Iet couvrbed I on my knes & cryed hyr off grace
and sayd marcy madame for mercy louve off heyuven
that bare that blysfull barne that boght vs on rode
kenne me by some craft for to kenne the false
loke vpon thy left haluve lo where he stondyth
both false & fauinellG.3.6: The number of minims in the middle of "favel" varies considerably in G and it is not always clear what was intended. See
G.3.43, G.3.66, G.3.81, G.3.146, G.3.152, G.3.160, G.3.165, G.3.168, G.3.186, and G.3.195. Possibly the word was unfamiliar to the scribe (according to the OED, it died out in the sixteenth century).
and theyr fers many
I loked on my left haluve as the ladye me tavght
and was warre off a voman wonderslyche clothed
rfelyd wyth pelouv
re the fynest vpon yertheG.3.9: The cross in the bottom right hand margin is in modern pencil.
coroned wyth a crovne the kyng hath no better
FeytlycheFeyt[is]lyche hyr fyngers were fretted wyth rynges
& ther-on red ruvbyes as red as any glede
and dyamontes off derrest pryce & dowble maner saphyres
oryentales and ewages enue.nymes to dystroye
hyr robe was full ryche off red skarlett Ingreyned
wyth rybandes off red gold & off rych stonys
hyr arrey me rauv
ch ryches saghtG.3.17: The form saght is recorded by LALME as the main form of "saw" in LP497 (i.e. in the West Riding of Yorkshire) and as a minor form in other Northern locations.
It therefore seems likely that this was one of a number of Northern forms present in the G scribe's exemplar (see Introduction
I had wondre watt she was & woos wyfe she were
watt ys thys woman quod I so worthyly attyred
that ys mede the mayden hath noyed me fuvll offt
and lakked my lemman that loyalte ys hoten
and bealyed hyr towyth lordes that lawys have to kepe
In the popes .... palys she ys pryuve as my-seluve
butt sothnes wold not so / for she ys a bastard
for falseeG.3.25: The original <e> at the end of false is small and the added <e> may simply be an attempt to clarify.
was hyr father that hath a fykle touv
and neuer soth sayd sythen he cam to yerthe
and mede ys manerryd after hym ryght as kynd asketh
qualis pater talis filius bonaG.3.28: There appears originally to have been some sort of tail on the <a>, partly erased. arbor bonum fructum facit
I owght ben hyer then she I cam off the better
my father the greyte god ys & grouvndre off all graces
on god wyth-ovt begynnyng & I hys owne doghter
and hath gyuv
en mercyG.3.32: Though M's initial reading is the same as that of G (i.e. "mercy" rather than "me mercy," which is the reading of the remaining
B manuscripts), the missing word me is later supplied by the M corrector (hand2).
to mary wyth my-
and watt man be marsyfull and leally me louve
shalbeshal be my lord and I hys leefe In the hey he heyuven
& watt man taketh mede my heyd dare I ley
that he shall lese for hyr louve a lomp off leall charyte
how construved dauid the kyng off men that take mede
& men off thys mold that meynteyne truvght
& how ye shuold sauve youvr-selffe þe sauvter beyryth wyttnes
domine quis habitabit In tabernaculo tuo & cetera
and now worth thys mede maryed toG.3.41: All C manuscripts share the G M F H reading to, which is adopted by Kane and Donaldson. Remaining B manuscripts read vnto or al to. a
to on fals fykell touvnge a feendes feere
uellG.3.43: For "favel," see note to G.3.6 above. The number of minims used in this particular example is (unusually) correct.
