fol. 3v (cont.)I
PassusB 1
What thys mownteyne menethG.2.1: The G F reading meneth (for remaining B manuscripts bymeneth) is shared by several A manuscripts. & the marke dale
& the feld full off folke I shall you fayre shew
mater ecclesia
a louvely lady I off lere In lynnen clothed
came downe from a castell & called me fayre
& sayd sonneG.2.5: The spelling which results from the addition of the macron (which is in the same brown ink as the u to v alterations) results in a spelling (sonne) corresponding to that normally used by the original scribe (see Introduction III.2). slepest þou / seest thow thys poeple
how besy they bynne allG.2.6: The shared G M Cr W Hm reading bynne all results from correction in M (the addition of alle by hand2). Remaining B manuscripts read ben. a-bovte the mase
the most parteG.2.7: The G Cr H reading parte need not necessarily be considered a substantive variant. It may simply be a spelling of "party" (the reading of remaining B manuscripts) following the pattern of words such as pite (="pity") or words with -te suffixes such as "loyalty" and "plenty." For similar variants, see G.16.17. It seems unlikely, however, that the form parte can have originated with the G scribe, since he uses final -e for rather different purposes (see Introduction III.2), while the OED suggests that forms of "party" in -e died out during the fifteenth century. For a reading suggesting that the G scribe found -e = -y confusing (saffett for "safety"), see G.8.36. The scribe does also use spellings in <y>; see, e.g., partye at G.18.307. toff þe poeple that passeth on thys yerth
haue they worshyp In þis world they kepe no better
off other heyuven then here / they tell no tale
I was a-ferde off hyr face thogh she fayre were
& sayd mercy madame what ys thys to meyne
the touvr on þe toft quod she truvght ys thereynne
& wold þat ye wroght as hys worde teychyth
for he ys fadre off fayth that formed you all
both wyth fell & wyth face & gauve you fyve wyttes
for to to wurshyp hym wythG.2.16: There is a small mark here in black ink, possibly an added punctuation mark. wyle ye byne here
& therefore he heght /G.2.17: Only the bottom of this virgule is visible and it is not clear that the mark is intentional. þe yerthe to helpe you echone
off wollen & lynnen off lyuvelode att nede
In meysurable maner to make you att easse
& commanded on hys couvrtesye In commen thre thynges
ere non nedefull but thysG.2.21: For a possible source for the G reading thys (for most manuscripts þo), note the C reading thyo with cancelled <y>. & neuenveneue[n]e G.2.21: G regularly has forms in neuen- for nempn-. Since the former is of Scandinavian origin and is a predominantly northern word, its use may reflect earlier northern influence, but the G scribe himself clearly does not recognise the word neuen- since, when he makes his later corrections, he regularly alters to neuev-. See further Introduction III.4.1. theym I thynke
& reken theym by reyson & reherceG.2.22: Manuscript M originally shared the G Y reading reherce, but ye has been added later. Most manuscripts read reherse ye. theym after
that on ys vesture from chele the to sauve
fol. 4rI
and meyte att mele for mysease off thy-seluven
and drynke when thow dryest but do yttG.2.25: The majority of A manuscripts share the G F H reading do ytt, which is adopted by Kane and Donaldson. Most B manuscripts read do. not oft
that thow worth the worse worche when thow shuvldest
for lottG.2.27: Two dots (like a colon) follow the word lott, one above and one below the cross bar of the <t>. The presence of marginal lott suggests that they may be there for emphasis. Since they are in brown ink, they have probably been added by the scribe when he was engaged in his later spelling corrections (hand1.1). In hys lyuve days for lykyng off drynke
dyd by hys dowghters that the deuvell lyked
delyted hym In drynk as the deuvell wold
and leychery hym laght & lay by theym bothe
and all he wyted ytt wyne that wyked dede
Inebriamus enim vino dormiamus cum eo
vt seruare possumusposs[i]musG.2.33: Given the G scribe's general carelessness with minims, it is difficult to draw any firm conclusions from the shared G F reading possumus. Remaining manuscripts read possimus. de patre nostro semen
thruvgh wyne & women ther was loth IncomebredG.2.34: The G Hm form Incomebred (beside remaining B manuscripts acombred) is shared by a number of C manuscripts, but the variation, in the case of G at least, may be a matter of date: according to the OED, accumber does not appear after 1600.
