Passus septimus decimus et secundus de dobet
To reule alle rewmes [þere-]withBx.17.3: þere-: Omitted by beta, but supported by Cx. · I bere þe writte here
[¶]Bx.17.5: ¶: The paraph is supported by WC and alpha. L misplaces it at the start of the following line. Nay he sayde I seke hym · þat hath þe sele to kepe
Bx.17.7-8: Beta's two lines are supported by the revised lines in Cx (RK.19.9-10). R reflects a corrupt alpha, conflating the two lines into one and adding a half-line for a smooth transition to l. 9: "And whan it is aseled so sathanas power schal last no lenger / And þus my lettre meneth". F typically fills out the orphan half-line: "& whan it ys a-selyd soo sathenas haþ lost his power / & þus myn lettre meneþ men mowe knowe yt alle". KD adopt F's expanded line. And whan it is asseledBx.17.7: asseled: Supported by Cx. CrWG again have enseled. so · I wote wel þe sothe
Þat Lucyferes lordeship · laste shal no lenger
Dilige deum & proximum tuum &c
Þis was þe tixte trewly · I toke ful gode [gome]Bx.17.13: gome: "heed" (MED gome n. (4)), with citations from Robert of Gloucester and elsewhere. The reading of R, with F substituting easier keepe and beta the cognate ȝeme. In C gome has strong support, with ȝeme, kepe and hede as easier variants. Cf. Bx.10.206.
Of men & of wommen · many score þousandes
¶ Ȝowre wordes aren wonderful quod I thoBx.17.25: tho: Dropped by beta4 and F and by the majority of C mss. · which of ȝow is trewest
Abraham seith þat he seigh ·Bx.17.27: Puzzled by the alliterative pattern, CrWO punctuate after seiþ, with O having a second punctuation after seyȝ. holy þe Trinite
Thre persones in parcelles · departable fro other
And hath saued þat bileuedBx.17.30: bileued: G and alpha have the present, but beta is supported by most C mss. so · and sory for her synnes
What neded it þanne · a newe lawe to b[rynge]Bx.17.32: brynge: Alpha is supported by Cx against beta's begynne.
To byleue and louye · in o lorde almyȝty
And sitthe riȝt as my-self · so louye alleBx.17.37: alle: MCrF have alle þe. The C text is revised. peple
And riȝte so by þe Rode · resoun me sheweth
And welawey worse ȝit · for to loue a shrewe
[¶]Bx.17.49: ¶: Alpha resumes. The paraph is in alpha. In LM it has been missed at the top of the page. See note to ll. 38-48 and see Burrow (2010), 26. And as we wenten þusBx.17.49: þus: This is presumably the placement of the word in Bx, though CrF and Cx postpone it to the start of the b-verse. in þe weye · wordyng togyderes
Þanne seye we a samaritan · sittendeBx.17.50: sittende: This form of the present ppl. is shared by LRF, and so is probably that of Bx. All mss. generally have -yng(e). L has -ende just three times, -enge once, -ande twice, and all these forms occur from Bx.16.269. R has -ende on the same three occasions, -ande once, and -ynde (a south-west midland form) once, in l. 52 below. M and W never have these forms. See variants at ll. 51 and 212 below. For distribution see LALME i, dot maps 345-9. on a mule
Comynge fro a cuntre · þat men called Ierico
id est cristusBx.17.53: id est cristus: This is written in the margin by the main hand in LM, and at the end of the line in R. Hm has it in the margin in another hand.
He myȝte neither steppe ne stonde · ne stere fote ne handes
And as naked as a nedle · and none helpe abouteBx.17.58: aboute: Beta adds hym, as does the P family of C, but alpha is supported by the most reliable X family mss. It is easier to see why the word was added than how it might have been lost.
¶ Feith had first siȝte ofBx.17.59: of: Again the C mss. are divided, with the best of the X family supporting beta, while the others have alpha's on. hym · ac he flegh on syde
And nolde nouȝt neighen hym · by nyne londes lengthe
Dredfully by þis day as duk · doth fram þe faucoun
He liȝte adown of lyard · and ladde hym in his hande[s]Bx.17.66: handes: Alpha's rather more difficult plural is supported by Cx.
And parceyued bi his pous · he was in peril to deye
[And breyde to his boteles . and bothe he atamede]Bx.17.70: The line, the last of a series beginning And, is lost in beta. R's wording is supported by Cx, with breyde to revised as vnbokelede.
