Passus decimus de visione & secundus de dowel
Thanne hadde witte a wyf · was hoteBx.10.1: hote: Alpha has called (R) or klepid (F), but beta is supported by AC (K.11.1; RK.11.1). dame studye
And al starynge dame studye · sternelich seyde
With suche wise wordes · to wissen any sottes
Þan al þe precious perre · þat in paradys wexeth
Þat hem were leuer londe · and lordship on ertheBx.10.14: on erthe: Alpha reads here, but beta is supported by Ax. The line is rewritten in Cx.
Or ricchesse or rentis · and reste at her willeBx.10.15: In this passage F omits ll. 15 and 21-2, and supplies two spurious lines after l. 25.
Þan alle þe sothe sawes · þat salamon seyde euere
But if it be carded with coueytise · as clotheres kemben hereBx.10.18: here: Omitted by alpha and CGO, perhaps to lighten a heavy b-verse. It is supported by Ax and the X family of C, though the P family also omit it. wolle
Who-so can contreue deceytes · anBx.10.19: an: "and". conspire wronges
And lede forth a loue-day · to latte withBx.10.20: to latte with: R's and letten þe may be right; Ax has to lette þe treuþe, and cf. K.3.146 & lettiþ þe treuþe. On the other hand, "to hinder truth with (the loveday)" makes excellent and slightly more difficult sense, and seems to be the basis of the revision in Cx: "And lette with a loueday treuthe and bigile" (RK.11.17). treuthe
Þat wikked men þeiBx.10.24: þei: Omitted in HmCGOF, though Hm probably included it before erasure. The line is not in AC. welden · þe welthe of þis worlde
And þat þei ben lordes ofBx.10.25: of (1): Hm and R (= alpha?) have in; F rewrites. The line is not in AC. eche a londe · þat oute of lawe libbeth
Ecce ipsi peccatores habundantes in seculo optinuerunt diuiciasBx.10.28: diuicias: Omitted in alpha. C mss. end with peccatores or habundantes.
Þilke þat god mosteBx.10.30: god moste: So LG and alpha. M has moost good god; O has god most good which is the reading of Cx. See next note. gyuethBx.10.30: gyueth: Alpha and C have greueth, which loses the sharp contrast with the b-verse. There seems to have been some confusion in Bx since, in revising the line for Cx, the poet had a text with both verbs, and recast to Tho þat god most goed ȝeueth greueth most riht and treuthe (RK.11.25). Schmidt restores B by including both verbs, but the resultant a-verse seems impossibly heavy; see Schmidt (2008), 386-7. It may be that Bx wrote greueth, corrected to gyueth (in the margin?), with alpha following one and beta the other. · leste good þei deleth
Que perfecisti destruxerunt · iustus autem &c ·
And can telle of Tobye · and of þe twelue apostles
Or daunted or drawe forth · I do it on god hym-self
Drynken and dryuelen · and do men for to gape
Ne were here vyle harlotrye · haue god my treuthe
Ȝyue hem to her ȝeresȝiue · þe [worth]Bx.10.50: worth: Alpha is closer to the Ax reading value (whence perhaps GO), and the alliteration aaa/xx is satisfactory. Beta's ȝifte is prompted by alliterative attraction to ȝeresȝiue; for the collocation see Bx.3.101 and 13.195. The line is not in Cx. of a grote
Leccherye [and]Bx.10.52: and (1): Supported by Ax, but lost in L and (coincidentally?) in CrW. losengerye · and loseles tales
Glotonye and grete othes · þis murtheBx.10.53: murthe: Secure for Bx. Both M and F alter for the alliteration. Ax has a different b-verse. þei louieth
¶Bx.10.54: ¶: The paraph is in beta and F. Ac if þei carpen of cryst · þis clerkis and þis lewed
Atte mete in her murthesBx.10.55: murthes: The plural is secure for Bx, though beta2 shares the sg. with Ax. · whan mynstralles ben stille
Þanne telleth þei of þe trinite · a tale other tweyne
And gnawen god with þe gorge · whan her gutte is fulleBx.10.60: gutte is fulle: So LR, and probably M before correction. AC read guttis fullen, "are full", as do WHm.
Is none to nymen hym nereBx.10.63: nere: Presumably the meaningless Bx reading is a corruption of Ax in ne, which the M corrector adopts by conjecture or contamination as In nor. This and the next line are rewritten in C. · his noye amendeBx.10.63: amende: It is likely that F and beta supply to before amende in the b-verse to make some sense of the line, and that R's omission (as in Ax) represents Bx.
