Incipit liber de Petro Plowman

In a somer seson · whan soft was the sonne
I shope me in[to]Bx.P.2: into: In the absence of R in Bx.P.1-124 and 1.142-2.41, we are obliged to rely on F for alpha readings. This is problematic, partly because of F's eccentricity, and more importantly because its text is evidently contaminated from A. (See Introduction III.10.) We have therefore been very cautious in adopting readings from F, but have accepted F in agreement with A when it offers a superior text, and also taken the agreement of F with AC against beta as evidence in favour of the F reading. In this line, although L has in, the agreement of CrWHm (and M revised) with F insecurely establishes into, which is confirmed by Ax (into a shroud) and Cx. shroudes · as i a shepe were
In habite as an heremite · vnholy of workes
Went wyde in þis world [·] wondres to here
Ac on a May mornyng · on Maluerne hulles
Me byfel a ferly · of fairy me thouȝte
I was wery forwandred · and went me to reste
Vnder a brode banke · bi a bornes side
And as I lay and lened · and loked [o]nBx.P.9: on: As with into in l. 2, the reading of MCrWHm and F is supported by Ax. LCO have in, G vpon. Cx rewrites. þe wateres
I slombred in aBx.P.10: in a: The reading of LMCO is challenged by CrWHmG in-to a and F into. A mss. read variously on a, in a, a, into a, into. There is no equivalent in Cx. slepyng · it sweyuedBx.P.10: sweyued: This is probably the beta reading, supported by LCO, and probably original M, where swei... (three or four letters erased) has been altered to sweyed, in line with beta2 and GF. See MED sweiven, "whirl, sweep", a rare verb cited elsewhere only from Patience and Cleanness. But the noun sweuene in the next line might have given rise to the reading. The variant sweyed is MED sweien v.(1), "sound", or the commoner v.(2), "move along (of water)." There is the same variation in Ax. so merye
[¶]Bx.P.11-40: : L has no paraphs on fol. 1r because of the decoration running down the left margin, but it has blank spaces before ll. 11, 23, 25, 31 and 40. Thanne gan I to meten · a merueilouse sweuene
That I was in a wildernesse · wist I neuer where
As I bihelde in-to þe est · an hiegh to þe sonne
I seigh a toure on a toft · trielichBx.P.14: trielich: So LWG and original M. A scribes also have trouble with the adverb (from adj. trie), and Cx rewrites. ymaked
A depe dale binethe · a dongeon þere-Inne
With depe dyches & derke · and dredful of sight
A faire felde ful of folke · fonde I there bytwene
Of alle maner of men · þe mene and þe riche
Worchyng and wandryng · as þeBx.P.19: þe: So beta, supported by the P family of C, but F's this is supported by the X family. worlde asketh
Some put hem to þeBx.P.20: þe: Dropped in GF. There is the same variation between to þe and to in AC. plow · pleyed ful selde
In settyng and inBx.P.21: in (2): So LHmCG; dropped in others. There is the same variation in AC. sowyng · swonken ful harde
And wonnen that [þese]Bx.P.22: þese: F has support from AC. All other manuscripts omit it. wastours · with glotonye destruyeth
[¶] And some putten hem to pruyde · apparailed hem þere-after
In contenaunce of clothyng [·] comen disgised
[¶] In prayers and inBx.P.25: in (2): Agreement of LMCOF is good support for Bx, but it is not in Ax or Cx. penanceBx.P.25: penance: The plural of WHmF is probably prompted by prayers; C mss. are similarly split, but Ax has sg. For variation with and without <-s>, see note to Bx.14.211. · putten hem manye
Al for loueBx.P.26: loue: Beta2 (CrWHm) and GF have the loue. AC mss. are split. of owre lorde · lyueden ful streyte
In hope forto haueBx.P.27: forto haue: Beta2 (CrWHm) and G read to haue after. This is also the reading of two A mss. Cx is revised. · heueneriche blisse
