BPassus 12
fol. 51rI
I am ymagynatyve quod he Idle was I neuer
thogh I sytt by my-seluve In syknes & yn helthe
I haue folowed þe In feythe þis fyuve & fortye wyntersG.13.3: For the G scribe's replacement of remaining manuscripts wyntre (an uninflected plural) with the inflected plural wynters, see note to G.2.100.
& many tymes haue mouved the to thynke on thye end
& howe fellG.13.5: For G's treatment of B fele (here appearing as G C fell), see note to G.4.349. fenvenyeresfe[r]n[e]yeres ere faren & so fewe to come
& off thy wylde wantonnesse tho þou yong were
to amend þe In þi mydle age lest myght þe fayle
In þin old elde þat yuvell can suffer
pouverte or pennance or preyers bydde
sG.13.10: This letter <s> has simply been abandoned. The scribe appears to have had rather too much ink on his pen. si non In prima vigilia nec In secunda ://
amend þe whyle þou myghteste þou hast be warned offte
wyth poostes off pestelences wyth pouverte & wyth angres
& wyth thes bytter baleyzes god beytethe hys dere chyldren
quem diligo castigo ·//
for dauyd In the sauvter sayethe off suoyche as louve Iesus.
virga tua et baculus tuus ipsa me consolata sunt .//
allthoghe þou stryke me wyth þi staffe . wyth stycke or wyth yarde
ytt ys but muvrthe as for me to amend my souvle
and þou medelest þe wyth mastryes & myght go say G.13.19: A virgule has been added at this point to separate say from the. the sauvter
& byd for þem þat gyuvethe þe bred for there are bokes Inowe
to tell men whatt dowell ys dobetter & dobest bothe
& preychars to prouve whatt yt ys / off manye peyre freres
I syghe well he sayde me sothe & somewhatt me to excuvse
sayd caton comforted hys sonne clerke thoghe he were
to solace hym some-tyme as I doo when I make
Interpone tuis Interdum gaudia curis ·//
& off holy men I herde howe þei other-whyle
pleyden þe perfytter to beene In manye places
butt yff þer were any wyght þat wold me tell
what were dowell and dobetter and dobest at þe last
wold I neuer do worke but wende to holy churche
and there byddeG.13.32: Both <d>s in bydde have been re-outlined in black ink. The word is very faint. my beades but when I eyte or slepe
pauvle In hys epystle quod he prouvethe watt ys dowell
spes fides charitas & maior horum & cetera //
faythe hope & charyte and all beene goode
& sauve men sondrye tymes but non so sone as charyte
for he dothe well wyth-oute douvte þat doethe as leallte teychethe
that ys yff þou be man maryed þi make þou louve
& lyuve forthe as lawe wyll whyle ye lyuven here
fol. 51vI
ryght so & þou be relygyouvse renne þou neuer forther
to rome ne to rochemadoure but as þi ruvle teychethe
& hold þe vndre obedyence that hyghe way ys to heyuven
G.13.43: Each of the following three added lines (G.13.43, G.13.44 and G.13.45) is immediately followed by a horizontal line across the margin, indicating that the line in question is complete. & yf ye be mey
den to marye
& myghtest
seke ye neuer
seynt further
for no soule he
G.13.44: The line break after he- (the first two letters of "health") means that the rest of this word starts at the very edge of the page. There may possibly have been another letter before the <y> (an <l>?), but cropping makes it impossible to be certain.
for wat made
luvcyfer to lese
the hye heyuven
or salomon hys sapyence or sampson hys strenght
Iob þe Iewe hys Ioy dere ytt a-bouvghte
arystotell & other mo ypocras & wyrgyll
alysandre þat all wanne elenglyche endede
catell & kynde wytte was combracecombra[n]ce to theym all
Felyce hyr feyrnes fell hyr all to sklandre
& rosamound ryght so rewfully besette
the beauvte off hyr bodye In badnes she dyspendyd
off manye suoyche I myght rede bothe off men & off wymen
that wyse wordes can say & worche þe contrarye
sunt homines nequam de virtute bene loquentes . //
& ryche rennvkesG.13.57: The brown ink corrector has altered the <n> of renkes to <v> and hand3 has then crossed this out and added a macron above the <e>. This macron is nothing like that normally used by the original scribe or WH. Compare the similar abbreviation which appears as part of the marginalia on f.96v. ryght so gardyden & sparden
& tho men þat þei most haten mynystren att þe lestG.13.58: G C lest and remaining manuscripts laste are probably the same word, the variation in vowel simply resulting from the date of shortening (see Brunner, Outline, section 9, note).