But heonBx.10.64: heon: "shout out" (MED heuen v.(3)); the reading of L, beta4 and alpha. The commonplace variant hunten in Beta2 (CrWHm), with M corrected to that reading, is less appropriate. on hym as an hounde · and hoten hym go þennes
Mendinantz meteles · miȝte go to bedde
God is moche in þe gorgeBx.10.69: gorge: Alpha has the pl., but beta's sg. is supported by AC (K.11.44; RK.11.39) · of þise grete maystres
Clerkes and other kynnes menBx.10.73: other kynnes men: So beta, with alpha dropping kynnes. Ax has kete men, while Cx has knyhtes. Perhaps alpha reproduces Bx which has avoided the rare adjective kete, with beta then supplying the alliteration. · carpen of god faste
And haue [hym]Bx.10.74: hym: Not in LHm. Easily lost, of course, and four A mss. omit it, as does the X family of C. moche in þe mouthe · ac mene men in herte
Ne sori for her synnes · so is prydeBx.10.79: is pryde: Beta's word-order is supported by Cx. Lines 77-110 are not in A. waxen
In religioun and in alle þe rewme · amonges riche & pore
Þat preyeres haue no power · þ[is] pestilence[s]Bx.10.81: þis pestilences: Beta has þe pestilence, presumably understanding the noun as sg., although the form can also represent the plural (see MED pestilence). Alpha and Cx have the demonstrative article followed by an unambiguous plural. Cf. l. 76 and note. to lette
Bx.10.82-3: These two lines are in Cx. KD, p. 66, suggest that beta dropped them through eyeskip (Þat ... Þat); censorship is another possible explanation. [For god is def now-a-days . and deyneth not vs to hereBx.10.82: not vs to here: The readings diverge in the b-verse. Most unusually, F is supported by Cx, and so we adopt its reading. It must be observed, however, that R offers the less commonplace reading. In F deinen has the sense "condescend"; in R it means "disdain". See MED deinen v.(1) & (2) for these two related verbs, and cf. note to Bx.6.315. The most authoritative C mss. read deyneth nat vs to here (i.e. deinen (1)) but as many omit nat (i.e. deinen (2)), allowing for the possibility that Bx was also without not.
And ȝette þe wrecches of þis worlde · is none ywar bi other
But in gaynesse and inBx.10.87: in (2): LCrWHmR; others omit. C mss. divide similarly. glotonye · for-glotten her goode hem-selue
And breken nouȝte to þe beggar · as þe boke techeth
AndBx.10.91: And: Beta is supported by Cx against alpha's Euere as he. lordeth in londes · þe lasse good he deleth
¶ Thobye te[ch]ethBx.10.92: techeth: Alpha is supported by Cx against beta's telleth. ȝow nouȝt so · take hede ȝe riche
Si tibi sit copia habundanter tribue · si autem exiguum illud impertir[e] [libenter stude]Bx.10.94: impertire libenter stude: Alpha's form of the infinitive verb is supported by most C mss., and the order of the last two words is that of Cx. Alford (1992), 64, quotes the last three words in the verse from Tob.4.9 in the form impertiri stude libenter, as in beta.
And who-so litel weldeth · reule him þer-after
Bx.10.100: Beta has a paraph, but it interrupts the argument.Nouȝt to fare as a fitheler or a frere ·Bx.10.100: LMWOF punctuate the line before forto, with forto supplying the long dip in the b-verse. CrHmGR have to instead. forto seke festes
Homelich at other mennes house[s]Bx.10.101: houses: LF have house, probably in error, though possibly derived from the OE unchanged plural; see MED. Elsewhere both scribes use the marked plural. · and hatyen her owne
Now hath vche riche a reule · to eten bi hym-selue
And al to spare to spille · þat spende shal an other
And carpen aȝeine clerkes · crabbed wordes
Þorw whiche wyles and wordes · þei went[en]Bx.10.115: wenten: Only LCr have went; WHmG have wente, the others wenten. The second syllable avoids a b-verse stressed x / x / x. See Introduction V.3.5. to helle
And al her sede for here synne · þe same deth suffred
Of þat ȝeBx.10.118: ȝe: So LMOR against þe in CrWHmCGF, which misses the switch back to reported speech. clerkes vs kenneth · of cryst by þe gospel
Whi shulde we þat now ben · for þe werkes of Adam
Roten and to-rendeBx.10.121: to-rende: LW (to-rent Hm); the most probable origin of the variants rende MCGOF, to reade Cr, and to-reue R. · resoun wolde it neuere
Vnusquisque portabit onus suumBx.10.122: portabit onus suum: Alpha has the order honus suum portabit cited by Alford (1992), 64, from Gal.6.5. &c
And maken men in mysbileue · þat muse moche on her wordes
¶ AugustyneBx.10.126: Augustyne: The form of the name in Bx is not determinable. As at l. 485, LM (so beta?) have the full form, but alpha has the more usual Austyn. Ax has a quite different line with the short form. Cf. note to l. 485 below. to suche argueres · he telleth hemBx.10.126: he ... hem: The two words are omitted by WCGO. Cr omits hem. þis teme
Wilneth neuere to wite · whi þat god wolde
And for his moche mercye · to amende ȝow here
Bx.10.133: Hm and alpha have a paraph.For alle þat wilneth to wyte · þe weyesBx.10.133: weyes: The reading of LCrWHm and alpha, as well as the Ax reading. M, joined by GO and a 16th-century A ms., have the reading whyes (cf. whi in 135). The adoption of the latter reading by K (see K, pp. 163-4), KD and Schmidt is a classic case of modern sensibilities overcoming the logic of attestation. Contrast Bx.12.238, where the noun whyes is secure, despite variants. of god almiȝty
Suffre sathan · his sede to bigile
Or iudas þe iuweBx.10.137: þe iuwe: Alpha supported by Ax against beta's to þe iuwes. · ihesu bytraye
Al was as [he] woldeBx.10.138: he wolde: Alpha supported by Ax against L's þow wolde, which the other beta scribes correct to þow woldest. · lorde yworschiped be þow
¶ And þo þat vseth þis hauelounes · to blendeBx.10.140: blende: "mislead". Cr, beta4 and F have the related verb blinde. mennes wittes
Sitthe he wilneth to wyte · whiche þei ben [alle]Bx.10.142: alle: Referring to the triad including dobest as in l. 145 below. Alpha is supported by Ax against beta's bothe, which does, however, logically follow from the previous line.