As ancres and heremites · that holden hem in here selles
And coueiten nought in contre [·] to kairenBx.P.29: kairen: So LMGOF, supported by Ax and Cx; CrWHm regularly alter to carien; e.g. Bx.4.23, 5.310. aboute
For no likerous liflode · her lykam to plese
[¶] And somme chosen chaffare · they cheuenBx.P.31: cheuen: In all three versions the present tense varies with the past. LMGOF support the present for Bx. the bettere
As it semeth to owre syȝt · that suche men thryueth
And somme murthes to make · as mynstralles conneth
And geten gold with here glee · synneles I leue
AcBx.P.35: Ac: So LWHm, with GF's regular substitution of But. MCrCO have As. A mss. split between Ac and But. Cx has no equivalent line. iapers & iangelers · Iudas chylderen
Feynen hem fantasies · and foles hem maketh
And han here witte at wille · to worche ȝif þei sholde
That Poule precheth of hem · I nel nought preue it here
Qui turpiloquium loquitur · &cBx.P.39: &c: The absence of the b-verse in L, original M, Cr1C (F misses the line) suggests that the English completion was added to the Latin phrase from other versions. WHmG is luciferes hyne is Ax; O's is lucifers knaue (which is added in Cr23) is Cx. A later hand has added est seruus diaboli in M.
[¶] Bidders and beggeres · fast aboute ȝede
With her bely and her baggeBx.P.41: bely ... bagge: The distributive sg. as in LM is supported by Cx; A mss. vary. F misses the line. · of bred fulBx.P.41: of bred ful: Presumably an error in beta or Bx for AC bretful. ycrammed
Fayteden for here fode · fouȝten atte ale
In glotonye god itBx.P.43: it: Supported by LMHmCO though omitted by CrWG and Ax (Cx rewrites). F's reversed a-verse also omits it. For a parallel, see Bx.4.81. wote · gon hij to bedde
And risenBx.P.44: risen: Cx has ryseþ. F's rysen vp is Ax. with ribaudye · tho roberdes knaues
Slepe and sori sleuthe · seweth hem eure
¶ Pilgrymes and palmers · pliȝte[n]Bx.P.46: pliȝten: The form could represent the past tense or the present. LMO with pliȝted take it as past, in line with the verbs in ll. 48-61, but the form receives no support from Ax or Cx. hem togidere
To seke seynt Iames · and seyntes in rome
Thei went forth in here wey · with many wise tales
And hadden leue toBx.P.49: to: MGOF's for to has limited support from A mss. and none from Cx. lye · al here lyf after
Bx.P.50-54: These five lines are omitted in F by eyeskip from after to after. I seigh somme that seiden · þei had ysouȝt seyntes
To eche a tale þat þei tolde · here tonge was tempred to lye
More þan to sey soth · it semed bi here speche
¶ Heremites on an heep · with hoked staues
Wenten to walsyngham · and here wenches after
Grete lobyes and longe · that loth were to swynke
Clotheden hem in copis · to ben knowen fram othere
And shopen hem heremites · here ese to haue
¶ I fonde þere Freris [·] alle þe foure ordres
PrechedBx.P.59: Preched: AC have the pres. part., as W, and Hm by correction. Schmidt (1995), 363 explains the source of what is presumably an error in Bx as "the unexpectedness of a participle in a sequence of preterites". þe peple · for profit of hem-seluen
Glosed þe gospel · as hem good lyked
For coueitise of copis · construed it as þei wolde
Many of þis maistresBx.P.62: maistres: The reading also of Ax, meaning "learned professional theologian" (Kane, 2005), cf. Bx.13.25. The retention of the pl. form maistres in L suggests that Freris was an interlinear gloss in beta, but not present in alpha. Cx's explanatory revision "Mony of þise maistres of mendenant freres" (RK.P.60) might imply that the gloss was in his exemplar. [·] mowe clothen hem at lykyng