& for þei sufferen & se so manye nedye folkes
& louven þem noght as god bytd lesen theyre souvles
date et dabitur vobis et cetera ·//
& ryches ryght so but yff þe roote be trewe
but grace ys a gresse þeroff þe greuvance to abate
but grace ne growethe noght but amongest lowe
pacyence & pouerte þe place ys whereG.13.65: The G reading where for remaining manuscripts þere probably results from the date of the G copy. According to the OED, the use of "there" meaning "where" died out during the sixteenth century; see OED there, adv. (a., n.) II.9. ytt growethe
& In leall lyuvyng men & In lyfe holye
& thrughe þe gyffte off þe holyegosteholye goste as þe gosspell tellethe
spiritus vbi vult spirat et cetera
claregye & kynd wytt comethe off syght & teychyng
as þe boke beyrethe wyttnes to buvrnes þat can rede
quod scimusG.13.71: The second letter of scimus is odd and could conceivably be a minim but since there is a dot over the <i> it would be impossible to read the word as sumus. loquimur quod videmus testamur. //
off quod scimus comethe connyng & clargye off heyuven
& off quod videimusG.13.73: G's original reading, with the present tense (videmus) instead of the perfect (vidimus, as remaining B manuscripts), parallels that found at G.13.71. commethe kynd wytt & syght of dyuers poeple
& grace ys a gyffte off god & off greate louve spryngethe
knewe neuer clerke howe ytt comethe forthe ne kynd wytt þe wayesG.13.75: The line wraps around and the last two words are boxed in grey at the end of the following rubricated line.
nescit aliquis vnde venit audG.13.76: Probably not "and" (as Kane and Donaldson) but aud, i.e. a form of "aut," (note that the word is rubricated). For this spelling, see, e.g., Mittellateinisches Wörterbuch, ed. Otto Prinz, with the assistance of Johannes Schneider (Munich: C. H. Beck, 1967), s.v. aut. quo vadit & cetera //
& yett ys clargye to commend & kynd wytt bothe
& namely clargeye for crystes louve þat off clargye ys roote
for moyses wytnessethe þat god wrote for to wysse the poeple
fol. 52rI
In þe olde lawe as þe lettre tellethe was þe lawe off þe Iuves
þat what woman were In awowtre taken ryche other pouvre
wyth stones men shuold hyr stryke & stonon hyr to dethe
a woman as we fynden was gyltyffe off þat dede
but cryste off hyrsG.13.84: The scribe anticipated more about the actions of the woman mentioned in the previous line and so began to write "her" but then altered this to the correct reading "his." couvrtesy thrughe clargye hyr sauved
For thrugh carectes þat cryste wroght þe Iewes knewe þem-seluve
more gyltye as before god & gretter In synne
þen þe woman þat þer was & went a-way for shame
þe clargye þat there was comforted the woman
holye kyrke knowethe þis þat crystes wrytyng sauved
so claregye ys comforte to creatuvres þat repenten
& to mansed men myscheffe att theyre ende
for goddes bodye myght noght be off bred wyth-ouvte clargye
the wyche bodye ys bothe boote to the ryghtffull
& dethe & dampnatyon to theym þat dye yuvell
as crystes carectes conforted & bothe cuvlpable shewed
the woman þat þe Iewes broght þat Iesus thoght to sauve
nolite Iudicare et non Iudicabimini · & cetera.//
ryght so goddes bodye but ytt be worthylye taken
dampnethe vs att þe day off dome as þe carectes dyd þe Iewes
forthy I couvnseyle þe for crystes sake clargey to louve
for kynd wytt ys off hys kynne & nyghe cosuvns bothe
to our lorde leuve me / louve þem forthy I redde
for bothe be as myrrouvrs to amend our defauvtes
& leyders for lewde men & for lettered bothe
forthy lack þou neuer logyk law ne thes costomes
ne contrepleyde clerkes I couvnseyle þe for euver
for as a man may noght see þat myssethe hys eyne
no more can a clarke but he caght ytt thrugh bokes
all-thogh men made bokes god was þe master
& seynt spyryte hys samplarye & sayde whatt men shuolde wryte