& thater gatt yn glotonye gerles that were cherlesye
forthy drede deylyectableG.2.36: The change from deylytable to deylectable, apparently made by the original scribe as part of his programme of spelling corrections (i.e. by hand1.1), may reflect the date of the copy, since the OED does not record any instances of "delitable" after 1520. dryngke & þou shalt do þe better
meysuvre ys medycyne thogh moche yerne
ytt ys not good to the gost that the guvtt askethe
no lyuvelode to the lygham that leuve ys to þeG.2.39: L W Hm C have no witness for Bx þi, G M Y þe, since they lack the b-verse of KD.1.37 and the a-verse of KD.1.38. souvle G.2.39: G and F omit a line at this point ("Leue not þi likam . for a liere hym tec[heþ]"). In M, the line appears in the margin in a later hand. For readings in L W Hm C, see previous note.
thys ys þe wrecched world that wold the betrey
for þe fend & thye flesshe folowen to-geydderes
take thys In thy solwle & sett ytt yn thy herte
& for þou shuldest beware / I vyse the the best
madame mercy quod I me lykyth well thy wordes
butt þe money In thys mold that men so fast holden
tell to whom madame that treysuvre appendyth
go to the gospell quod she that god seyd hym-seluven
when the people hym apposed wyth a penne In the temple
wheyther they shuvld woreshyp therwyth cesar the kyng
& god asketh asked off theym off whom spake þe lettuvre
& the Image lyke þat / that thereynne standyth
cesarG.2.52: Most B manuscripts read Cesaris, but the G C H reading cesar is also the reading of most A manuscripts. For G's relationship with A, see Introduction II.2.2. þei seyden we see wellG.2.52: Most A manuscripts share the G H reading well, which is adopted by Kane and Donaldson. Most B manuscripts read hym wel. echon
reddite cesari quod god that cesari belongeth
& que sunt dei deo or elles do ye yll
for ryghtfull reyson shuvld ruvle you all
& kyndwytt be warden youvr welth for to kepe
and tuvtor off youvr treysuvre & take you att nede
for f huvsbandrye & they holden to-gedders
then I freyned hyr fayre for hym that me made
that dongeon In the dale þat dredfull ys off syght
watt may ytt bemeyneG.2.61: The G Cr3 C2 F H reading bemeyne, which is adopted by Kane and Donaldson, is also found in the majority of C manuscripts and in a number of A manuscripts (J Ra Ha K Ma). Remaining B manuscripts read be to mene. madame I you beseche
that ys the castell off care wo-so coemythe therynne
may banne that he borne was to bodye & G.2.63: Most C manuscripts share the G O C2 H reading &. Remaining B manuscripts read or. to souvle
fol. 4vI
therynne wonnyth a wyght that wrong ys I-hote
father off falshed & fouvnded ytt hym-seluve
adam & eve he egged to ylle
covnceled keym to kyll hys brother
Iuvdas he Iaped wyth the Iuves syluver
& sythen on a eller hanged hym after
he ys aG.2.70: Kane and Donaldson state that added <a> is in the same ink as that used for the original transcription, but in fact it is browner. lettuerer off louve and lyethe toG.2.70: Despite what Kane and Donaldson say, added to is in browner ink. theym all
þat truvsten on hys treysuvre bytrayed ereG.2.71: The G R F reading bytrayed ere, which is adopted by Kane and Donaldson, agrees with that of most A manuscripts. Most B manuscripts read bitrayeth he. sonest
þen had I wondre In my wytt whatt woman ytt were
that suoche wysse wordes off holye wrytt shewyd
and asked hyr on þe heye name or she thence yede
watt she was wytterly thatt wysshed me so fayre
holychuvrce I am quod she thow ovghtest me to knowe
I vndrefonged þe fuvrst & þe thye fayth tavght
thowG.2.78:The G Cr F H reading thow, which is adopted by Kane and Donaldson, is also the reading of A and C. Remaining B manuscripts read And or and thu. broghtest me borowes my byddyng to fullfyll
& to louve me loyally / wyle thye lyffe duvred /
Than I couvrbedcrouchedG.2.80: Added crouched has a <u> instead of a <v> which might suggest a scribe other than main corrector. The alteration, in any case, clearly post-dates the <u> to <v> changes, since the word which this addition replaces (covrbed) has already been subject to this type of correction. Note also that the form of the <c> differs from that normally employed by the main scribe but resembles that used in the reference on 106v, which in turn seems likely to have been written by "WH," who initials marginalia on ff.69v, 72v and in the margin of the Table of Contents on f.103. See also the signature on f.20r, although the latter is more formal. on my knes & cryed hyr off grace
& prayd hyr pytuouvsly toG.2.81: The G Hm R F H reading "piteously to" (for remaining manuscripts "piteously"), is also the reading of the majority of A manuscripts, and is adopted by Kane and Donaldson. pray for my synnes
and also kene kenne me kyndly on cryste to beleuve
that I myght worchen hys wyll þat wroght me to man
teche me to no treysouvr butt telle me thys ylke
how I may sauve my sovle that seynte are holden
when allG.2.86: The addition of all brings G's reading into line with that of the remaining B manuscripts. treysuors are tryedG.2.86: The G C reading tryed (for most B manuscripts tried quod she), which is adopted by Kane and Donaldson, is also that of the majority of A and C manuscripts. It should be noted, however, that it is not unusual for G to lose "quod" clauses (see readings at G.6.240, G.6.261, G.6.490 etc.). truvght ys the best
I do ytt on deus caritas to deme you the sothe
ytt ys as derworthe a druvry as dere god hym-seluven
th..ty The word trew is underlined in the text (see G.2.89), suggesting that the marginal annotation may refer to this word.