gh hys fayre spech hath þis folke Inchanted
and all ys lyers ledyng that she ys thuvs wedded
to-morow worth I-made the meyden brydall
therG.3.46: All A manuscripts share the G H reading ther, which is adopted by Kane and Donaldson. Remaining B manuscripts read And þere. myghtest þou
wytt yff þo
u wylt wyche þei bynne all
that longen to that lordshyp the lasse & the more
know theym ther yff þou kannest & kepe thow thy tonhge
& lack theym noght but lett theym worth tyll loyalte be Iuvstece
and hauve poyer to puvnnyche theym þat put forth thy reason
now I bekenne the cryst quod she & hys cleyne modre
& lett no conscyence combre þe for couvetyse off mede
Thuvs leyft me þat ladye lyggyng on slepe
and how mede was maryed In meytayles me thoght
that all the rych reytennvn
aunceG.3.55: The corrector appears to have mistaken the first <n> of original reytenaunce for a <u> and therefore overwritten it with a <v>, realised his error, attempted to correct his correction and then finally
added a bar to indicate the <n>.
t reynyth wy
were bydenG.3.56: The G form of the past participle (i.e. byden) is unique; most manuscripts have forms in medial <o>. However, there is no change in meaning, and, given the confusion
surrounding the verbs which descended from OE beodan and biddan, it would be reasonable to argue that this is not a substantive variant.
to the brydeale on bothG.3.56: The loops of the <b>s of both brydeale and both have been enlarged in brown ink.
off all maner off men þe meyne & the ryche
to marye thys meyden was many man assembled
as off knygtes and off clerkes & other comen poeple
as sysouvrs & somonors shreyuvys & theyr clarkys
bydyles & belyffs and brodIors off chaffeyre
Forgoers & vyteklers / aduvocates off þe arches
I can not rekne þe rouvte that ranne a-bovte mede
symonye and cyuv
yll & sysouv
rs off corn
rtesG.3.64:The original G reading here (corn- or possibly coru-) corresponds neither to B "courts" nor to C "countries" and seems likely to be simply an error.
were most pryuvye wyth mede off any men me thoght
butt fauvuell G.3.66: For "favel," see note to G.3.6 above.
was þe fuv
hyr ovte off bowre
and as a brodger broght hyr /
to be wythG.3.67: The scribe originally wrote superscript <t> above the <w> (for wyth) but then decided that this was not clear enough and added <yth>. The superscript letter <t> has not been deleted.
when symonye & sc
yllG.3.68: For the alteration of the <s> of original syuyll to a <c>, see also G.3.144. seyseyd toG.3.68: The alteration resulting in seyd to does not appear to be in the hand of the original scribe. There is a backward <s> and the script is altogether more angular.
For hand2, see marginalia on ff.69v, 70, 71, 72v and 103, as well as the note on f.106v. According to the OED, forms of "saw" with weak ending date from the eighteenth century onwards, but the corrector may, of course, have intended
"said." It seems possible that an attempt was made to alter the original word before the correction was written above. thh
ere G.3.68: The erasure here has resulted in a hole in the paper. both tyouvrh..re G.3.68: The original G reading was both your. The corrector has made the usual change of <u> to <v> but the word your has then been altered again. The added initial <t> is clear and the <y> has been altered to an <h> but it is difficult to
be certain what exactly the second corrector intended after that. The <o> does not appear to have been altered, but may have
been intended to be read as an <e>. Kane and Donaldson read the corrected form as theire. wylles
they assented for syluver to say as both wold
then lepe lyer forth & sayd low here a charter
that gyle wyth hys greyte othys gave them to-gedder
& preyd symonye to se & cyuvyll to reede ytt
then symonye & cyuvyll standen forth both
& vnfoldyth the feoffamen
t that fals hadG.3.74: A few A manuscripts as well as Cp share the G Hm H reading had (for remaining B manuscripts hath). made
s begynnen thes gomes to gredenG.3.75: It is not really possible to be certain who carried out the alteration from greden to reden, but the ink colour suggests hand1.1.