For I dar ben his boldeBx.10.144: bolde: Dropped by alpha, but supported by Ax. borgh · þat dobet wil he neuere
¶ And whan þat witte was ywar [·] whatBx.10.146: what: Beta's reading has support from Cx, what studie menede (RK.11.81). Alpha's reading, how dame studie tolde, loses the b-verse alliteration which in Ax how his wif tolde (K.11.93) is carried by the noun. dame studye tolde
And as doumbe a[s] deth · and drowe hym arrere
In signe þat I shulde · biseche hir of grace
FortoAnd fortoBx.10.156: Forto / And forto: Beta's reading is that of Ax (K.11.102) while alpha's And forto is that of Cx (RK.11.88) worche ȝowre wille · þe while my lyf dureth
He hath wedded a wyf · with-Inne þis syx monethes
Shullen wissen þe to dowel · I dar [wel]Bx.10.163: wel: R's reading, which carries the alliteration, is that of Ax. That F agrees with beta in reading it probably indicates independent substitution, since the R scribe rarely corrects for alliteration. The line is not in C. vndertake
¶ Þanne was I also fayne · as foule of faire morwe
¶ Axe þe heighe waye quod she · hennes to suffre
For if þow couplest þe þer-with · to clergyeBx.10.171: clergye: R's odd cherche probably represents alpha, with F varying further. Beta is supported by AC. comestow neuere
¶ And also þe likerouse launde · þat leccherye hatteBx.10.172: hatte: Beta's reading is confirmed by Ax against is hote in alpha.
Leue hymBx.10.173: hym: So LMHmR and Ax; unsurprisingly altered to it in other B mss. on þi left halue · a large myle or more
Þanne shaltow se sobrete · and symplete of specheBx.10.176: speche: Beta is supported by Ax against alpha's berynge.
¶Bx.10.179: ¶: The paraph is in beta only. In R the line is at the foot of the page. Saye hym þis signe · I sette hym to scole
And þat I gretteBx.10.180: grette: The unambiguously past tense form is supported for Bx by LMOR. Ax has grete as does the P family of C, but the X family has grette. wel his wyf · for I wrote hir many bokes
And sette hir to sapience · and to þe sauter gloseBx.10.181: glose: Hm (as well as BmBoCot) has the ppl. glosyd; this cannot be archetypal, even though AC both have sauter yglosid. Cf. Bx.5.284.
¶ Plato þe poete · I put hym fyrste to boke
Arestotle and other moootherBx.10.185: other moo / other: Beta has the former, alpha the latter. Beta's reading is that of Ax, while alpha's is that of Cx. · to argue I tauȝte
Grammer for gerles · I garte first wryteBx.10.186: wryte: M and Beta2(CrWHm) add to, as do a few mss. in all three versions.
Of alkinnes craftes · I contreued toles
Of carpentrie ofBx.10.189: carpentrie of: The Bx reading is also that of Cx. GF have the reading of Ax, carpenteris &. kerueres [·] and compassed masouns
¶Bx.10.191: ¶: The paraph is in beta and F. Ac theologie hath tened me · ten score tymes
The more I muse þereInne · þe mistier it semeth
It is no science for-sothe · forto sotyleBx.10.194: sotyle: Beta's reading is that of Ax, while the b-verse is rewritten in Cx. Alpha's reading sauȝtele (MED saughtelen) means "become reconciled, settle". Inne
Ac for it let best by loue · I loue it þe bettre
LokeBx.10.198: Loke: R's Love probably reflects an alpha error which F rewrites for sense. þow loue lelly · ȝif þe lykethBx.10.198: þe lyketh: Alpha's þow thenke is an easy error, but (coincidentally?) it is shared with Ax (K.11.144), which itself is deficient in alliteration. The line is revised in Cx as Lerne for to louie yf þe like dowel (RK.11.132). dowel
¶ In other science it seyth · I saye it in catoun
Qui similatBx.10.201: similat: The spelling of L and alpha is found also in mss. of A. Lines 200-31 are not in C. verbis velBx.10.201: vel: Alford (1992), 64, quotes the line from Cato with nec, the reading of M (corrected from vel) CrHmCGO and most A mss., but LWR and original M establish Bx (at the expense of Cato's meaning). corde est fidus amicus
And so shaltow false folke [·] and faythlees bigyle
Ac theologye techeth nouȝt so · who-so taketh [gome]Bx.10.206: gome: "notice". R's rare word is a synonym of beta's ȝeme and F's heede (MED gome n.(4)). Cf. Bx.17.13, where R again has gome, supported in that case by C.
For he bit vs be as bretheren · and bidde for owre enemys
Dum tempus [est]Bx.10.211: est: The alpha reading is supported by the majority of A mss. where the same quotation is given at a later point (K.11.245a). Alford (1992), 64 cites the Vulgate as habemus, to which beta corrects. operemur bonum ad omnes maxime autem ad domesticos fidei
¶ Poule preched þe peple [·] þat parfitnesse loued
To do good for goddes loue · and gyuen men þat askedBx.10.213: asked: Beta has the past tense, (though HmGO have the present); alpha has the present. The past is perhaps slightly less obvious, but it may have been prompted by the verbs of the previous line, just as the present might have been suggested by the next line. There is nothing in AC to correspond until l. 220. We follow copy-text.