wo-so ys trew off hys tonge & telleth non other
& do þe werkes therewyth & wyll no man yll
he ys a god by the gospell o-grouvnd & o-loftG.2.91: The colour of the ink makes it clear that these hyphens are later additions.
& lyke to ouvr lord by seynt by luvke wordes
the clerkes that .....knowe thys / shuvld kenne ytt abovte
for crystyen & vncrystyen cleymen ytt echon
kynges & knyghtes shold kepe ytt by reason
and rydenG.2.96: The G F reading and ryden (for all other B manuscripts Riden) corresponds to that of Ax. & rappe a-downe In realmes a-bovte
and take trespacers & tyen theym fast
tyll truvght had termyned hys tresspas to þe end
and that ys professyon apertely þat appendyth to knyghtes
and not to fast a fryday In fyueG.2.100: The <f> of fyue appears to have been altered from something else, possibly the first stroke of a <w>. score wyntersG.2.100: According to the OED, the plural form of "winter" without inflexion (i.e. the form found in all manuscripts apart from G) died out during the sixteenth century.
butt hold wyth hym or wyth hyr that asketh þe truvght
& neuer leyuve theym for louve ne lacchyng off syluver
For dauid In hys days dovbbed thythe knyghtes G.2.103: A letter <h> has been written in the bottom right hand margin. This cannot be a quire signature, but it may reflect numbering of the pages (this is the eighth page of the text). There is no evidence for such letters elsewhere, but some may possibly have been lost as the result of cropping.
fol. 5rI
& dyd theym sweyre on hys swerd to seruve trught euver
& wo-so passed that poynt was a-postyta In the ordre
but crist kyng off kynges knyghted tenne
cherubin & seraphin suche seyuven & other on otherG.2.107: The alteration of other to on other results in a reading which corresponds to that of L M Cr23 C O C2 Y. Remaining manuscripts read "other."
