fol. 6r (cont.)I
both false & fauinellG.3.6: The number of minims in the middle of "favel" varies considerably in G and it is not always clear what was intended. See G.3.43, G.3.66, G.3.81, G.3.146, G.3.152, G.3.160, G.3.165, G.3.168, G.3.186, and G.3.195. Possibly the word was unfamiliar to the scribe (according to the OED, it died out in the sixteenth century). and theyr fers many
puvrfelyd wyth pelouvre the fynest vpon yertheG.3.9: The cross in the bottom right hand margin is in modern pencil.
hyr arrey me rauvyshed suvch ryches saghtG.3.17: The form saght is recorded by LALME as the main form of "saw" in LP497 (i.e. in the West Riding of Yorkshire) and as a minor form in other Northern locations. It therefore seems likely that this was one of a number of Northern forms present in the G scribe's exemplar (see Introduction III.4.1). I neuer
for falseeG.3.25: The original <e> at the end of false is small and the added <e> may simply be an attempt to clarify. was hyr father that hath a fykle touvnge
qualis pater talis filius bonaG.3.28: There appears originally to have been some sort of tail on the <a>, partly erased. arbor bonum fructum facit
and hath gyuven mercyG.3.32: Though M's initial reading is the same as that of G (i.e. "mercy" rather than "me mercy," which is the reading of the remaining B manuscripts), the missing word me is later supplied by the M corrector (hand2). to mary wyth my-seluven
and now worth thys mede maryed toG.3.41: All C manuscripts share the G M F H reading to, which is adopted by Kane and Donaldson. Remaining B manuscripts read vnto or al to. a shrewe
therG.3.46: All A manuscripts share the G H reading ther, which is adopted by Kane and Donaldson. Remaining B manuscripts read And þere. myghtest þou wytt yff þou wylt wyche þei bynne all
that all the rych reytennvnaunceG.3.55: The corrector appears to have mistaken the first <n> of original reytenaunce for a <u> and therefore overwritten it with a <v>, realised his error, attempted to correct his correction and then finally added a bar to indicate the <n>. þat reynyth wyth the fals
were bydenG.3.56: The G form of the past participle (i.e. byden) is unique; most manuscripts have forms in medial <o>. However, there is no change in meaning, and, given the confusion surrounding the verbs which descended from OE beodan and biddan, it would be reasonable to argue that this is not a substantive variant. to the brydeale on bothG.3.56: The loops of the <b>s of both brydeale and both have been enlarged in brown ink. to sydys
but symonye and cyuvyll & sysouvrs off corn couvrtesG.3.64:The original G reading here (corn- or possibly coru-) corresponds neither to B "courts" nor to C "countries" and seems likely to be simply an error.
and as a brodger broght hyr / to be wythG.3.67: The scribe originally wrote superscript <t> above the <w> (for wyth) but then decided that this was not clear enough and added <yth>. The superscript letter <t> has not been deleted. fals enIoyned
when symonye & scyuvyllG.3.68: For the alteration of the <s> of original syuyll to a <c>, see also G.3.144. seyseyd toG.3.68: The alteration resulting in seyd to does not appear to be in the hand of the original scribe. There is a backward <s> and the script is altogether more angular. For hand2, see marginalia on ff.69v, 70, 71, 72v and 103, as well as the note on f.106v. According to the OED, forms of "saw" with weak ending date from the eighteenth century onwards, but the corrector may, of course, have intended "said." It seems possible that an attempt was made to alter the original word before the correction was written above. thhere G.3.68: The erasure here has resulted in a hole in the paper. both tyouvrh..re G.3.68: The original G reading was both your. The corrector has made the usual change of <u> to <v> but the word your has then been altered again. The added initial <t> is clear and the <y> has been altered to an <h> but it is difficult to be certain what exactly the second corrector intended after that. The <o> does not appear to have been altered, but may have been intended to be read as an <e>. Kane and Donaldson read the corrected form as theire. wylles
& vnfoldyth the feoffament that fals hadG.3.74: A few A manuscripts as well as Cp share the G Hm H reading had (for remaining B manuscripts hath). made