For here money andBx.P.63: and: Beta2 (CrWHm) has and her. AC show the same variation. marchandise · marchen togideres
For sith charite haþ be chapman · and chief to shryue lordes
Many ferlis han fallen · in a fewe ȝeris
But holychirche and hijBx.P.66: hij: The form in L, original M, and WC is necessary for alliteration. See Introduction IV.1. · holde better togideres
The moste my[s]chiefBx.P.67: myschief: In L the line is marked for correction. on molde · is mountyngBx.P.67: mountyng: F has mountynge. The beta reading is mountyng wel, though GO share the reading vp with AC. We suppose, with Schmidt (1995), 364, that Bx dropped vp, and beta supplied the adverb for the metre. F's final -e compensates for the omission of the adverb, avoiding the x / x / x b-verse rhythm, but there is no reason to suppose it represents Bx. See note to l. 104. faste
¶ Þere preched a Pardonere · as he a prest were
Brouȝte forth a bulle · with bishopes seles
And seide þat hym-self myȝte · assoilen hem alle
Of falshed ofBx.P.71: of (2): LMWHmCO in agreement with Cx; CrGF have and or and of. A mss. vary in the same way. fastyng · of vowesBx.P.71: vowes: LMCrCO in agreement with Cx; others have auowes. A mss. vary in the same way. ybroken
¶ Lewed men leued hym wel · and lyked his wordes
Comen vp knelyng · to kissen his bulles
He bonched hem with his breuet · & blered here eyes
And rauȝte with his ragman · rynges and brochesBx.P.75: F follows this with two lines not supported by AC.
Thus þey geuen here golde · glotones to kepe
And leneth [it]Bx.P.77: it: Supported by AC as well as by sense. Omitted by LC and original M, presumably taking the verb as leueth, "believe": see F's be-leven on. such loseles · þat lecherye haunten
Were þe bischop yblissed · and worth bothe his eres
His seel shulde nouȝt be sent · to deceyue þe peple
Ac it is nauȝt by þe bischop · þat þe boy prechethBx.P.80: F follows this with a line not supported by AC.
For the parisch prest and þe pardonere · parten þe siluer
That þe porailleBx.P.82: poraille: Not elsewhere in the poem. O expands to pore porayle to explain the word; M perhaps originally read pore peple, which is the reading of Ax and Cx. F's pore men seems a typical avoidance of a difficult word, as is Cr's pouerty. However, the reading of Bx lacks alliteration in the b-verse. of þe parisch · sholde haue ȝif þei nere
¶ Persones and parisch prestes · pleyned hem to þe bischop
Þat here parisshes were pore · sith þe pestilence tyme
To haue a lycence and leueBx.P.85: leue: LC have a leue, induced by a lycence. A few AC mss. have the same error. · at London to dwelle
And syngen þere for symonye · for siluer is swete
¶ Bischopes and bachelers · bothe maistres and doctours
Þat han cure vnder criste · and crounyng in tokne
And signe þat þei sholden · shryuen here paroschienes
Prechen and prey for hem · and þe pore fede
Liggen inBx.P.91: in (1): Supported by Cx. Beta2 and G have at, perhaps influenced by the same phrase six lines above. Lines 87-210 are not in A. London · in lenten anBx.P.91: an: "and". See Introduction V.3.1. The form has been corrected in L in the line above. elles
Somme seruen þe kyng · and his siluer tellen
In cheker and in chancerye · chalengen his dettes
Of wardes andBx.P.94: and (1): LMCrCG, and so likely to be beta. WF have and of, which is probably the Cx reading. HmO have of. wardmotes · weyues and streyuesBx.P.94: F's additional line is from A (KProl.95).
¶ And some seruen as seruantz · lordes and ladyes
And in stede of stuwardes · sytten and demen
Here messe and here matynes · and many of here oures
Arn don vndeuoutlych · drede is at þe lasteBx.P.98: An entirely different line referring to Sarum Use replaces this and the next line in F.