& gaue theym myght In hys mageste the meyryer theym thoght
& ouer hys meyny made theymG.2.109: The minims here are not well-defined; the <m> looks very like an <n>. arkangeles
&G.2.110: The added ampersand is in brown ink, and therefore at first sight seems likely to have been added by the original scribe as part of his programme of corrections. The form, however, is unusual; see material at the top of f.106v, which in turn seems likely to have been written by "WH," who initials marginalia on ff.69v and 72v, and in the margin of the Table of Contents on f.103. taw.ght þem by the trynyte the truvght for to to knowe
to be buvxuom att hys byddyng he bad theym noght elles
luvcyferG.2.112: The word lvcifer has been partly boxed in brown ink, presumably not as part of the original transcription but at the time of the <u> to <v> corrections. wyth leygyons lerned ytt In heyuven
but for he brake bvk buvxommenes hys blysse can he tyne
and fell from that felowshyp In a fendes lykenes
In-to a depe darke hell to dwell there for euver
& mo thowsandes wyth hym þen men covld novmbre
lopen ovte wyth luvcyfer In lothlyche forme
for they lyuveden vpon hym that lyed In þis maner
ponam pedem meum In aquilone et s..G.2.119: The original here may have been sul or sil, i.e. the abbreviation for m in similis may not have been noticed. The deletion of s.. has been made both in red and in the usual grey ink. similis ero altissimo
and all that hoped ytt myght be so / no heyuven myght þem hold
butt fell ovte In fendes lykenes neyne days to-geddre
tyll god off hys goodnes gan stable & stynt
& garred the heyuven to steyke & stonden In quvyete
when þes wyked went ovte wondrefullyche they fellen
some In eyre some In yerthe some In hell depe
butt lucifer loest lyeth off theym all
For pryde that he puvtt ovte / hys peyne hath no end
& all that worchen wyth wrong wend they shall
after theyr deth day & dwell wyth that shrewe
butt tho þat worchen well as holye wrytt tellyth
& enden as I hereG.1.131: M originally shared G's reading here, but this was a spurious agreement since in M's case the form was simply a spelling variant for most manuscripts ere, later corrected by the M reviser. G's spelling practice suggests that his variant is substantive. See Eric Eliason, Thorlac Turville-Petre and Hoyt N. Duggan, eds, Piers Plowman Electronic Archive, vol.5: London, British Library MS Additional 35287 (M) (Woodbridge: D. S. Brewer for SEENET and the Medieval Academy of America, 2005), note to this line. sayd In truvght that ys the best
may be syker that theyre souvles shall wend to heyuvenG.2.132: The alteration of the <u> of original heyuen to <v> is now just a residual brown smudge.
theyre truvght ys In trynyte coroned full fayre
forthy I seyd as I seyd by syght off thees textes
when all treasuvres are tryed truvght ys the best
lerne thys yeG.2.136: In the case of M's reading it ye (corresponding to G F thys ye, most manuscripts it þis), the word ye has been added in a later hand over an erasure. leyG.2.136: The scribe appears to have tried to change <y> of original ley- to <w> and then decided to rewrite the whole word as lewde. lewde men for lettered men h ytt knowen
that truvght ys treasouvrG.2.137: Most A manuscripts (though not Ra U E) share the G M reading treasour. Most B manuscripts read tresore þe. tryedst In yerth
yet hauve I no kynd knowyng yet must ye kenne me bettre
by watt craft In my corpes ytt comseyth & where
thow doted dafte quod she duvll are thy wyttys
lytuvll laten thow lernedest lede In thy yovght
fol. 5vI
heu mihi quia sterylem duxi vitam iuuenilem
ytt ys a kynd knowyng quod she that comeyth In thye herte
for to louve thy lord leyuver then thy-selffe
no deydly synne to do / dye thoght thow shuvldest
thys I trow be truvght wo canne teyche the better
loke thow suffer hym to say / & sythen lere ytt afterG.2.147: G Cr W Hm H omit a line at this point ("For thus witnesseth his worde · worcheth þow þere-after").
For truvght tellythe that louve ys treacle off heyuven
may no synne be on hym seene þat vseth that spyce
and hys workes he wroght wyth louve as hym lyst
and lered ytt moyses for þe leuvest þing & most lyke to heyuven
and also the plente off pease most precyouvs off vertues
for heyuven myght not holden ytt / ytt was so heyuvy off ...hymselfe
tyll ytt hadde off the yerthe ȝeten hys fyll
& whan ytt had off thys fold flesshe & blode taken
was neuer leyffe vpon lynde lyghter there-after
and portatyuve & percyant as the poynt off a nedle
that myght no armuvreG.2.158: The second letter of armure has been altered from a 2-shaped <r> to a long <r> by the original scribe at the time of writing. ytt lett / ne non heye wallys
forthy ys louve leyder off þe lordys folke off heyuven
and a meyn as þe meyre bytwene þe kyng & þe commuvne
ryght so louve ys a leydre & the law shapyth
vpon man for hys mysdeedes þe marcement he taxethe
for to know louve kyndly ytt comsethe by myght
and In the hert ys they heuved and theyG.2.164: G they for remaining manuscripts þe may be a back formation resulting from the occasional appearance in G of þe as a weak form of they. See Introduction III.1. heye well
for In kynd knowyng off herte begynnyth a myght
and that falleth to the father that fouvrmed vs all
loked on vs wyth louve and leet hys sonne dye
mekely for owre myssdedes to amend vs all
yet wold he theym no wo / that wroght hym þat payne
but meke-lyche wyth mowthe marcy he besoght
to hauve pytye on the poeple that payned hym to dethe
here myghtest thow se ensample In hym-selfe onne
that he was myghty & meke & mercy gan grauvantG.2.173: For use of otiose superscript <a> by the original scribe, see note to G.3.157. The similar practice by the brown ink corrector suggests that he and the original scribe were the same person. See Introduction IV.1.1.
