fol. 15r (cont.)I
Iassus Puintus. Qncipit
OFF.5.1: The ornamental capital, five lines high, is produced mainly in green with red flourishes. wynkynge y waked þo / & wo was y wt ih-all. e
turned & vpward e her e tayl / knowlechynge eF.5.16: Alpha lacks beta's before in's Bx which F has rendered as tokenynge. knowlechynge drede.
al þese was ensample / þ &t we sholde doon þe bettre. aF.5.18: There is considerable variation among manuscripts for this verse. B probably read "In ensample ye segges ye sholden do þe bettre." Note that this verse appears after 5.14 in Bx. Bx
ho þ Wt spareþ þe ȝonge spryng / he aF.5.40: Beta witnesses omit . he spillyþ hyse barnes.
ell & will is þe peple parle / in ȝour e parshȝ a e-bowhte.F.5.44: This line occurs only in F.
&een btyward S of ȝour e etedis / ty S ȝee leen in bettr b rewle. eF.5.48: "" with red flourishes appears in the upper right margin to indicate the passus number. V:
Nou NNouF.5.62: The scribe left a blank space for the capital but rather than write a guide-letter in the space, supplied his own anglicana text capital. ran ce nRepentau / & reersede his teeme
by &-hyghte to hy an hees mF.5.66: , "hest." hees / þt vs alle formede a
Þt she wolde vn a-sowe hy sirke / & settyn þ hy[r]e erF.5.67: The scribe originally wrote e e, and then corrected the superscripted <e> to his usual suspension for <-er>. þ an hayr. e
o a T-flasshenF.5.68: F's unique reading -- a-flasshen reads Bx--is rare in Middle English. affaiten has only one citation, but it is clearly related to MED with its senses of striking, slashing, throwing down violently. Here it refers to mortification of the flesh through penance. flashen hir fleshȝ / þ et feers was to synne. a
or þ Ft aF.5.72: Alpha omits before al. þat y have hated / in my herte longe. n
o have mercy for hise mys T-dedis / þt mychil he offendid. aF.5.74: F's b-verse is unique. fails in alliteration, reading "bitwene god and his soule." Bx
e so / he sholde eu By day erF.5.75: Beta reads in place of þe Saterday (F) or euery day (R). on þe day / þis sevene ȝeer after.
rynke w Dt i þe du hkele nF.5.76: This spelling, which appears to be unique, conceals . The lection does not appear in other dunghill manuscripts. B doke / & dyghnen but ones.
carefully w &t i hmea culpa he comsede to shryve.F.5.78: Beta reads in place of F's shewe or R's shryve. schrewe
e hadde on kyrtyl & coorteby / & a long HF.5.81: An otiose curl appears above the <g>. knyf by his syȝde.
of a &rerys frokke / weryn hise FF.5.82: Alpha is responsible for , though the reading is shared by H. Other beta manuscripts have hise. þe fory-slevis.
e lookede w Ht i lene chekys / & lowrynge brewys. hF.5.83: In relation to this line and the next are transposed. Bx
f chydynge & Ianglynge / was his cheef lyflode. OF.5.89: The scribe corrected only imperfectly. See the facsimile. loflode
wiche manerys he made / to ech man he medled w St i. hF.5.91: F has completely rewritten this line which in reads "This was al his curteisie where þat euere he shewed hym." Bx
ut ȝit y wolde be gladder B / yf eybbe hadde mys G-chauce. nF.5.93: F omits 's: "Than þouȝ I hadde þis wouke ywonne a weye of Essex chese." Bx
whan y come to chirche &F.5.104: Alpha is responsible for , though the reading is shared by Hm. chirche reads Bx. kirk / & knele to-for þe roode.
be &-held how ervy / hadde on hF.5.110: Beta witnesses omit alpha's . on a newe cote.
erfor Þ y brende bett ely / þ ert my a brest n-boon ga krake. nF.5.111: This line appears uniquely in F.
