended punctus.
flesche other fische for chillyng of ehis mawe .R.6.315: R and F run this line of archetypal together with the next by splicing this a-verse, B (= KD6.310) to the b-verse of the next line (= KD6.311), But . . . other fische. In fact, R is the only for chillyng of here mawe witness (despite its conflation of two lines) to read B mawe his—the reading of the X family of for chillyng of and of four C manuscripts (including Kane's copytext, T). Most of the other A witnesses attest B, the predominant reading in the hir(e)-version copies and in the P family of A. CBut if it be fresch
¶ÞanneR.6.321: F begins this line with ; beta begins it & þus. Both And þanne and Ax agree with beta. Cx curseth he þe kyng and alle his conseyll after . e
fulR.6.326: No beta manuscript attests . Both ful and Ax also omit it. Cx faste .For hunger hiderward hasteth hym
-wake with watR.6.327: R's reading here () makes no sense, but as usual is closer to the presumptive original reflected in beta ( wat) than is F's reading ( water), which, typically, looks like a smoothed rationalization of irreparable error. Apparently alpha left off the final loop from whater. wat wastoures to chaste .He schal a
flodR.6.329: R uniquely reads a singular form here. All other manuscripts show a plural, e.g., B. F actually reverses the entire phrase, reading flodes. þorhȝ fowle wederys & floodis agrees with the Cx majority in attesting a plural, B, but a clear majority of flodes witnesses agrees with R on the singular form. A and foule wederes fruytes schullen fayle .Thorȝ
multipliedAnd a mayde haue þe maystrie and R.6.332: Both L and M confirm this alpha reading (M with an <ed> added in a different ink over an erasure), but all other beta manuscripts read . multiplie be eyghte