Lest crist in constorie · acorse ful manye
I parceyued of þe power · þat Peter had to kepe
To bynde and to vnbynde · as þe boke telleth
How he it leftBx.P.102: it left: This word-order is supported by Cx. wiþ loue · as owre lorde hight
Amonges foure vertues · þe best of alle vertuesBx.P.103: þe best of alle vertues: Beta alliterates aa/xa with /f/ + /v/ alliteration. F's reading, most vertuous of hevene, might represent alpha. See KD, p. 180, for discussion. It could be that the Cx b-verse, most vertuous of vertues (RK.P.131), was also Bx, with alpha and beta taking different action to avoid the repetition.
Þat cardinales ben called · & closyngBx.P.104: closyng: We have retained L's spelling, though final -e as in MWHm would improve the metre; see Duggan (1988), 143 and n. 58, and for the disyllabic ending in Hoccleve, see Burrow (1999), liii. F characteristically rewrites to avoid the short b-verse. Among C mss., X has and closyng ȝates thare, P has and closynde yates. ȝatis
Þere crist is inBx.P.105: in: WHmF have in his, not supported by Cx. kyngdome · to close and to shutte
And to opne it to hem · and heuene blisse shewe
Ac of þe cardinales atteBx.P.107: atte: "at the", as usual in L. The reading of LMHmCF establishes this as Bx, even though at in CrWGO is the Cx reading. Courte · þat cauȝt of þat name
And power presumedBx.P.108: presumed: Beta has pa.t. (or ppl.) following from cauȝt in l. 107. F's present tense appears to have support from Cx, but in Cx this follows from cauȝt han. in hem · a Pope to make
To han þ[e]Bx.P.109: þe: Beta has þat, but F is supported by Cx. power þat peter hadde · inpugnen I nelle
For in loue andBx.P.110: and: WF have and in, not supported by Cx. letterure · þe eleccioun bilongeth
For-þi I can and can nauȝte · of courte speke more
¶ Þanne come þere a kyng · knyȝthod hym ladde
Miȝt of þe comunes · made hym to regne
And þanne cam kynde wytte · and clerkes he made
For to conseille þe kyng · and þe comune saue
¶ The kyng and knyȝthode · and clergye bothe
Casten þat þe comune [·] shulde hem-self fynde
¶ Þe comune contreued · of kynde witte craftes
And for profit of alleBx.P.119: of alle: LCrWCO, and probably beta, but MHmGF drop alle. There is no help from the revised line in Cx. We retain copy-text. þe poeple · plowmen ordeygned
To tilie and [to] trauaileBx.P.120: to trauaile: All mss. have this second to except LCO. For the same pattern with initial "to", cf. Bx.2.83-4, 5.134, etc. This passage is dropped in C. · as trewe lyf askeþ
Þe kynge and þe comune · and kynde witte þe thridde
Shope lawe & lewte · eche [lyf]Bx.P.122: lyf: So F. Although the reading could derive from two lines above, it is probable that non-alliterating man is a substitution in beta. to knowe his owne
¶ Þanne loked vp a lunatik · a lene þing with-alle
And knelyng to þe kyng · clergealy he seyde
Bx.P.125: R begins with this line. Crist kepe þe sire kyng · and þi kyngriche
And lene þe lede þi londe · so leute þe louye
And for þi riȝtful rewlyng · be rewarded in heuene
¶ And sithen in þe eyre an hiegh · an angel of heuene
Lowed to speke in latyn · for lewed men ne coude
Iangle ne iugge · þat iustifie hem shulde
But suffren & seruen · for-thi seyde þe angel
Sum Rex sum Princeps · neutrum fortasse deinceps
O qui iura regis · cristi specialia regis
Hoc quod agas melius · iustus es esto pius