wolde þ It euery whyȝt man / were aF.5.117: An otiose curl appears above the medial <e>. be-come my knave. n
¶et P y am eu ere erF.5.128: Beta lacks alpha's . euere sory uod qe y am but seelden oþ h. ir
þ &t makþ me þus meegr a / for y ne me may a e-venge.F.5.129: reads "for I ne may me venge." F's word order is a bit odd. See Tauno F. Mustanoja, Bx, Mémoires de la Société Néophilologique de Helsinki 23 (Helsinki: Société Néophilologique, 1960), pp. 339-40, and cf. F9.22. A Middle English Syntax, Part I: Parts of Speech
made Ia byter kb ee bro bour / to ka le me kknys war n. eF.5.131: "" with red flourishes appears in the top right margin to indicate the passus number. V:
o lyȝe & to lowr T on hy e / & to lakkyn his ware. mF.5.133: The alpha scribe picked up from two lines above. Beta preserves correct ware. chaffare
F.5.135: The scribe left an indented blank for a 3-line capital <T>. A guide letter <T> appears. Tanne Hratthe w gan awake / wt i two white eyȝes. h
sytthyn þey blomed &F.5.141: Alpha is in error, omitting after abrood. blomed i bowr ns / for to heeryn shryftis. e
o shewyn her T shryfte to hem / & for e-sake her p esou ar. nF.5.143: F's b-verse is unique. reads "þan shryuen hem to hir persons." Bx
now have p &sones y ar-pceyvid / þ art her a p esshenys love fr arris. eF.5.144: F's b-verse is unique. reads "þat freres parte wiþ hem." Bx
fyȝnde &F.5.146: Alpha omits before freres. fyȝnde hem i defawhte / as folk ber n witnesse. e
yl þey ben boþe beggeris / & by TF.5.150: Alpha omits following my, as does Hm. by almesse lybben.
/ [¶] have an awnte to a Iu Nne / & eek an nbbesse. AF.5.154: Alpha and lack a line-terminal C that appears in all beta witnesses. F's boþe is unique. eek
ele Foneþis of þe ȝeer / & Mawgr Me was my knave.F.5.157: F has substantially revised this line. reads "Manye Monþes wiþ hem and wiþ Monkes boþe." Bx
&ame deronel a p Pstys syst reerF.5.161: reads "a preestes fyle." Bx ./ Poresse worþ she neuer ri. e
hakkede her I wortis ech day / w et i wordys & w ht i spyes. hF.5.163: F has completely revised this line which in reads "Of wikkede wordes I wraþe hire wortes I made." Bx
ech cracchid oþir / & hir & kyrtlys rentyn. eF.5.165: F's reading is unique. reads "And eiþer hitte ooþer vnder þe cheke." Bx
A-mogis nu Mkis y myghte be / but ofte þa nne y wonde. nF.5.170: A corrupt or confusing exemplar may account for F's reading. He omits the following line from and revises the b-verse of this one. The immediate scribe wrote the present b-verse over an erasure in a different ink. Bx reads as follows: Bx
Among Monkes I myȝte be ac many tyme I shonye
For þere ben manye felle frekes my feeris to aspie.
Among Monkes I myȝte be ac many tyme I shonye
For þere ben manye felle frekes my feeris to aspie.
baleysed on my bar & bak / þat my bely beendiþ. eF.5.175: F's reading is unique. reads "And baleised on þe bare ers and no brech bitwene." Bx
¶ oþ &while whan wyȝn comeþ / y dry irke wel nF.5.178: Beta manuscripts have or wyn for alpha's it. wel a teveat eve
f co Oseyl þ nt þ au knowist / be co otynance ne be speche. nF.5.183: Alpha is responsible for . Beta reads variously speche, riȝt, and sight. nyght
Ater hy F cam me Coueytys / y can not hy disc mue. riF.5.188: The ornamental capital <A> is written in green with red flourishes extending in the left margin fifteen lines above and ten below.
as a bonde &-ma et bakou n / so was his berd dravelyd. nF.5.194: reads "And as a bondeman of his bacon ...." The scribe's usual form of "ate" is Bx, and it is not at all clear what he intended here. eet
l to A-tore & bawhdy / & lappe syȝd / it semede.F.5.197: This line fails in alliteration in all manuscripts, and Kane-Donaldson reject it as spurious (p. 193). F's b-verse reading is unique, most B manuscripts reading "and ful of lys crepyng." We are uncertain what B means, though it is possibly an early occurrence of "lopsided." lappe syȝd
Þt but if a lows wer a lyght / & cowhde lepe þe bettr e. eF.5.198: F's reading for this line is unique. All the other manuscripts are corrupt, omitting an alliterating stave in the a-verse: "But if a lous couþe haue lopen þe bettre." R also omits B. haue
e sholde Hno walke on þ no[t]t web / but his staf wer a pyked. eF.5.199: is a relict form originally meaning "she" and referring to the He of the preceding line. Alpha is responsible for retaining this form, but as the b-verse indicates, the immediate scribe took it to be the masculine pronoun. lows reads "He sholde noȝt haue walked on þat welche so was it þredbare." Bx
was his p &ntiȝs a re-plyghtF.5.202: reads Bx. F is alone in the ypliȝt tradition in reading B, but the same relatively rare word appears among the a-plyght variants at A.5.116. A / his profyte to wayte.