& thuvs begynnen thes gomes to gredenG.3.75: It is not really possible to be certain who carried out the alteration from greden to reden, but the ink colour suggests hand1.1. full hye
the couvnnteG.3.88: The original word was counte, though the minims of the <n> in particular were somewhat indistinct. Presumably this is why the corrector felt the need to add a macron. off couvetous & all the costes a-bovte
In bargaynes &G.3.90: Approximately half the C manuscripts share the G Cr23 Hm F H reading &, which is adopted by Kane and Donaldson. Remaining B manuscripts read and in. brokages wyth all þe burgh off theyft
as In workes and In wordes & weytyngG.3.92: All C manuscripts except X P Dc Ec share the G Hm F reading weytyng, which is adopted by Kane and Donaldson. Most B manuscripts have the plural. offG.3.92: All C manuscripts share the G Hm reading off, which is adopted by Kane and Donaldson. Remaining B manuscripts read with. eyene
and on fastyngG.3.98:There appears to have been an otiose abbreviation mark over the <n> of fastyng which has been smeared out. days to freet er full tyme were
yeldyng for thys thyngG.3.107: Kane and Donaldson read thyg but the word should probably be read as thyng. There is plenty of space for an <n>, it just that, as is often the case in this manuscript, the minims are poorly defined. att on yers end
bett þe byddell off bBuvkyngam-shyreG.3.112: The first letter of what seems to be Bvkyngam-shyre is such a mess that it is difficult to be certain about ink colour or hand. It would be unusual, however, for the original scribe or the <u> to <v> corrector (who are probably one and the same) to use a capital in this position.
muvnd þe mylner &G.3.114: It is possible that the deleted ampersand was originally written as or and then partly corrected. Note the problem with the ampersand five lines above at the beginning of the line. & many mo other
and sayd to cyuvyle now sorow mote youG.3.118:Kane and Donaldson interpret G's reading here as þou but for that the scribe would normally have written thorn plus superscript <u>. The use of inline <ou> makes it clear that the scribe intended "you." For the scribe's usual practice as far as the written forms of these two words are concerned, see G.1.199, G.2.2, G.2.14, G.2.15, G.2.17, G.2.19 etc. (for "you"), and G.2.5, G.2.36, G.2.43, G.3.46, G.3.48 etc. (for "thou"). The rule, in the case of these as well as other words (such as "the" and "ye") is that <þ> is always followed by superscript letters, and <y> by inline letters. That the scribe did sometimes confuse <y> and <þ> when they appeared in his exemplar is clear, for example, from the reading at G.3.204 where he writes <the> for <ye>. At G.4.351 the scribe himself corrects an error of this type, crossing out superscript <e> and replacing it with inline <e> (the correct reading is ye). hauve
suoyche weddyngG.3.119: All A manuscripts except E N Ma share the G C2 reading weddyng, which is adopted by Kane and Donaldson. Most B manuscripts have the plural. C too has the singular but preceded by the indefinite article. to worche to wrath wyth truvght
& thow hast fast hyr wythG.3.126: All C manuscripts except Nc and all A manuscripts except for K Wa Ma share the G F reading wyth (for remaining B manuscripts to), and this is adopted by Kane and Donaldson. In C, however, the half-line differs in other ways. false fye on thy lawe
ytt shalbe sytt shal besytt your souvles full soreG.3.143: The C manuscripts X I P2 Uc Dc Rc Nc and all A manuscripts except J La K Wa N Ma share the G Cr reading sore (for remaining B manuscripts soure). attheat the last
for þei mayG.3.150: This addition (may, in black ink) could conceivably have been made by the original scribe, but note the clear definition of the minims. Resemblences to the italic hand on, e.g. f.96v, and in particular the hairline tail on the <y>, suggest hand3.G.3.150: The addition of may brings G into line with Bx. mede master & maken att my wyll
tyll mede be thy weddyd wyffe thrught wytt G.3.155: All A manuscripts except Wa (which lacks this b-verse) share the G F H reading ("wit" in the singular), which is adopted by Kane and Donaldson. Most B manuscripts have the plural. off vs all