& ryght as syght seruvethe a man to see þe hye streete
ryght so leydethe lettuvre lewde men to reason
& as a blynd man In batell beyrethe weypen to fyght
& hathe no happe wyth hys axe hys enmye to hytte
fol. 52vI
no more can a kynd wytted man but clerkes hym teyche
come for all hys kynd wytte to creystendome & be sauved
whyche ys þe coffre off crystes treasouvr & clerkes kepe þe kayes
to vnlocken ytt atotG.13.118: Note the double-lobed <a>, in att, a letter form not normally used by the original scribe but occasionally employed for corrections (presumably because it was clearer). tlheyr poeplelykyngeG.13.118: The final backward curving flourish on the <g> of lykynge has been interpreted as a residual <e>. The original reading of the first half line appears to have been to vnlocken ytt to ley poeple. & to þe lewde poeple
gyffe mercye for þer myssdedes yff men ytt wole aske
boxomeleche & benynglyche and bydden ytt off grace
archa dei / In þe old lawe leuvytes ytt kepten
had neuer lewde man leuve to ley hand on þe cheyste
but he were preste or prestes sonne / patriarke /or prophete
for claregy ys keper vndre cryste off heyuven
was þer neuer no knyght but claregye hym made
butt kynd wytt comethe off alkynnes syghtes
off bryddes & off bestes off tastes off trewthe & of deceytes
lyuvyers before vs vseden the marke
the selcouvthes þat þei see þer sonnes toG.13.129: L originally shared the G reading to for remaining manuscripts forto, but for has been added above the line. teyche
and helde an hyghe scyence theyr wyttes to knowe
as thrugh theyr scyence sothely was neuer solewle sauved
ne broght by þer bokes to blysse ne to Ioy
for all theyre kynd knowyng cometheG.13.133: As far as the majority of manuscripts are concerned, the verb (come) is presumably in the preterite, though for some (L M Cr W Hm) where come follows a plural subject the present tense plural is possible. The G scribe, who uses -e or-en or zero for the plural, clearly intends a present tense singular. but off dyuers syghtes
patryarkes & prophetes reprouved theyre scyence
& seyden þer wordes ne þer wyssdomes were not but a folye
& as to þe clargy off cryste ys couvnted but a tryfuvll
sapientia huius mundi stulticia est apud deum et cetera //
for þe hyghe holygoste holy goste heyuven shall to-cleuve
and louve shall leype oute after In-to þis lowe yerthe
and cleynnesses shall cacchen ytt & clerkes shall yt fynd
pastores loquebantur ad Inuicem et cetera //
he speykethe þer off ryche men noght ne off ryght wyttye
ne off lordes þat were lewdemenlewde men but hyeste lettered oute
Ibant magi ab oriente et cetera //
yff any frere were fond there I gyuve þe fyuve fyngers
ne In no beggers cote was þat barne borne
but In a burgeys place off bethelem the best
set non erat locus In diuersorio & pauper non habet diuersorium. //
to pastouvrs & to poeetes appered the angell
& bad theym go to bethelem goddes byrthe to honouvre
fol. 53rI
& song a song off solasce / gloria in excelsis deo .//
clerkes knewen ytt well & came wyth theyr presentes
& dyd theyr homage honerably to hym þat was almyghtye
G.13.154: This line, found only in β4 manuscripts, is treated by Kane and Donaldson and Schmidt as spurious.& goddys sonne þat syttethe yn heyuven & shall sauve vs all
whye I haue tolde þe all þis I toke full good hede
howe þou contraryest clarelgy wyth crabbed wordes
how þat lewde men lyghlyer G.13.157: For the G spelling lyghlyer (without medial <t>), see note to G.1.150.þen lettered were sauved
then clerkes or kynd wytted men off crysten poeple
& þou seydest sothe off some but se ytt yn whatt manereremanereG.13.159: G's original manere has been re-outlined in black ink. The new version adds an unnecessary abbreviation and the mark for this is more elaborate than is usual. See note to G.13.57.