yrst y leernede to lyȝe / wel a leef or moore. FF.5.203: Alpha is responsible for , which is shared by M. Beta reads or. F uniquely reads ouþer for moore's Bx. tweyne
o wyku Tbe mF.5.205: Kane-Donaldson, p. 8, note in their description of F that it uniquely reads in place of wycumbe's Bx, suggesting that it "may indicate provenance." Ms. Tania Styles of CENS at the University of Nottingham (private communication) was kind enough to supply us with the following note: wy in Buckinghamshire is disputed. The EPNS county volume of 1925 gives the first element as the river-name Wye and the second as OE Wycombe "valley" (pp. 200-01), though spellings that would indicate this do not appear until cumb ( Domesday Book). Eilert Ekwall, Wicumbe, 4th ed. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1960) decides on the basis of the OE forms The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-Names and Wicumun that we have OE Westwicam ("meadow/homestead with a dairy farm") or wīc + hamm/hām ("Romano-British settlement" < Lat. wīchām) in the dative plural, the river-name being a late back-formation from the place-name; in this case, association with OE vicus would be secondary but still early; it seems to have been made in 1086 at least. The latest place-name dictionary (A. D. Mills, cumb (Oxford: Oxford U P, 1991), traces the name from A Dictionary of English Place Names "at the dwellings," giving the same explanation of the river-name and implying a similar status for the wīcum spellings. Margaret Gelling came to this conclusion in -combe, 2nd ed. (Chester: Phillimore, 1988), p. 68, and in "English Place-Names Derived from the Compound Signposts to the Past: Place-Names and the History of England in wīchām,", ed. Kenneth Cameron (Nottingham: EPNS, 1987): 8-18. Place-Name Evidence for the Anglo-Saxon Invasion and Scandinavian SettlementsThe etymology of or wīchām or simplex -hamm in the dative plural may have been assimilated to wīc, either sporadically or consistently, from an early date. This makes all of the following non-Bucks names possible candidates for cumb spellings in the ME period. -combe This would suggest that any place-names in have located this manuscript. The EPNS volume LALME, ed. P. H. Reaney (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1935), lists no spellings in The Place-Names of Essex for any of the Essex sites. -cumbe, -combe Ms. Styles then provided a list of thirty-one possible instances. Three of these, Wickham Bishops, Wickham Hall, and Wickham St. Pauls, are in Essex, the first very close to the point at which the editors of & to wynchestr / y wente to feyres. e
o broche he T w mt i a batte hF.5.212: Alpha is probably responsible for , though the reading is shared by L. Other beta manuscripts have batte. pak nedle / & plytid he þa m to n-gydr. e
pitte &em in a p hsse / & pyned he re þ mer-Inne.F.5.213: "" with red flourishes appears in the top right margin to indicate the passus number. V
yl teen ȝerdis or twelue / tollyd TF.5.214: An otiose curl appears over <t>. out thrittene.
he spak to a spy Sster neF.5.216: Alpha reads for beta's a spynstere. Spynnesteres / to spyne it fair & klene. n
or laboreris & lowe folk / she leide it be þe F-selue.F.5.221: reads "þat lay by hemselue." Bx
ȝit it com in / cuppe &-mel / swich craft she vseþF.5.225: Alpha has present tense against the beta family's preterite. vseþ
ose regrater / ys RF.5.226: Alpha has present tense against the beta family's preterite. ys hir ryght name. e
swere now so þeech IF.5.228: The <ch> spelling is an odd one for alpha to have introduced for Sire Hervey Coveitise of Norfolk. Langland had indulged himself in the same dialect joke that Chaucer had used in . The Reeve's Tale must have read Bx. so þe ik / þat synne wil y leete.