Nudum iusBx.P.135: ius: Alpha picks up vis (in the sense "force") from the line below (where it means "you wish", from volo), and it is an easy minim error. Beta is supported by Cx. a te · vestiriBx.P.135: vestiri: Alpha has vestire, but beta is supported by most C mss. vult pietate
Qualia vis metere · talia grana sere
Si iusBx.P.137: ius: Alpha again has vis. See note to l. 135. nudatur · nudo de iure metatur ·
Si seritur pietas · de pietate metas ·
¶ Thanne greued hym a Goliardeys · a glotoun of wordes
And to þe angel an heiȝ · answeresBx.P.140: answeres: All mss. except LR have the past tense following greued, though both MHm probably shared the present before correction. Lines 139-45 are not paralleled in Cx. after
Dum rex a regere · dicatur nomen habere
Nomen habet sine re · nisi studet iura tenere ·
¶ AndBx.P.143: And: LRC only; others omit. Although this is strong evidence for Bx, it could of course be coincidental error. þanne gan alle þe comune · crye in [a]Bx.P.143: a: "one". R probably represents alpha, obscured by F's rewriting. Beta's omission loses the sense, "one line", referring to Bx.P.145. vers of latin
Bx.P.144: The line is omitted by alpha. The passage differs in Cx. To þe kynges conseille · construe ho-so wolde
Precepta Regis · sunt nobis vincula legis ·
¶ Wiþ þat ran þere a route [·] of ratones at ones
And smale mys withBx.P.147: with: W has mid, an interesting case of scribal improvement to the alliteration. Cx also has with. Cf. Bx.1.117 and note. hem [·] mo þen a þousande
And comen to a conseille · for hereBx.P.148: here: LMCOR supported by Cx. comune profit
For a cat of a courteBx.P.149: courte: The reading of LCO and alpha is obviously right and supported by Cx. Beta2 (CrWHm), joined by G, read contree, either a simple misreading or avoidance of a politically sensitive reference. M's contre is a correction, but apparently just a respelling. · cam whan hym lyked
And ouerlepe hem lyȝtlich · and lauȝte hem at hisBx.P.150: his: omitted in F and also Cx. wille
And pleyde wiþ hem perilouslych · and possed [hem]Bx.P.151: hem (2): Supported by alpha (though F switches to first-person pronoun in both instances in the line), as well as by MCO. Cx includes hem in a revised b-verse. aboute
For doute of dyuerse dredes · we dar nouȝte wel loke
And ȝif we grucche ofBx.P.153: grucche of: "complain about". Alpha drops of, but beta is supported by Cx. his gamen · he wil greue vs alle
Cracche vs or clowe vs · and in his cloches holde
That vs lotheth þe lyf · or he lete vs passe
Myȝte we wiþ any witte · his wille withstonde
We myȝte be lordes aloft · and lyuen at owre ese
Bx.P.158: : The paraph is in beta and F. The line is at the top of the page in R. A raton of renon [·] most renable of tonge
Bx.P.159: L has an otiose paraph. The line is at the top of the page. Seide for a souereygne · help to hym-selueBx.P.159: hym-selue: Skeat (1886) translates: "`Said for a sovereign remedy for himself'; i.e. as far as himself was concerned". Alpha's hem alle is suspiciously easier, and credits the rat with a community spirit which he probably does not deserve. The line is not in Cx.
I haue ysein segges quod he · in þe cite of london
Beren biȝes ful briȝte · abouten here nekkes
And some colers of crafty werk [·] vncoupled þei wenden
Boþe in wareine & in waste · where hem leue lykethBx.P.163: leue lyketh: So LCOR. F altersleue to the superlative, best; beta2 and G corrupt to the common phrase. CrWG switch to the past tense both here and in the previous line; the M corrector alters both verbs from present to past.