take two strong men & In temse cast them
bothe naked as a nelde non sykerer then other
þe on hathe connyng & can smwymmyn & dyuven
þe other ys lewde off þat labour & lerned neuer to swymme
wyche trowesthowe off þes two In temse ys yn most drede
he þat neuer dyuved ne noght can off swymmynge
or þe swymmere þat ys sauve so hym-seluve lyke
therysG.13.167: Kane and Donaldson record G's reading here as an alteration of thes to ther. However, the <s> does not appear to have been deleted and the addition above the line is clearly ry (note the dot above the <y> and the tail curling round to the right). It seems likely that this is an erroneous correction and that the resultant ys duplicates following hys (cf. M There is felawe beside the L reading Þere his felaw). The scribe may have become confused because of the form of the pronoun. Forms without h- in G are clearly not his own although they do occur occasionally (as at G.13.257) and were presumably found in his exemplar. hys felow fletethe forthe as þe flouvde lykethe
& ys In drede to drenche þat neuer dyd swymme
þat swymme can noght ytt semethe to my wyttes
ryght so quod þe renvkere[n]ke reason ytt showethe
that he þat knowethe claregy can soner aryse
oute off synne & be sauve thoghe he synne offte
yff hym lykethe & lyst þen any lewde leally
for yff a clerke be connyng he knowethe what ys synne
and how contrycyon wyth-owte confessyon confortethe þe souvle
þou seest yn þe sauvter In psalmes on or twey
how contrycyon ys commendyd ytt cacchethe away synne
beati quorum remisse sunt Iniquitates et quorum et cetera //
& þis confortethe eche clerke & couerethe hym fro whanhope
In wyche floode þe fende fondethe a man hardest
there þe lewde lyen styll & loken after lenten
& hathe no contrycyon er he go to shryfte þen can he lytle tell
& as hys loores man lernethe hym beleuvethe & trowethe
& þat ys after persone or perysshe preeste & perauventure
vnconnyng to leere lewde men as luke beyrethe wyttnes
dum cecus ducit cecum et cetera ·//
fol. 53vI
wo was hym marked þat wade motvste wyth the lewde
well may þe berne blysse þat hym to boke sette
þat lyuvyng G.13.189: There is a vertical mark in the text between "living" and "after," possibly the first stroke of a letter which was then abandoned. after letterure sauved hym lyuve & souvle
dominus pars hereditatis mee & cetera ys a myry versett
that hathe taken fro tyburne xxtitwenti strong theuves
ther lewde theuves ben saued lolled vp loke how þei be sauved
the theffe þat had grace off god on good fryday as þou spake
was for he yolde hym creante to cryste on þe cros & knew hym gylty
& grace axed off god & he ys euver redye
þat boxomely byddethe ytt & In wyll to amend hym
and thogh þat theffe had heyuven he had no hygh blysse
as seynt Ihon & other seyntes þat deseruved ytt better
ryght as some men gyuve me meyte & sytt me amydde þe floore
Iche haue meyte more þen Inoghe but not so moche worshyppe
as tho þat sytten at þe table wyth soueregnes yn the hall
but sytt as beggers bredles by my-seluve on the grownde
so ytt farethe by þat felon þat on goodfrydaygood fryday was sauved
he syttethe not by seynt Ihon nether symon ne Iuvde
ne wyth meydens ne martyres confessouvrs ne wydowes
by hym-selfe as a soleyn and seruved on the yerthe
for he þat ys onesce a theffe ys euer-more In dauvngere
and as lawe lykethe to lyuve or to dye
de peccato propiciato noli esse sine metu & cetera //
and for to seruve a seynte & suoyche a theffe to-gedders
ytt were nether reason ne ryght to reward þem bothe ylyche
and as troianus þe trewe knyght tylde not depe In hell
but our lorde had hym lyghtlyche oute so leuve I þe theffe yn heyuvenG.13.213: The line is too long and wraps around. The last two words are written underneath the rest of the line and are boxed in grey ink.