SiantS[c]iant presentes et futuri et cetera
wytteth & wyttnessyth that wonien vpon yerth
that mede ys maryed more for hyr goodes
then for any vertuve off fayrnes or any fre kynd
falsnes ys feyne off hyr for he woott hyr ryche
& fauvinellG.3.81: For "favel," see note to G.3.6.
speche Feyffyth by hys
to be pryncys In pryde and pouverte to dyspysse
to backbytouvrs & to bosten & beyre fals wyttnes
to scorne & to skold and sclandre to make
vnbuxome & bold to breke the tenne hestys
and the erldome off enuvye & wrath to-gedders
wyth þe chastylett off chest & chateryng ovt off reason
nteG.3.88: The original word was counte, though the minims of the <n> in particular were somewhat indistinct. Presumably this is why the corrector felt the need
to add a macron.
& all the costes a-
that ys vsure & auvaryce all I theym grauvnte
In bargaynes &G.3.90: Approximately half the C manuscripts share the G Cr23 Hm F H reading &, which is adopted by Kane and Donaldson. Remaining B manuscripts read and in.
all þe burgh off theyft
& all the lordshyp off leychery In lenght & In breyde
as In workes
and In wordes
& weytyngG.3.92: All C manuscripts except X P Dc Ec share the G Hm F reading weytyng, which is adopted by Kane and Donaldson. Most B manuscripts have the plural. offG.3.92: All C manuscripts share the G Hm reading off, which is adopted by Kane and Donaldson. Remaining B manuscripts read with.
and In wedes & In wysshynges & wyth Idle thoghtys
ther as wyll wold & workmanshyp faylyth
glotonye he gaffe them yke & greyte othes to-geddre
and all day to drynke att dyuers tauerens
and ther to Iangell & Iape & Iuvge theyr euven-crystyen
fastyngG.3.98:There appears to have been an otiose abbreviation mark over the <n> of fastyng which has been smeared out.
days to freet er full tyme were
and then to sytten & sowpen tyll slepe theym assayle
and breden as buvrgh swyne & bedden theym eassely
tyll sloghte and slepe sleken hys sydes
and then wanhope to awake theym wyth no wyll to amend
for he leuveth to be lost þis ys theyre last end
e & to hol...dG.3.104: Something strange has happened to the last letter of hold, which has clearly been re-outlined. This may have been because the paper at this point is very thin (because of the erasure
& theyr heyrs after
a dwellyng wyth þe deuvell and damned for euer
wyth þe appuvrtenances off puvrgatory to the payn off hell
yeldyng for thys thyngG.3.107: Kane and Donaldson read thyg but the word should probably be read as thyng. There is plenty of space for an <n>, it just that, as is often the case in this manuscript, the minims are poorly defined.
att on yers end
theyre soules vn-to sathan to suffer wyth hym peynes
or& wyth hym to wonne wyth wo / wyle god ys yn heyuven
In wyttnes off wych thyng wrong was the fuvrst
& pers þe perdoner off pauvlyns doctryne
bett þe byddell off bBuv
shyreG.3.112: The first letter of what seems to be Bvkyngam-shyre is such a mess that it is difficult to be certain about ink colour or hand. It would be unusual, however, for the original
scribe or the <u> to <v> corrector (who are probably one and the same) to use a capital in this position.
reynold the reuve off ruvttland sokne
d þe mylner &G.3.114: It is possible that the deleted ampersand was originally written as or and then partly corrected. Note the problem with the ampersand five lines above at the beginning of the line.
& many mo other
In þe date off þe deuvell thys dede I Inseale
by syght off syr simonye & cyuvyles leyuve
then tened hym theologie when he þis tale herd
and sayd to cyuv
yle now sorow mote youG.3.118:Kane and Donaldson interpret G's reading here as þou but for that the scribe would normally have written thorn plus superscript <u>. The use of inline <ou> makes it clear that
the scribe intended "you." For the scribe's usual practice as far as the written forms of these two words are concerned,
see G.1.199, G.2.2, G.2.14, G.2.15, G.2.17, G.2.19 etc. (for "you"), and G.2.5, G.2.36, G.2.43, G.3.46, G.3.48 etc. (for "thou"). The rule, in the case of these as well as other words (such as "the" and "ye") is that <þ> is always
followed by superscript letters, and <y> by inline letters. That the scribe did sometimes confuse <y> and <þ> when they appeared
in his exemplar is clear, for example, from the reading at G.3.204 where he writes <the> for <ye>. At G.4.351 the scribe himself corrects an error of this type, crossing out superscript <e> and replacing it with inline <e> (the correct
reading is ye).