And nameliche to suche · þat suethBx.10.214: sueth: "conform to"; cf. Bx.17.113, as suwen owre werkis. G and alpha less appropriately have scheweth. owre bileue
And alle þat lakketh vsBx.10.215: vs (1): Beta must have had vs twice in the a-verse, though beta2 (CrWHm) dropped the second. Alpha has the second but not the first. or lyeth vs · owre lorde techeth vs to louye
And nouȝt to greuen hem þat greueth vs · god hym-self for-badde it
[¶]Bx.10.220: ¶: The paraph is in WC and alpha. In L, which lacks the usual line-space, the scribe's paraph marker is unrubricated. Cf. ll. 260, 265. Ac astronomye is hardeBx.10.220: harde: Alpha's reading without an article is supported by Ax against beta. þynge · and yuel forto knowe
Geometrie and geomesye [·] isBx.10.221: is: Supported by Ax against beta2 (CrWHm) so. ginful of speche
For sorcerye is þe souereyne boke · þat to þ[o] scienceBx.10.223: þo science: This is the R reading, in substance that of F also. The noun is an unmarked plural (see l. 227 below, and variants at Bx.13.132 and 15.49). It may also be the reading of beta; note that Hm alters it by adding -s, while other beta scribes, apart from W, probably take it as sg. and so misread the plural determiner as þe. Ax also has the demonstrative pronoun, but the noun is sg., þat science. The plural is more appropriate in context. longeth
¶ Ȝet ar þere fybicches in forceres · of fele mennes makyng
Experimentz of alkamyeBx.10.225: alkamye: We keep the form of copy-text, even though the form in Bx and Ax presumably had the extra syllable, as M's Alkenamye. See MED alkamie. · þe poeple to deceyue
Alle þise scienceBx.10.227: science: Plural; see note to l. 223. I my-self · sotiled and ordeyned
And foundedBx.10.228: founded: Beta is supported by Ax against alpha's (by-)fond. hem formest · folke to deceyue
¶ Telle clergye þise tokenes · and [to]Bx.10.229: to: Alpha's rather awkward preposition is necessary to the alliteration, and was dropped by beta. There is no Ax parallel. scripture after
To conseille þe kyndely · to knowe what isBx.10.230: to knowe what is: Beta's wording of the b-verse is supported by the exact parallel of Bx.10.157. Cf. also Bx.15.2. dowel
And went wiȝtlich [my] weyBx.10.232: my wey: Beta has awey, but alpha (R only, since F misses the line) is supported by Ax And wente wiȝtly my wey, as well as Cx Tho wente y my way (RK.12.134). With miȝteliche for wiȝtliche, R creates alliteration on /m/, but without support from AC. · with-oute more lettynge
[I]Bx.10.234: I: Only R breaks the series of initial And, but it is supported by Ax and the X family of C; the P family reads And ich. gret þe good man · as [þe good wif]Bx.10.234: þe good wif: Again R is the only witness to the reading of Bx, supported both by alliteration and by Ax (Cx has a different b-verse). Probably F revised to avoid the repetition of both good and wif, and beta perhaps picked up studye from a gloss. me tauȝte
And tolde hem þe tokenes · þat me tauȝte were
Þat I was of wittis hous · and with his wyf dame studye
I seyde to hemBx.10.241: hem: M and beta4 have hym, but cf. l. 236. The line is not in AC. Lines 241-313 have no parallel in A, and C is heavily revised. sothely · þat sent was I þider
With alle þe artikles of þe feithe · þat falleth to be knowe
Fro þe dedly deth · and þe deueles power
Three [propre]Bx.10.250: propre: Yet again R is the only witness to the reading of Bx. All other mss. have dropped the alliterating adjective; F fills out the short a-verse in the usual manner. There is no parallel in AC. persones · ac nouȝt in plurel noumbre
Deus pater deus filius · deus spiritus sanctus
¶ Austyn þe olde · here-of heBx.10.255: he: L is supported by alpha against omission in other beta mss. The passage is revised in C; the line without he appears at RK.11.146, but the b-verse, this time with he, is repeated at RK.11.152. See Adams (2000), 183. made bokes
And hym-self ordeyned · to sadde vs in bileue
And cryst clepid hym-self so · þe ewangelistesBx.10.258: ewangelistes: R's euaungeliez is pl. of MED evangelie, "gospel". F has the sg. There is no AC parallel. bereth witnesse
Ego in patre & pater in meBx.10.259: me (1): So alpha, and also the P family of C. Beta and the X family correct this very familiar quotation from John 14.9-10 to me est. The line is dropped by beta2 (CrHmW). & qui [me viditBx.10.259: vidit (1 & 2): R's less classical spelling is actually that of the pre-Clementine Vulgate text edited by Wordsworth and White (1911), as well as most C mss. · patrem meum vidit]Bx.10.259: patrem meum vidit: Alpha's word-order is also that of Cx.
[¶]Bx.10.260: ¶: The paraph is in WC and alpha. In L, which lacks the usual line-space, the scribe's paraph marker is unrubricated. Cf. ll. 220, 265. Alle þe clerkes vnder cryst · ne couthe þis assoille
But þus it bilongethBx.10.261: bilongeth: Beta is supported by Cx against longeth in GO and alpha. to bileue · to lewed þat willen dowel
Ne man had no meriteBx.10.263: merite: Beta is supported by Cx and by the Latin quotation in the following line. Alpha has mercy. · myȝte it ben yproued
Fides non habet meritum vbi humana racio prebet experimentumBx.10.264: prebet experimentum: R omits the last two words from Gregory's Homily. C mss. break off at different points. After this line B is without parallel in AC until Bx.10.314.