that she graaunt.ythG.3.157: The G scribe often provides an otiose superscript <a> in addition to the letters <ra>, perhaps because of confusion as to the significance of the former. See further Introduction IV.1.1. to goon wyth a good wyll
to lett somone all theG.3.161: Most A manuscripts share the G R reading all the (for remaining B manuscripts alle). seggys In þe shyre abovte
to wend wyth theym to westmynsterG.3.163: The MED records spellings of "Westminster" without <n> so G's original spelling may not actually be an error. The original G spelling also appears in Hm and Cr1. to wyttnes þis dede
and sett mede onG.3.166: All A manuscripts share the G F reading on (for most B manuscripts vpon). a shreuve shod all a-newe
for then G.3.170: The scribe intended to add the word then to the line below, q.v., but made a mistake which he then partially erased. simony & cyuvyll shuold on theyre feette gang
and lett apparellG.3.173: In the case of Hm, the shared G Hm F H reading apparell (for most B manuscripts apparaille þis) is the result of correction (original thes has been deleted). prouvysours In palfreys wyse
and facchen vs wytayles att fornycatouvrsG.3.183: Most A manuscripts share the G spelling of "fornicators" (i.e. with -our). However, the majority B spelling fornicatores does not necessarily imply that the word was thought of as Latin; the OED lists this particular usage by Langland (with this particular spelling) as the first instance of this word in English.
I hauve no tome to tell you the talylle that hyr folowytheG.3.188: G Cr1 W Hm omit a line here ("Of many maner man þat on þis molde libbeth").
butt gyle was forgoer & gydedG.3.189: Some A manuscripts share the G Cr reading gyded (for most B manuscripts gyed), but the variation could well to be due not to the influence of these but to date; guy became less frequent than guide after the fifteenth century (see OED guy, v.1 and guide, v.). theym all
& done theym hang by þe hals & all that theym meynteyntheG.3.197: The final letters of ?meynteynthe are unclear because they are written over the pricking in the top right hand corner of the writing space.
shall neuer man on thys mold meympryceG.3.198: Given the G scribe's carelessness with minims, the second <m> of meympryce may be an error. However, the OED records forms with <m> from the Middle English period to the fifteenth century. the lest
and commaundeG.3.200: The difference between commaunde (as G Cr1) and comanded (as remaining B manuscripts) may not originally have been substantive, since command was a possible form of the preterite in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries (see OED command v.). a conestable þat he come att the fyrst
falsnes for fereG.3.212: M originally shared the G Hm Hm2 F reading fere (for remaining B manuscripts fere þanne), but þanne has been added above the line by M's hand2. Most A manuscripts have Þanne at the beginning of the line. The C manuscripts P Ec Rc Mc Vc Ac Q Sc Kc Gc Nc share the G Hm Hm2 F reading. fleydd to the freres
lyghtlyche lyer lept a-wasy thenceG.3.217: All A manuscripts except E A Wa Ma share the G H reading thence as do a number of C manuscripts. Most B manuscripts read þanne.
ouver all I omytedG.3.220: B manuscripts vary between forms of "hunten" and "houten" and it is not always possible to tell which is intended. A form in —ow- seems most likely to have given rise to the G reading I omyted. & hoted to cuvrse
theyG.3.222: The final <y> here is not in the scribe's usual form and may be an addition. See, e.g., the form of <y> used by WH on f.72v. wysshen hym & wypen hym & wond hym In clouvtes
and senttdden G.3.223: The alteration of sentten to sendden is difficult to see at first because of the tails of the letters above. The change brings G into line with the A manuscripts D V Ha La K. Remaining B manuscripts read sente. hym wyth seales on sondays to chuvrches
and gaffe perdon for pence pouvndemayleG.3.224: The <y> added by hand1.1 (giving -mayle) has been squeezed in between the <a> and the <l>, making use of the <v> shape formed by the downward stroke of the former and the beginning of the upward stroke of the latter. abovte
all they restG.3.235: The script of added rest appears slightly more angular than that normally used by the original scribe, but this is probably simply because the word has had to be squashed in. fledden for fere & flyen to In-to hernes
explicit tercius passus de visione