And otherwhile þei aren elles-where · as I here telle
Were þere a belle on here beiȝ · bi Ihesu as me thynketh
Men myȝte wite where þei went · and awei renne
And riȝt so quod þat ratoun · reson me sheweth
To bugge a belle of brasse · or of briȝte syluer
And knitten [it]Bx.P.169: it: LCGO omit, and M adds. Probably lost by beta and supplied by individual scribes. Cx also reads hit. on a colere · for owre comune profit
Bx.P.170: The line is lost in beta2 (CrWHm) and G. And hangen it vp-on þe cattes hals · þanne here we mowen
Bx.P.171-72: Alpha omits two lines as a result of eyeskip. Where he ritt or rest · or rennethBx.P.171: renneth: Y has the C reading rometh, by contamination or coincidence. to playe
And ȝif him list for to laike · þenne loke we mowen
And peren in his presence · þer-while hym plaie liketh
And ȝif him wrattheth be ywar · and his weye shonye
¶ Alle þisBx.P.175: þis (1): Beta is supported by the X family of C, alpha's þe by the P family. route of ratones · to þis reson þei assented
Ac þo þe belle was ybouȝtBx.P.176: ybouȝt: Beta2 and G read (y)brouȝt. The P family of C have the former, most of the X family the latter. · and on þe beiȝe hanged
Þere ne was ratoun in alle þe route · for alle þe rewme of Fraunce
Þat dorst haue ybounden þe belle · aboute þe cattis nekke
Ne hangen [it]Bx.P.179: it: Omitted by LG and added in M, but supported by Cx. As in l. 169 it was probably lost by beta and supplied by individual scribes. aboute [his]Bx.P.179: his: Beta has þe cattes, but the alpha reading is supported by Cx. hals · al Engelonde to wynne
And helden hem vnhardy · and here conseille feble
And leten here laboure lost · & alle here longe studye
¶ A mous þat moche good · couthe as me thouȝte
Stroke forth sternly · and stode biforn hem alle
And to þe route of ratones · reherced þese wordes
Thouȝ we [had] culledBx.P.185: had culled: Beta2 (CrWHm) and G have the present tense, other beta mss. the past, and alpha the pluperfect, as does Cx. þe catte · ȝut sholde þer come an-other
To cracchyBx.P.186: cracchy: As in Cx. M alters to cacche, the reading of beta2, G and F. vs and al owre kynde · þouȝ we croupeBx.P.186: croupe: The various spellings of the verb may all be understood as past tense, "crept". vnder benches
For-þi I conseille alle þe comune · to lat þe catte worthe
And be we neuer so bolde · þe belle hym to shewe
For I herde my sire seyn · is seuene ȝere ypassed
Þere þe catte is a kitoun · þe courte is ful elyng
Þat witnisseth holiwrite · who-so wil it rede
Ve terre vbi puer [est rex]Bx.P.192: est rex: The order in HmOR and Cx; reversed in others. Scribes tend to copy quotations in the form with which they are familiar. &c
For may no renke þere rest haue · for ratones bi nyȝte
Þe while he caccheþ conynges · he coueiteth nouȝt owre caroyne
But fet hym al with venesoun · defame we hym neuere
For better is a litel losse · þan a longe sorwe
Þe mase amonge vs alle · þouȝ we mysse a schrewe
For many mannusBx.P.198: mannus: The gen. sg. of LMCR is supported by Cx against the plural of others. malt · we mys wolde destruye
And also ȝeBx.P.199: ȝe: LMW + alpha; among C mss. the P family has ȝe and the X family þe. route of ratones · rende mennes clothes
Nere þ[e] cat of þ[e]Bx.P.200: þe ... þe: So HmGF and Cx; MCrW have þe ... þat, reversed in R; LO have þat ... þat. No certainty is possible. courte · þat can ȝow ouerlepe
For had ȝe rat[ones]Bx.P.201: ratones: The form in alpha and G, supported by Cx against rattes in others. ȝowre wille · ȝe couthe nouȝt reule ȝowre-selue
I sey [it]Bx.P.202: sey it: R is supported by Cx. F has sey þis, and beta drops it. for me quod þe mous · I se so mykel after