[¶]Bx.10.265: ¶: L has an unrubricated paraph marker, MW have a line-space but no paraph. HmC and alpha have paraphs. Cf. ll. 220, 260. Þanne is dobet to suffre · for þi soules helth
Loke þow worche it in werke · þat þiBx.10.268: þi: So beta; R's þis points to the ensuing quotation. F has þe. worde sheweth
Appare quod es velBx.10.270: vel: Alford (1992), 65, quotes this commonplace with the alpha reading aut. esto quod appares
And lat no-body be · bi þi beryng bygyledBx.10.271: bygyled: Hm and alpha have be bygiled.
But be suche in þi soule · as þow semest with-oute
Si culpare velis · culpabilis esse cauebis
God in þe gospel · grymlyBx.10.278: grymly: Beta2 and F share the reading greuously. repreueth
Quid consideras festucam in oculo fratris tui trabem in oculo tuo &cBx.10.280: Beta breaks off the quotation (Luke 6.41) which alpha completes. The wording is something between Matt. 7.3 and Luke 6.41.
Whiche letteth þe to loke · lasse other more
Alle manereBx.10.288: manere: So LCrWGR. The M corrector adds of to come into line with HmCOF. Cf. ll. 286 and 299. men · to amenden by here myȝte
For goddis worde wolde nouȝt be bosteBx.10.291: boste: Though nonsensical, LR share the reading, indicating a corruption in Bx. The L scribe subsequently made the obvious correction to loste, thereby bringing his text into agreement with all other mss. See Introduction V.3.6. · for þat worcheth euere
If it auailled nouȝt þe comune · it myȝte auaille ȝow-seluen
¶ Ac it semeth nowBx.10.293: now: Probably R represents alpha's no, which F unreflectingly expanded to not. That M originally wrote not is presumably coincidental. sothly · to þe worldes syght
Þat goddes wordeBx.10.294: worde: R has the plural; F omits. worcheth nauȝte · on lered ne on lewede
But in suche a manere as Marke ·Bx.10.295: Beta (or possibly Bx) misplaced the punctuation to follow manere, as in LWC. In OR punctuation correctly precedes meneth, while MF have it twice. meneth in þe gospel
Dum cecus ducit cecum ambo in foueam cadunt
Þe bible bereth witnesse [·] þat alle þe folke of israel
¶ For-þi ȝe corectoures claweth her-on · and corecteth fyrst ȝow-seluen
And þanne mowe ȝe [man]lyBx.10.305: manly: Beta's saufly alliterates rather unconvincingly on /s/, and F improves on this with soþly in the a-verse and seiþ in (for made) in the b-verse. Both avoid R's difficult adverb, which Kane (2005) glosses "boldly, w. confidence". MED manli adv.(1), gives no instance of this sense, though "strongly" is close. Possibly MED mainli, which seems to have been used as a loose intensifier, is relevant. seye · as dauid made þe sauter
¶ And þanne shal borel clerkes ben abasched · to blame ȝow or to greueBx.10.307: or to greue: Alpha has lost the last three words of the line.
And carpen nouȝte as þei carpen now · and calle ȝow doumbe houndes
And al for ȝowre holynesse · haue ȝe þis in herte
Bx.10.313-25: These thirteen lines are in alpha only. Lines 314-21 are in Ax (K.11.204-10); ll. 314-15, 317-24, revised in places, are moved to a different context in Cx (RK.5.146-55). Eyeskip from the paraph recorded by R at l. 313 to that at l. 326 is the most likely explanation. See Burrow (2010): 25-6. KD, p. 66, point to homeoteleuton (al...-nesse...herte, al...-nesse...lerne). We have altered R's spelling to that of L. [¶ Amonges riȝtful religiouse · þis reule shulde be holde
GregorieBx.10.314: Gregorie: F begins Seynt Gregory, but R is supported by AC. þe grete clerke · and þe good pope
Of religioun þe reule · [he]Bx.10.315: he: F is supported by Ax against omission in R. reherceth in his moralesBx.10.315: morales: Moralia. R is supported by Ax against F's bookis, though Cx also refers to them as bokes (RK.5.146).
And seyth itBx.10.316: it: R is supported by Ax. in ensaumple · [þat]Bx.10.316: þat: F receives some support from Ax, þat þei shulde do þe betere. R has for. þei shulde do þere-after
Whanne fisshes failen þe flode · orBx.10.317: or: R is supported by Ax; Cx revises. þe fressh water
Riȝt so quod Gregori · religioun rollethBx.10.319: rolleth: This seems to be alpha's reading, replaced in F by the partly synonymous trollyþ, "wander" (cf. Bx.18.305). It is, however, an error for roileth, "totter, flop" (so Kane (2005)) in either Bx or alpha, and the line is suspiciously short. This and the following line in alpha expand one line in the other versions. Ax has: Riȝt so be religioun it roileþ (one ms. rolleþ) and steruiþ; Cx has Ryht so religioun roteth and sterueth (RK.5.150).
Sterueth and stynketh · and steleth lordes almesses
For if heuene be on þisBx.10.322: on þis: R is supported by Cx against F's in. erthe · and ese to anyBx.10.322: ese to any: C mss. have eny ese to þe (or for) (RK.5.152). soule
It is in cloistre or in scole · be manyBx.10.323: many: R is supported by Cx. F alters to fele to increase alliteration. skilles I fynde
For in cloistre cometh [no]Bx.10.324: no: R's obvious omission is confirmed by Cx. man · to chide ne to fiȝteBx.10.324: chide ne to fiȝte: R's b-verse word-order is supported by Cx.