yche weddyngG.3.119: All A manuscripts except E N Ma share the G C2 reading weddyng, which is adopted by Kane and Donaldson. Most B manuscripts have the plural. C too has the singular but preceded by the indefinite article.
to worche to wrath wy
and er thys weddyng be wroght wo the betyde
For mede not a mulyer & off amendes engendred
and god grauvntyth to gyue mede vn-to trught
and thow hast gyuven hyr to a gylouvr lord gyuve þe sorowe
the texte tellyth þe natt so truvght wott þe sothe
for dignus est operarius hys hyre for to hauve
& thow hast fast hyr wythG.3.126: All C manuscripts except Nc and all A manuscripts except for K Wa Ma share the G F reading wyth (for remaining B manuscripts to), and this is adopted by Kane and Donaldson. In C, however, the half-line differs in other ways.
false fye on thy lawe
for all by leysynges þou lyuvest & leycherouvs workes
simony & thy-seluven shenden holye churche
thees notaryes & ye noyen offt the poeple
ye shall byggen yt both by god þat me made
well ye wytten wernerdes butt yff your wytt fayle
þat fals ys Faythles & fykell In hys workes
and was a bastard borne off belsabuvbes kynne
and mede ys a muvlyer a meyden off good
and myght kysse þe kyng for cosyn & she shuvld
forthy worchyth by wyssdome & wytt by wytt also
and leyde hyr to london there ys ytt y-shoyde
yff any law wyll loke they lyggen to-gedder
and yff Iuvstyces Iuvggen hyr to be Ioyned to Fals
yet be ware off the weddyng for wytty ys trught
and coscyenceco[n]scyence ys a couvncell & knowyth you echonne
and yff he Fynd you In defauvte & wyth þe Fals hold
ytt shalbe sytt shal besytt
full soreG.3.143: The C manuscripts X I P2 Uc Dc Rc Nc and all A manuscripts except J La K Wa N Ma share the G Cr reading sore (for remaining B manuscripts soure). attheat the
to assentyth s
yleG.3.144: See the similar alteration of syuyll to cyuyll at G.3.68. butt
simonye ne wold
tyll he had syluver for hys servyce & also þe notaryes
then fett FauivvnellG.3.145: For "favel," see note to G.3.6 above.
& bad gyle go gyuve gold all a-bovte
& namelych to þes notaryes þat theym non fayle
and feoffe fals wyttnes wyth florenses Inowe
for þei mayG.3.150: This addition (may, in black ink) could conceivably have been made by the original scribe, but note the clear definition of the minims. Resemblences
to the italic hand on, e.g. f.96v, and in particular the hairline tail on the <y>, suggest hand3.G.3.150: The addition of may brings G into line with Bx.
& maken att my wyll
tho thys gold was geuve greyte was þe thankyng
to fals & to FauuvvnellG.3.152: For "favel," see note to G.3.6 above.
For þer fayre gyftes
& came to comforten from care the Fals
and seyden certes syr ceasse shall we neuer
tyll mede be thy weddyd wyffe thrught wytt G.3.155: All A manuscripts except Wa (which lacks this b-verse) share the G F H reading ("wit" in the singular), which is adopted by Kane
and Donaldson. Most B manuscripts have the plural.
off vs all
for we hauv
e medeG.3.156: Once again, this alteration (the addition of mede) seems likely to have been made by the italic hand (hand3). See note to G.3.150 above.G.3.156: Added mede brings G into line with Bx. mastred
r mery speche
that she graa
thG.3.157: The G scribe often provides an otiose superscript <a> in addition to the letters <ra>, perhaps because of confusion as to
the significance of the former. See further Introduction IV.1.1.