Shal neuer þe cat ne þe kitoun · bi my conseille be greued
Ne carpyng of þis coler · þat costed me neure
And þouȝ it costeBx.P.205: coste: Beta's had coste is not supported by Cx. me catel · biknowen it I nolde
But suffre as hym-self wolde · to do asBx.P.206: do as: F's slen what shows his propensity to correct alliteration. The line is rewritten in Cx. See Schmidt (1995), 364-5. hym liketh
Coupled & vncoupled · to cacche what thei mowe
For-þiBx.P.208: For-þi: The beta reading. R has For, F has &. The line is not in AC. vche a wise wiȝte I warne · wite wel his owne
¶ What þis meteles bemeneth · ȝe men þat be merye
Deuine ȝe for I ne dar · bi dere god in heuene
¶ Ȝit houed þere an hondreth · in houues of selke
Seriauntz it semed · þat serueden atte barre
Plededen for penyes · and poundes þe lawe
And nouȝt for loue of owre lorde · vnleseBx.P.214: vnlese: LR, so good evidence for Bx. Formally a different verb from vnlose (MED vnlesen v.(2) and unlosen). A mss. also vary, but Cx (RK.P.164) has the latter. At Bx.17.142 the reading is vnlosen. here lippes onis
Þow myȝtest better mete mysteBx.P.215: myste: So alpha + WG and the X family of C. Other mss. supply þe, as the scribe of O does. A mss. are split. · on maluerne hulles
Þan gete a momme of here mouthe · [er]Bx.P.216: er: LMCO support for but suggests this is the reading of beta, though comparison of AC versions suggests that the choice lies between alpha er and til in beta2 and G. The X family of C has the former, but most A mss. read til, as does the P family of C. We suppose til arises by contamination or coincidence. monoy [be]Bx.P.216: be: So beta2, GOF (R has hem by), against were in LMC. Ax seems to have be (K.P.89); the P family of C also have be, though the X family probably read wer (RK.P.166). shewed
¶ Barones an burgeis · and bonde-men als
I seiȝ in þis assemble · as ȝe shul here after
Baxsteres & brewesteres · and bocheres manye
Wollewebsteres · and weueres of lynnen
Taillours and tynkeres · & tolleres in marketes
Masons and mynours · and many other craftes
Of alkinBx.P.223: alkin: The beta reading has force in a list of labourers, but it is challenged by alpha's alle, shared by Z (Bodley 851). AC versions do not have the line. libbyng laboreres · lopen forth somme
As dykers & delueres · þat doth here dedes ille
And dryuen forth þe dereBx.P.225: dere: The choice is not obvious. The fact that L has dere and that M's longe is a correction (apparently of a shorter word) suggests the possibility that beta1 derives longe by contamination with A or by coincidental error. Alpha is uncertain: F's fayre day has no support, but R's here dayes here is supported by Cx her days. See Donaldson (1955), 197. We retain copy-text by default. day · with dieu vousBx.P.225: vous: So Bx, though omitted by CrWG, Ax and the P family of C. saue dame Emme ·
[¶]Bx.P.226: Alpha and W here start a paragraph (the line is at the top of the page in M). Cokes and here knaues · crieden hote pies hote
Gode gris aBx.P.227: a: "and", as also at Bx.7.104, 8.53, 13.88 etc. See MED a conj. geesBx.P.227: gris ... gees: this order has the support of LMC + alpha, but is challenged by AC. · go we dyne go we
¶ Tauerners vn-til hem · tolde þe same
White wyn of Oseye · and wynBx.P.229: wyn (2): Beta reads red wyn, making explicit the contrast with White wyn in the a-verse. Alpha omits the adjective (R's b-verse, though defective, is also that of the P family of C), as do the AC versions. of Gascoigne
Of þe Ryne and ofBx.P.230: of (2): Beta is supported by AC. þe Rochel · þe roste to defye
Bx.P.231: The line is omitted in WF. It is in AC. Al þis seiȝ I slepyng · and seuene sythes more