But alle is buxomnesse þereBx.10.325: þere: F omits. The line is not in AC. and bokes · to rede and to lerne]
¶ In scole þere is [skile · and] scorne but if [he]Bx.10.326: skile and scorne but if he: R evidently represents alpha, mangled by F. If right, the reading involves a play on skilles three lines above in l. 323. Beta, on this argument, having lost skile and, added a clerke in place of he. The alliteration is weaker, though KD p. 132 n. 9 cite l. 323 as evidence that /sk/ can alliterate with /k/. Cx revises this and the next line to In scole is loue and louhnesse and lykyng to lerne (RK.5.155). lerne
Ac now is religioun a ryder · a rowmerBx.10.328: rowmer: F's rennere is the A reading. bi stretes
A priker on a palfray · fro manere to manerBx.10.330: manere to maner: Cf. Ax toune to toune (K.11.213), Cx places to maneres (RK.5.159).
And but if his knaue knele · þat shal his cuppe brynge
He loureth on hym and axethBx.10.333: axeth: Both F and Hm supply alliteration; the line is not in Ax and rewritten in Cx. hym · who tauȝte hym curteisye
¶ In many places þer hij persones ben · be hem-self at ese
Of þe pore haue þei no pite · and þat is her [pure]Bx.10.337: pure: Beta omits, but alpha is supported by Cx and the b-verse alliteration. charite
And bete ȝow as þe bible telleth · for brekynge of ȝowre reule
Þat here barnes claymen · and blame ȝow foule
Hij in curribus [et]Bx.10.345: et: Omitted by LM, so perhaps supplied by other beta scribes on the basis of the Psalm. hij in equis ipsi obligati sunt &c
Þat Gregories god-children · han yuel dispended
¶ And þanne shal þe abbot of Abyndoun · and alle [his]Bx.10.349: his: Dropped in L. issu for euere
Quomodo cessauit exactor · quieuit tributum · contriuit dominus baculum impiorum et virgam dominancium cedencium plaga insanabili &c
AcBx.10.354: Ac: The common Ac/And/But variation, with LMHmR attesting to Ac. Lines 354-401 are not in C. dowel shal dyngen hym adoune · and destruyen his myȝte
¶ I nel nouȝt scorne quod scripture · but if scryueynes lye
¶ Poule preueth it inpossible · riche men haue heuene
And caton kenneth vs to coueiten it ·Bx.10.363: In MCF the punctuation follows nauȝt. nauȝt but as nede techethBx.10.363: as nede techeth: LMCrWHm represent beta, with CO reading as it nedes and G corrupting further to vs nedithe. Beta's phrase receives some support from Bx.20.9. KD reject R (= alpha?) at pure nede on the grounds that it is "more emphatic" (p. 144). The line is not in AC.
Dilige denarium set parce dilige formam
Þat þei han heritage in heuene · and bi trewe riȝte
Þat is baptized beth sauf · be heBx.10.372: he: MGOF have the plural following the plural ben for is in their a-verse. riche or pore
And for his lele byleue · whan he þe lyf tyneth
For þat cryst for cristen men deyde ·Bx.10.379: The position of the line-break causes uncertainty, so that L has a punctus after men and a punctus elevatus after deyde. WHm have the former punctuation, MCrCO and alpha the latter, which we follow. and confermed þe lawe
Þat who-so wolde and wylneth · with cryste to aryse
Þat is loue þi lorde godBx.10.383: þi lorde god: For a precise parallel see Bx.5.583. Since F omits the line, R's word-order may represent alpha. Lines 378-89 have no parallel in AC. · leuest aboue alleBx.10.383: alle: Cr and beta4 have al thyng.
And after alle crystene creatures · in comune eche man other
I[t]Bx.10.387: It: A corrector has noted the omission of <t> in L. shal bisitten vs ful soure · þe siluer þat we kepen
And owre bakkesBx.10.388: bakkes: "clothes", as observed by the L scribe who writes above it id est panni. M has a different gloss: id est vestes. þat mothBx.10.388: moth: Alpha has mote which F makes sense of with great imagination.-eten be · and sen beggers go naked
God hoteth bothe heigh and lowe [·] þat no man hurte other
But if I sende þe sum tokne · and seith non [m]ecaberisBx.10.394: mecaberis: WHmCG and alpha, supported by Ax (K.11.254). L and G have been altered to necaberis (and CrO more grammatically to necabis); M is altered to occides. See Luke 18.20: "non occides, non moechaberis", i.e. "Thou shalt not kill, thou shalt not commit adultery". Langland has confused moechari with necare, "to slay". See Skeat (1886), 2.160; Alford (1992), 68-9.
IsBx.10.395: Is: CO have I, and M is altered to that reading. slee nouȝt but suffre · and al for þe beste
[For Michi vindictam & ego retribuam]Bx.10.396: The quotation from Rom. 12.19 is omitted in beta but supported by Ax (K.11.255).
For I shal punysshenBx.10.397: punysshen: Alpha's omission of hem is supported by Ax. in purgatorie · or in þe putte of helle
Where dowel is or dobet · derkelich ȝe shewen
Or elles vnwritenBx.10.404: vnwriten: "not recorded", as in AC (K.11.263; RK.11.207). MGOF have writen. for somme wikkednesse [·] as holywrit wytnessethBx.10.404: wytnesseth: So beta; alpha has telleth, probably picked up from l. 410 below. Ax has as witnessiþ þe gospel; Cx has as holy writ shewith (RK.11.207). For the same b-verse as in beta, see Bx.11.416; for that as in alpha, see Bx.1.130, 3.342, etc.