to goon wy
a good wyll
to london to k loke yff the lawe wold
Iugge you Ioyntly In Ioy for euer
then was falsnes Fayne & FauuvvnellG.3.160: For "favel," see note to G.3.6.
lett somone all theG.3.161: Most A manuscripts share the G R reading all the (for remaining B manuscripts alle).
seggys In þe shyre
and bad theym all to be bowne beggers & other
to wend wy
theym to westmyn
sterG.3.163: The MED records spellings of "Westminster" without <n> so G's original spelling may not actually be an error. The original G spelling
also appears in Hm and Cr1.
to wyttnes þis dede
but then cared they for caples to caryen theym thydder
and FauivvnellG.3.165: For "favel," see note to G.3.6.
and sett mede onG.3.166: All A manuscripts share the G F reading on (for most B manuscripts vpon).
e shod all a-newe
and fals sat on a sysour þat softlye trottyd
and fauivvnellG.3.168: For "favel," see note to G.3.6.
on a flatterer feytlyche
tho had notaryes non / anoyyd therewyth
for then G.3.170: The scribe intended to add the word then to the line below, q.v., but made a mistake which he then partially erased.
simony & cyuv
ld on theyre feette gang
and then G.3.171: For added then, see note to G.3.170.
sware symonye & cyuv
that somoners shuvld be sadeled & seruve þem echonne
and lett apparellG.3.173: In the case of Hm, the shared G Hm F H reading apparell (for most B manuscripts apparaille þis) is the result of correction (original thes has been deleted).
ysours In palfreys wyse
syr symonye hym-seluve shall sytt on theyr backes
deynes & subdeanes draw you to-gedders
archdeykens & offycyalles & all your wolle regesters
lett sadle theym wyth syluver our synnys to suffer
as avovtrye & deuvorses and derne vsurye
to beyre bysshopes a-bovte a-brode In wysytyng
paulynes poepleG.3.180: All A manuscripts share the G F reading poeple (for most B manuscripts pryues). .F
In constoryeG.3.180: Most A manuscripts share the G F H spelling constorye (for remaining B manuscripts consistorie). See also note to G.4.143.
shuvld seruve my-selue that cyuvyll ys neuenvedneue[n]ed
and cartsadle our comoy.ssary our cart shall he leyde
and facchen vs wytayles
att fornycatouvrsG.3.183: Most A manuscripts share the G spelling of "fornicators" (i.e. with -our). However, the majority B spelling fornicatores does not necessarily imply that the word was thought of as Latin; the OED lists this particular usage by Langland (with this particular spelling) as the first instance of this word in English.
and make off lyers a long carte to leyden all þes other
as freres and feytouvrs þat on theyr fete rennen
s fals & fauivvnellG.3.186: For "favel," see note to G.3.6.
faren forth to-
and medeG.3.187: There is a line over the <m> of mede but this does not seem to be deliberate; possibly it is a mirror image of the crossing out on the opposite page (at G.3.228).
In the mydyst & all thys meyny
e no tome to tell you
lle that hyr
folowytheG.3.188: G Cr1 W Hm omit a line here ("Of many maner man þat on þis molde libbeth").
gyle was forgoer & gydedG.3.189: Some A manuscripts share the G Cr reading gyded (for most B manuscripts gyed), but the variation could well to be due not to the influence of these but to date; guy became less frequent than guide after the fifteenth century (see OED guy, v.1 and guide, v.).
sothnes seethe þem well and seyd butt lytell
and pryked hys palfrey & passed theym all
and came to þe kynges couvrt & conscyence told
and conscyence to the kyng karped ytt after
now by cryst quod the kyng yff I cache myght
Fals & fauivvnellG.3.195: For "favel," see note to G.3.6.
or any off theyre
I wold be wroken on tho wrecchys þat worchen so yll
& done theym hang by þe hals & all that theym meyn
eG.3.197: The final letters of ?meynteynthe are unclear because they are written over the pricking in the top right hand corner of the writing space.