¶Þt was no ace nrepentau uod he / but a robberis dede. qF.5.235: F's reading is unique. reads "That was no restitucion quod Repentaunce but a robberis þefte." Manuscript G also joins F in reading Bx for he. Repentaunce
/ [¶] wende ryfflyng wher I restituc eou i / so kan y rede on boke. nF.5.238: The b-verse lection of is the metrically clumsy and probably corrupt "for I lerned neuere rede on boke." Some scribe in the tradition between alpha and the extant manuscript may well have restored, whether by conjecture or access to a better manuscript, the original reading: "ne kan y rede on boke." Only later would it have been scribally revised, with Bx supplied for the negative enclitic in the original. so
e y can no Frenchȝ in feyþ / but of Norþfolk langage. NF.5.239: 's reading is the metrically clumsy "but of þe ferþest ende of Northfolk," and again the relative shapeliness of F's reading suggests that Bx is corrupt. Richard Beadle, "Prolegomena to a literary geography of later medieval Norfolk," in Bx, ed. Felicity Riddy, York Manuscripts Conference: Proceedings Series, University of York, Centre for Medieval Studies, 2 (Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 1991), suggests that this is "possibly an allusion to some early version of the modern colloquialism 'Norfolk French', intended to express the difficulty of the dialect to outsiders" (94). Regionalism in Late Medieval Manuscripts and Texts: Essays Celebrating the Publication of A Linguistic Atlas of Late Medieval English
lernede a I-mogys lu nbard m / a lessou is be herte. nF.5.242: F's b-verse is unique. R reads "a lessoun and of iewes," while beta witnesses have: "and Iewes a lesson."
doble dette &F.5.245: F's a-verse is unique. has "Swiche dedes I dide write." Bx y dide wryte / if he his day brooke.
¶ee y have lent Ȝordis Luod qe hF.5.254: Beta manuscripts lack . quod he þt lovede me neu ae after. er
Þt peyȝede neu ae for his p erntyȝshod / not a peyȝr re eclovis. [g]lovisF.5.256: F's is unique, and all other manuscripts have clovis. Though cloves were paid for rents [see gloues s.v. MED n.(2),2(b)], this instance is more likely to represent simple error than conscious revision. clove
¶ have as myche pyte on þe pore / as þe IF.5.258: Alpha is in error. Beta manuscripts lack unmetrical . þe pedder on Cattis. e
¶ am holde / as hende Iuod he / qF.5.261: The virgule is possibly intended to replace the punctus elevatus. as hownd ys in þe kycchene.
e have a peny to petau Nce / so mote pyȝghne i n helle. nF.5.270: F's reading is unique. There are several variants, but probably read as follows: "of þyne bi my soule hele." Bx
N peccatu ur n misiF.5.279: is owed to alpha. Beta, except for Cr, reads nisi. donec restituat ablatu ur. mon dimittit
r seyȝ Os euMiserere mei d wich ys mene trewthe. w[her y]F.5.286: F omits from the Latin tag " BxEcce enim veritatem dilexisti, &c."
or FF.5.288: Beta lacks alpha's . For shal neue werkman i er þis world / þryve . w nt i þ ht þ au wynnyst. o
e hadde Repentau Nce þe rather n / reersyd þese wordis. eF.5.291: F's b-verse is unique. Other manuscripts read "reconforted ( conforted) hym in þis manere." or
or goddis m Fcy ys more / þanne manye of hise oþ er werkys. irF.5.293: The following Latin line is missing from F, but it is missing from WHmCrGCB as well: "Misericordia eius super omnia opera eius &c."
O iq ntas q uintu ua ad m miam d isericordi e e q stsi sintilla uamnis i ¶ medio maris. ni F.5.296: The Latin quotation was too long for the single line left for it, and the scribe indented the final three words and preceded them with the conventional paraph mark.
or F-þy ave in þy my hde m ncy / & erarc Maundise þ hu oeve. lF.5.297: "" with decorative red flourishes appears in the top right margin to indicate the passus. V
what he lerned ȝow i & le ntene / be n-leve þu no o oþir. nF.5.307: F omitted the following line from : "And what he lente yow of oure lordes good to lette yow fro synne." Bx
Hrly EF.5.308: The ornamental capital is outlined in red and flourished with green ink. The green marginal flourishes extend to the top of the page and two-thirds down the page. gan nGlotou / for to goo to shryfte.
&F.5.324: Beta manuscripts lack the . & sire pers of prydye / & peronell of Flaundr es. e Beta manuscripts transpose these two lines.
Aopere & a Redy Rg n-kyng / & ose dissher Rs dowht e. erF.5.327: Beta family manuscripts lack . dowhter
bad &ette þe Bocher / to bF.5.334: Beta manuscripts lack . to been on his syȝde.
p &yseden þe reF.5.338: Beta manuscripts read in place of alpha's þise. þe peny-worthis / ech pt by hy arm-selue.