for he ys In þe lowest heyuven yff our byleuve be trewe
& well lowselyche he lollethe þer by law off holye churche
omnia reddit vnicuique Iuxta operaG.13.216: It seems probable that the need for the line through the tail of the <p> of opera was recognised by the scribe as he wrote the following line i.e. when he had already returned to his ordinary ink. sua & cetera //
& why þat on theffe on the cros creauntG.13.217: For the G scribe's treatment and use of superscript <a> (the abbreviation mark here), see note to G.4.156. hym yelded
rather then þe other theffe thogh þou wold apposse
all þe clarkes vndre cryste ne couvld þe skylle assoyle
quare placuit quia voluit et cetera //
and so I say by þe þat sekest after þe whyes
and reasonedest reason a rebukyng as ytt were
& off þe flouvres yn þe frythe & off þierG.13.223: The spelling of þier is unusual for the G scribe ("their" usually has -ei- rather than -ie-) and the position of the <i> immediately before the supralinear abbreviation for <er> suggests that it is an afterthought and that the scribe originally read the word as þer="there." feyre hewes
whereoff þei cacche theyr colouvrs so fayre & so bryght
& wyllest of bryddes & bestes & off þeir bredyng knowe
whye some be a-lowe & some be a-lofte þi lykyng yt were
& off þe stones & sterres / thow studyest as I wene
fol. 54rI
how euery beaste or byrde hathe so breeme wyttes
clargye ne kynd wytt knewe neuer the cauvse
but kynd knowethe ytt hym-seluve & no creature elles
he ys þe pyes patrone & puttethe In hys yere
that þer þe thorne ys thyckest to bylden & breede
& kynd kennethe þe peycocke to kauken In suoyche a kynde
& kenned adam to knowe hys pryuvye membres
and taght hym & euve to hyllen þem wyth leyuves
lewde men manye tymes masters apposen
why adam hylled not furste hys mouvthe or þat heteG.13.237: The G scribe's reading or þat (for most manuscripts þat) followed by deleted <h> suggests that he anticipates a line with the meaning "Why Adam didn't cover his mouth before he ate the apple" instead of Bx's "Why Adam didn't cover his mouth that ate the apple." The scribe writes or þat for "before" and is about to write he but realises this is not in his exemplar and changes it to ete. þe apple
rather then hys lykhame a-lowe / lewde axen thuvs clerkes
kynd knowethe whye he dyd so & no clerke elles
but off bryddes & off beastes men off olde tyme
ensamples token & termes as tellen thees poettes
& that the fayrest sothell off flyght ys þat flyethe or swymmethe
& that the fayrest sothelyG.13.241: The <y> of G sothely, which has had to be squashed in and which is therefore very small, is clearly a later addition. It is, however, in the same ink as the original and presumably results from the scribe's attempt to make sense of sothel, a misreading of fowel. þe fowlest Ingenderethe
& febelest fowle off flyght ys þat flyethe or swymmethe
that ys the peycock & þe powen prouvde ryche men þei betokene
for peycock yff men pursewe hym may noght flye hyghe
for trauvylyng off hys teyle ouver-taken ys he sone
& hys flesshe ys fowle flesshe & hys feete bothe
& vnlouvelyche off leden / & laythe for to here
ryght so the ryche yff he hys ryches kepe
& deale ytt noght tyll hys dethe day hys tayle off all sorowe
ryght as þe pennes off þe peycock peined hym In hys flyght
so ys possessyon peyne off peynnes or off nobles
to all þem þat holden to þeir taylles be pluvcked
& thogh þe ryche repent þen & rewe the tyme
þat euer he gadered so greate & gauve þeroff so lytle
thogh he crye to cryste wyth kene wyll I leeuve
ys leden ys In our lordys yereG.13.257: The deletion of initial <y> of yere is in black ink. It seems unlikely to be have been carried out by the original scribe since he regularly uses <yere> for "ear" (and note his addition of <y> to eyre ("ear") at G.21.131). Since hand3 uses black ink, he may have been responsible for this alteration. lyke a peyseG.13.257: G's muddle over B pyes (="magpie's"), which he transcribes as peyse, probably results at least in part from the loss of the following word ("chittering" or "chattering") from a high proportion of B manuscripts (L C G O C2 Y B R). At G.13.231 G shares the majority reading pyes.