man on thys mold meympryceG.3.198: Given the G scribe's carelessness with minims, the second <m> of meympryce may be an error. However, the OED records forms with <m> from the Middle English period to the fifteenth century.
butt ryght as the lawe wyll looke lett fall on theym all
and commaundeG.3.200: The difference between commaunde (as G Cr1) and comanded (as remaining B manuscripts) may not originally have been substantive, since command was a possible form of the preterite in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries (see OED command v.).
a conestable þat he
come att the fyrst
to attache tho tyrantes for any thyng I hoote
& fetter fast falsnes For anykynsany kyns gyftes
and gyrd off gyles heyd & let hym go no fuvrther
and yff theyG.3.204:The original scribe has misread the letter <y> of ye as a thorn, giving the. See note to G.3.118.
lache lyer /
let hym not eskapen
er he be putt on the pyllorye for any preaer
and bryng mede vn-to me mavgre theym all
drede at the dore stoode and the dome herd
how the kyng commanded constables & sergeantes
falsnes & hys felawshyp to fettren & bynden
then drede went wythlyche & warned the fals
and bad hym flee for fere and hys felowys all
falsnes for fereG.3.212: M originally shared the G Hm Hm2 F reading fere (for remaining B manuscripts fere þanne), but þanne has been added above the line by M's hand2. Most A manuscripts have Þanne at the beginning of the line. The C manuscripts P Ec Rc Mc Vc Ac Q Sc Kc Gc Nc share the G Hm Hm2 F reading.
fleydd to the freres
and gyle doyth hym to go agast for to dye
but marcheantes mett wyth hym & made hym abyde
& sett hym In theyre shoppes to shoeuen theyr ware
appareled hym as a prentys the poeple to seruve
lyghtlyche lyer lept a-
wasy thenceG.3.217: All A manuscripts except E A Wa Ma share the G H reading thence as do a number of C manuscripts. Most B manuscripts read þanne.
luvrkyng thruvgh lanys . to-luvgged off many
he was more wellcome for hys many mery tales
er all I omytedG.3.220: B manuscripts vary between forms of "hunten" and "houten" and it is not always possible to tell which is intended. A form
in —ow- seems most likely to have given rise to the G reading I omyted.
& hoted to cuvrse
tyll perdoners had pyte & puvlled hym In-to houvse
theyG.3.222: The final <y> here is not in the scribe's usual form and may be an addition. See, e.g., the form of <y> used by WH on f.72v.
wysshen hym & wypen
hym & wond hym In clouv
and senttdden G.3.223: The alteration of sentten to sendden is difficult to see at first because of the tails of the letters above. The change brings G into line with the A manuscripts D V Ha La K. Remaining B manuscripts read sente.
hym wyth seales
on sondays to chuv
and gaffe perdon for pence pouv
leG.3.224: The <y> added by hand1.1 (giving -mayle) has been squeezed in between the <a> and the <l>, making use of the <v> shape formed by the downward stroke of the former
and the beginning of the upward stroke of the latter.
then louvred leches & letters they sent
that he shuvld wone wyth theym waters to looke
spycers speken wyth hym to spyen theyr ware
For he couv
the off theyr crafte & kew G.3.228: The final stroke of the <w> of deleted kew is missing.
knewe many goomesG.3.228: The reading goomes may be an error ("men" for "gums") but the OED records goome as a post-medieval (6-7) spelling of "gum" (see OED s.v. gum, n.2).
but mynstrelles & messyngers mett wyth hym onnes
& helden a halfe yere & a-leyuven days
freres wyth fayre speche fett hym thence
& for knoyng off commers coped hym as a frere
but he hath leyuve to lepe ovt as oft as hym lykyth
and ys welcoem when he wole & wonnyth wyth theym oft
all they restG.3.235: The script of added rest appears slightly more angular than that normally used by the original scribe, but this is probably simply because the word
has had to be squashed in.
fledden for fere & flyen to
sauve mede the meyde duvrst no mo abyde
butt truvlye to tell she tremled for drede
& eke wept & wrong when she was attached
explicit tercius passus de visione