to theym þat hanged theym heye & hys herte thyrleden
forthy I reede you ryche hauve reuvgh on the poere
thogh ye be myghtyG.2.176: All A manuscripts except Ha and all C manuscripts except Dc Mc share the G Cr reading myghty, which is adopted by Kane and Donaldson. Remaining B manuscripts read miȝtful. to mote bees / meke off G.2.176: Kane and Donaldson read the result of the correction of original off as of, i.e. they take the view that only one <f> has been deleted. This is possible but it would be unusual: forms of "of" with -ff are common in G and do not normally attract the attention of the corrector. youvrseluven
for the same meysuvrs yeG.2.177: Most A manuscripts share the G H reading ye (for remaining B manuscripts þat ȝe). meyten amys or elles
ye shalbeshal be weyuen therwyth when ye wend hennce
eadem mensura qua mensi fueritis aliis remecietur vobis
fol. 6rI
for thoght youG.2.180.: G sometimes has the form you for the nominative where, as here, other manuscripts read ȝe. See G.5.148, G.6.580, G.7.10, G.7.132 etc. and Introduction III.1. be trew off youvr tounge & trewlych wynne
& as chast as a chyld that In chuvrche lernyth
but yff ye louve loyally & lene the poere
suych good as god sendyth you / godlyche deperten
ye hauve no more meyrytt In a messezG.2.184: Added <ȝ> on messez is in slightly browner ink than the original. As the original scribe does not normally use yogh for the plural, it seems unlikely that he is responsible for this change. For material by hand2, i.e. "WH," see marginalia on ff.69v, 70, 71 and 72v, as well as in the Table of Contents (f.103). It also seems likely that the note on f.106v was by the same commentator. ne In houvrs
than malkyn off hyr meydenheyd that no man desyryth
for Iames the gentyle Iuvgged In hys bokes
that fayth wyth-ovt dede ys no-thynkg worthy
& deyd as a dorre nayleG.2.188: All A and C manuscripts share the G H reading nayle, which is adopted by Kane and Donaldson. Remaining B manuscripts read tre. wyth-ouvte þe dede folow
fides sine operibus mortua est et cetera
for chastyte wythowten charyte worth sheuved In hell
ytt ys as lewde as a lampe that no lyght ys ynne
many chapleynes are chast but charyte ys away
are nonG.2.193: All A manuscripts except Ra D V J K Wa N and all C manuscripts except Q share the G F reading non, which is adopted by Kane and Donaldson. Most B manuscripts read no men. herder then they when þei ben avauvnced
vnkynd to theyr kynne and to all crystyen
they chewen theyr charyte & chyden after more
suoche chastyte wyth-ovt charyte worth sh sheuved In hell
many cuvrators kepen theym cleyne off theyre bodyes
they are acombered wyth couvytous & can not crye ovte
so hard hath auvaryce . G.2.199: Kane and Donaldson read the deleted letter as the prefix of the following past participle (hasped) but, whatever it was originally, it has clearly been crossed out. hasped theym to-geydderes
& that ys no trewth off the trynyte / but trechery off hell
& lernyng to lewd men the latter to delen
forthy thes wordes be wryten In þe gospell
date et dabitur vobis for I deyle you all
and &and that ys the lock off louve / þat lettyth owt my grace
to comfort þe carefull acombered wyth synne
louve ys lech off lyfe & next our lord hym-seluven
and also þe grayth gate that goyth In-to heyuven
forthy I say as I seyd er by syght offG.2.208: The G H reading by syght off is shared by most A and C manuscripts, and is the reading adopted by Kane and Donaldson. Remaining B manuscripts read by. thesG.2.208: The A manuscripts Ra U Ch H2 J E K and all C manuscripts except for Dc P Sc share the G Hm reading thes (for remaining B manuscripts þe). textes
when all treysouvrs are truyedG.2.209: A tail has been added to the <u> of original trued to form tryed. trught ys þe best
now I hauve told the watt treuvght ys & no treysouvr better
I may no lenger lenge but looke þe owre lord
explicit secundus passus de visione