& when hys caryonG.13.258: The double-lobed <a> in caryon is unusual and may result from a correction (from <o>?). shall come In cauve to be buryed
I leuve yt flauvmbe full fowle all abowte
& all other þer he lyethe enuvenymethe thrugh hys actera[t]ter
by þe poo feete ys vndrestand as I lerned In auynette
execuvtors false frendes þat fullfylnotfullfyl not hys wyll
that was wryten & þer wyttnes to worche as yt wolde
þisG.13.264: For the G scribe's use of "this" for most manuscripts "thus," see note to G.4.76. þe poett prouvethe þat þe peycock for hys feythers ys reuverensed G.13.264: The cross at the bottom right hand corner of the page is in modern pencil.
fol. 54vI
ryght so ys þe ryche by þe reasonG.13.265: The word reason has been re-outlined in blacker ink. off hys goodes
the larke þat ys a lasse fowle ys more louvelyche off leden
& well away off weyngeG.13.267: The <y> of wynge has been touched up by the brown ink corrector who has partly filled in the loop left by the original <e>. swyfter þen the peycocke
and off flesshe by fellG.13.268: For G's treatment of B fele (here G Cr fell), see note to G.4.349. folde fatter & swetter
to lowe lyuvyng men þe larke ys resembeled
alyzandre þe greate clerecler[k]e suoyche tales tellethe
thuvs he lykenethe hyn hys logyk þe leeste soghellG.13.271: The G scribe, or an ancestor of this scribe, presumably interpreted Bx foule as a form of "soul," hence soghell. ouvte
& whedre he be sauve or noght þe sothe whoote þe clargye
ne off sortes ne salomon no scrypture can tell
but god ys so good I hope þat sythen he gauve þem wyttes
to wyssen vs wayes wyth þat wysen vs to be sauved
& þe better for theyr bokes to bydde we be holden
that god for hys grace gyuve theyr souvles rest
for lettered men were lewde yet nereG.13.278: The type of abbreviation used for final <e> on nere (a bar over the <r>) is unusual for this scribe. loore off þeir bokes
all þes clarkes quod I tho that on crysteG.13.279: The second, fourth and fifth letters of cryste have all been re-outlined in black ink. leeuven
syggen yn þer sermones þat no sarezenes ne Iewes
ne no creature of crystes lyknes wythoute crystendome worthe sauved
contra quod Imagynatyuve & comsed to louvre
and seyde saluabitur vir Iustus in die Iudicij
ergo saluabitur quod he & sayd no more laten
troianus was a trew knyght & toke neuer crystendome
& he ys sauve so sayethe the booke & hys souvle In heyuven
for þer ys fullyng off fonte and fullyng In bloodshedyngblood shedyng
& thrugh fuyreG.13.288: The two dots over the <y> of fyre are unusual but are presumably present to make it absolutely clear what letter the corrector intended. ys fullyng and þat ys ferme byleuve
aduenit ignis diuinus non comburens set illuminans & cetera //
but trewthe þat tresspassed neuer ne trauversed ageynst hys lawe
and lyuvethe as hys lawe teychethe & leuvet.h þer be non bettre
and yff þer were he wolde amend & In suoche wyll dyethe
ne wolde neuer trewe god but trewthe were alowed
and were ytt worthe or noght byleuve ys greate of trewthe
and an hope hangyng þer-yn to hauve mede for hys trewthe
quia deus dicit quasi vitam eternam suis hoc est fidelibus
et alibi si ambulauero In medio vmbre mortis et cetera //
the glosse grauvntethe vs on þat vers a greate medeG.13.298: The <d> of mede has been re-outlined in grey ink. to trewthe
& wytt & wyssdome quod þat vyȝeG.13.299: G's vyȝe may simply be a back spelling; note the frequent use of <w> for <v> (see Introduction III.4.2). was some-tyme treysorye
to kepe wythe a comen no catell holden better
& moche muvrthe & manhoode & ryght wyth þat he wanesshed
explicit quintus passus de dowell . //