¶ [And]Bx.10.406: And: R only, since F substitutes For and beta omits. Ax and the X group of C support And, but the P group omits it. I leue it welBx.10.406: wel: Beta adds quod I (in CGO it follows lord), but there is no support from AC. bi owre lorde [·] and on no letterure bettere
God gaf hym grace of witte · and alle hisBx.10.408: his: Alpha omits, perhaps rightly. The b-verse is rewritten from Ax. In Cx it is instead and of goed aftur (cf. F's & of alle goodis after). godes after
[To reule þe reume · and riche to make]Bx.10.409: Beta omits the line. In Ax the line reads For to reule his reaum riȝt at his wille (K11267); Cx has To reule alle reumes and ryche to make (RK.11.212). F may therefore be right with his rewme, or it may be contamination from the A tradition.
Maistres þat of goddis mercy · techen men and prechen
Of here wordes þei wissen vs · for wisest inBx.10.413: in: Beta reads as in, possibly rightly, but Cx, with a different a-verse, has and wisest in here tyme. This use of as in is not well exemplified in the poem; perhaps the closest is Bx.15.609: ferme as in þe faith. here tyme
Þat for her werkes and witteBx.10.416: witte: Alpha reads here witt, supported by a majority of A mss.; beta is however supported by Cx. We follow copy-text. · now wonyeth in pyne
For many men on þis molde · more sette here hert[e]Bx.10.420: Cx supports beta's men in the a-verse and alpha's herte in the b-verse, which may be regarded as generic sg. or as an unchanged pl. of part of the body. Cf. Bx.7.68. Even so, alpha's unmarked form needs to be seen in the context of its sg. man in the a-verse. Lines 418-43 are not in A.
As salamon dede and such otherBx.10.423: dede and such other: Alpha reads and other dede, losing the alliteration. There is no parallel in AC. · þat shewed gret wittes
Ac her werkes as holy wrytte seyth · was euere þe contrarye
Super cathedraBx.10.427: cathedra: C mss. split between abl. cathedra (in the X family) and acc. cathedram (in the P family). The Vulgate has the latter (Matt. 23.3), although the former is more "correct" (with abl. denoting rest). moysy &c ·
¶ Ac I wene it worth of many · as was in Noes tyme
Þo he shope þat shippe · of shides andBx.10.429: and: This is probably the beta reading, with CrW and alpha reading and of. C mss. also split, with the X family having the beta reading, while the P family has that of alpha. We follow copy-text. bordes
And his wyf with his sones · and also here wyues
Of wriȝtesBx.10.433: wriȝtes: The line is lost (presumably by eyeskip from l. 430) by beta4 and added in M. Beta2 has wightes. þat it wrouȝte [·] was none of hem ysaued
¶ God leneBx.10.434: lene: As usual, this is indistinguishable in L and other mss. from the easier leue, as recorded in CrF. G alters to leve. Cf. Bx.5.265. it fare nouȝt so bi folke · þat þe feith techen
And shelden vs fram shame þer-inne · as noes shippe did bestes
Bx.10.438: Alpha has a paraph.Þe culorum of þis clause · curatoures isBx.10.438: curatoures is: The b-verse as in beta is the reading of Cx. to mene
Þat ben carpenteres holykirkeBx.10.439: kirke: R's non-alliterating form cherche may represent alpha, as at Bx.5.106, 271, etc., inspiring F to rewrite. See Introduction IV.1. to make · for crystes owne bestes
Homines & iumenta saluabis domine · &c ·
Bx.10.441-3: These three lines are preserved in alpha only. The first is in Cx, and ll. 442-3 are revised as RK.11.250, with a new line added. We have revised R's spellings to those of L. [At domes-day þe deluuye worth · of deth and fyreBx.10.441: fyre: R's line is supported by Cx against F's revisions. R has feer as a spelling for "fire" at Bx.3.99. at ones
For-þi I conseille ȝow clerkes · of holy chercheBx.10.442: cherche: It may seem obvious that, as at l. 439, Bx had kirke for the alliteration. However, Cx has churche in a line alliterating on /w/, suggesting that Langland revised the line to improve the alliteration of Bx. þe wriȝtes
Worcheth ȝe asBx.10.443: as: R's line is verbose and clumsy throughout, here reading werkes as. We take werkes to be an addition to strengthen alliteration and follow F, while recognising the slightness of the evidence. In Cx the line reads: Worcheth ȝe wrihtus of holy churche as holy writ techeth (RK.11.250). ȝe se writen · lest ȝe worth nauȝt þerinneBx.10.443: worth nought þerinne: F's worth ydrenkled, "are drowned", is more emphatic. Cf. F's reading at l. 437, suggesting that Bx might have read worth adreynte or similar. Again it is impossible to be confident of either reading.]
¶ OnBx.10.444: On: Alpha begins For a (R) or for on (F), but beta is supported by AC. gode fridaye I fynde · a feloun was ysaued
He was sonnere saued · þan seynt Iohan [þe]Bx.10.447: þe: Lost in LHm, but supported by AC. Baptiste
And orBx.10.448: or (1): "before". See spelling variants. Adam or ysaye · or eny of þe prophetes
¶ Þanne Marye Magdaleyne · what womman dede worse
Or who worse [dede]Bx.10.453: worse dede: R (and cf. F) is supported by alliteration and by Ax dede wers. C rewrites. þan dauid · þat vries deth conspired
Moche crystene kynde · to kylle to dethBx.10.455: Alpha omits the line. AC have it without Moche (K.11.290; RK.11.268). C mss. vary, incorporating an abbreviated version of the line into the previous line, as in X: Poul þe apostel no pite ne hadde cristene peple to culle to dethe.
And benBx.10.456: Hm begins with rewritten And ȝit been; all others have And now ben except LR that omit the adverb, and F which reverses the order. The omission is almost certainly an error, since the adverb is in Cx, but the combined testimony of LR implies that it was an omission in Bx, with other scribes correcting by conjecture or contamination. See Adams (2000), 184. þise as souereynes · wyth seyntes in heuene
Þat salamon seith I trowe be soth · and certeyne of vs alle
S[unt]Bx.10.461: Sunt: Beta's Sine or Siue is an obvious misreading. Alpha is supported by Cx and the source (Ecclesiastes 9.1). Lines 462-71 have no parallel in AC. iusti atque sapientes · & opera eorum in manu dei sunt &c
¶Bx.10.462: ¶: The paraph is in beta and F. Þere aren witty and wel libbyng [·] ac her werkes ben yhudde
Wher forBx.10.464: Wher for: "whether for". Beta2 and G mistake this as Wherefore, and CrW drop loue. loue a man worth allowed þere · and his lele werkes
Or elles for his yuel wille · &Bx.10.465: &: L initially read or, corrected to &. Beta2 has and for. enuye of herte
And be allowed asBx.10.466: as: R has for; F rewrites the line. he lyued soBx.10.466: so: Dropped by Cr and beta4 (O has þere). · for bi lyther men knoweth þe gode
¶ And wherby woteBx.10.467: wote: So LR, and probably M before correction to conform to CrW wiste. Hm may also have had wote before revision. men whiche is whyte · if alle þinge blake were
AndBx.10.468: And: Alpha probably read Or, altered by F to For. who were a gode man · but if þere were some shrewe
For-þi lyue we forth with litherBx.10.469: lither: Beta2 reads other and loses alliteration. men · I leue fewe ben gode
For sothest worde þat euere god seyde · was þo he seyde nemo bonus
[¶]Bx.10.473: ¶: The paraph is in WHmR, with a new line-group in M. In L, which lacks the usual line-space, the scribe's paraph marker is unrubricated. Clergye þo of crystes mouth · commended was it litel
DumBx.10.475: Dum: Beta2 alters to Cum, but Cx supports the others. steteritis ante Reges et presides &c ·
Þough ȝe come bifor kynges · and clerkes of þe lawe
And ȝyue ȝow witte atBx.10.478: at: L is supported by alpha; all others have and. The line is revised in Cx. wille · and kunnynge to conclude
Hem alle þat aȝeines ȝow · ofBx.10.479: of: Alpha omits, though F has a different object for alliteration's sake. Though this is attractive, it might be noted that the verb disputen is elsewhere used transitively only at Bx.10.260; it is usually ~ with. crystenedome disputen
¶ Dauyd maketh mencioun · he spake amonges kynges
AndBx.10.481: And: Cx supports beta against R Al and F Þere. miȝte no kynge ouercome hym · as bi kunnyng of speche
¶ Þe doughtiest doctour · and deuynoure of þe trinitee
Was augustynBx.10.485: augustyn: As at l. 126 above, the form of the name in Bx is not determinable. LMG (so beta?) have the full form, but alpha has the more usual Austyn. Both AC have the abbreviated form. We follow copy-text. þe olde · and heighest of þeBx.10.485: þe (2): AC do not support R's hem. foure
Ecce ipsi idiotiBx.10.487: idioti: Bx and most A mss. make the fools masculine, though CrCGOF correct to feminine. rapiunt celum · vbi nos sapientes in inferno mergimur ·
And is to mene to englissh men · more ne lasse
Þan ar þis cunnynge clerkes · þat conneBx.10.490: conne: Beta has the support of Ax against alpha's knowe. many bokes
¶Bx.10.491: ¶: The paraph is in LW (in M the line is at the top of the page). Ne none sonner saued · ne sadder of bileue
Þan plowmen and pastoures · & poreBx.10.492: pore: W and beta4 read oþere and lose the alliteration. comune laboreres
Souteres and sheperdes · sucheBx.10.493: suche: So LR and Cr, as well as the majority of A mss. Others have added and. lewed iottesBx.10.493: iottes: A nonce word, variously recorded as iottes and iuttes by A and B scribes. It may be the same word as modern jot, "small amount".
In-to þe blisse of paradys · for her pure byleueBx.10.496: Here ends comparison with A.
Þat inparfitly hereBx.10.497: here: This line is obviously defective in R, which uniquely drops here. In the b-verse R's loss of eke may represent alpha, since F rewrites. Lines 497-501 are not in C. · knewe and eke lyued
¶ Ȝee men knowe clerkes · þat han cursedBx.10.498: þat han cursed: R alone has cursen. þe tyme
And pryncipaly herBx.10.500: her: So beta; alpha might equally be right with þe. pater noster · many a persone hath wisshed
Þat seruauntes þat seruen lordes · selden falle in arrerageBx.10.502: arrerage: Beta is supported by Cx. F regularly reads rerage; cf. esp. Bx.11.133, 135 (final position), 138, 14.117.
But þo þat kepen þe lordesBx.10.503: þe lordes: R has lordes; F has here. The line is not in C. catel · clerkes and reues
Riȝt so lewed men · & of litel knowyngBx.10.504: knowyng: Alpha reads kunnynge. Cx has vnderstondyng in a revised line (RK.11.299).
Selden falleBx.10.505: falle: So alpha, supported by Cx; beta reads falle þei. so foule · and so fer in synne
As clerkes of holikirkeBx.10.506: kirke: Beta2 and GR alter to chirche and lose alliteration. · þat kepen crystes tresore
Ite vos in vineam meam