Enbawmed hym and bonde his hed · & in his lappe hym layde
Herberwed hym at an hostrye · and toBx.17.75: to: The beta reading; alpha is without it. The line is revised in Cx. þe hostellere called
And sayde haue kepe þis man · til I come fro þe iustes
For I may nouȝt lette quod þat leode · & lyarde he bistrydeth
¶ Faith folwethBx.17.82: folweth: The agreement of LR is generally sufficient to secure the Bx reading, and the alteration to the past tense in all other mss. is easily explained as influence of the surrounding verbs. Nevertheless, Cx in a revised line (RK.19.80) also has folewede. after faste · and fonded to mete hym
To ouertake hym and talke to hym · ar þei to toun come
And suwed þ[e]Bx.17.86: þe: So alpha, which is supported by the same a-verse in Cx against beta's þat. samaritan · þat was so ful of pite
And graunted hym to ben his gromeBx.17.87: grome: It would be logical to adopt alpha's gome as difficilior, and that might be right. And yet gome appears 18 times in Bx, and is not a word avoided by either alpha or beta, whereas grome is used only here, where the sense "servant, attendant" is particularly appropriate, especially in view of the contrast with "friend" and "fellow" in the next line. There is no Cx parallel. · gramercy he seyde
Ac þi frende and þi felawe quod he · þow fyndest me at nede
¶ And I thanked hym þo · and sithBx.17.89: sith: F adds þus, which KD adopt on metrical grounds (p. 173). But F lost elision alliteration on sith I by altering to sytthyn. The line is not in C. I hym tolde
[¶]Bx.17.92: ¶: The paraph has been omitted from L at the top of the page, but is supported by MWHm and alpha. Haue hem excused quod he · her help may litel auaille
May no medcyn [vnder]Bx.17.93: vnder: Alpha's reading is supported by Cx against beta's on. The readings are discussed by KD, pp. 111-12. molde · þe man to hele brynge
And be heBx.17.96: And be he: "And if he be"; supported by LWHm. The other beta mss. have And he be, where And means "If". Alpha loses he, necessary for the syntax. bathed in þat blode · baptised as it were
And þanne plastred with penaunce · and passiounBx.17.97: passioun: Alpha adds the definite article, creating a b-verse with two long dips. of þat babi
He shulde stonde and steppe · ac stalworth worth he neureBx.17.98: O has lost 17.98-354.
For went neuere wy in þis worlde [·] þorw þat wildernesse
¶ For outlaw[e is]Bx.17.104: outlawe is: Misled by the lack of an article, beta misreads as pl. outlawes and F adds an. It is, however, to be taken as a proper name. See notes to next line. in þe wode · and vnder banke lotyeth
And mayBx.17.105: may: The Bx reading is altered to pl. mowe(n) by MWHmCG following their misunderstanding of the previous line. Alpha naturally retains may, as does L, typically following his copy, and also Cr, for whom it was the standard sg. form. vch man se · and gode merke take[th]Bx.17.105: taketh: So alpha. Again it is likely that beta altered the sg. verb to pl. take, though it works very well as an infinitive.
For he halt hym hardyer on horse · þan he þat is a-foteBx.17.107: a-fote: L's form is also that of R.
For he seighBx.17.108: seigh: G and alpha have seith, but it makes poor sense. me þat am samaritan · suwen feith & his felaw
He was vnhardy þat harlotBx.17.110: vnhardy þat harlot: Alpha, copied blindly by R, skips from -har to har-, hence vnharlot. F makes sense of this with but an harlot. · and hudde hym in inferno
Þat he worth fettred þat feloune · fast with cheynes
¶ And þanne shal feith be forester here · and in þis fritth walkeBx.17.115-26: Twelve lines only in beta: alpha has skipped from paraph to paraph.
And kennen outBx.17.116: out: Lost in beta4. For kennen out, "guide out", see MED kennen v. (1), 1b (c). comune men · þat knoweth nouȝte þe contre
Hope shal lede hem forth with loue · as his lettre telleth
Tyl I haue salue for alle syke · and þanne shal I retourneBx.17.122: retourne: WHm have synonymous turne.
Þat craueth it or coueiteth it · and cryeth þere-after
As feith and his felawe · enfourmed me bothe
O god wyth al my good · and alle gomes after
Sette fasteBx.17.135: faste: WHm read fully. þi faith · and ferme bileue
Or heretykes with argumentz · þin honde þow h[e]mBx.17.139: hem: So alpha supported by Cx, with beta presumably reading him, corrected by WHm. shewe
For god is after an hande · yhere now and knowe it
Tyl hym louedBx.17.142: hym loued: Clearly the beta reading, though Hm alters to hym lykede, which is also the reading of Cx. On impersonal uses of personal verbs see Mustanoja (1960), 436. MED does not record impersonal use of louen, but cf. Bx.16.209, hym lyked & loued; the WCr reading in 13.333, me loueþ as against I louye in others. Alpha may have had the same reading as beta, with R misreading as hym leued and F altering to he lyþed, perhaps (very oddly) influenced by the collocation lithe and lust (MED lithen v. (3)). and lest · to vnlosen his fynger
And profre[d]Bx.17.143: profred: Beta has the infinitive, but alpha's past tense is supported by Cx. it forth as with a paume · to what place it sholde
Þe paume is purely þe hande · and profreth forth þe fyngres
Þe fyngres þat fre ben · to folde and to serue
Qui conceptus est de spiritu sancto &c
How he þat is holygoste · sire & sone preueth
Bothe welkneBx.17.165: welkne: CrHmGF add the definite article. and þe wynde · water and erthe
Heuene & helle · and al þat þere is InneBx.17.166: þere is Inne: L's word-order is supported by alpha.
That thre þinges bilongeth · in owre lorde of heuene
And aren serelepes by hem-self · asondry wereBx.17.169: were: All except L and alpha read were þei. The line is marked for correction in L, with the corrector perhaps supposing that a pronoun is missing. neure
So is þe fader a ful god · formeour and shepper
And al þe myȝte myd hym is [·]Bx.17.174: L omits the punctus, MCrHm punctuate after hym, but WC agree with alpha in putting it after is. in makyng of þynges
Otherwyse þan þe wrythenBx.17.180: wrythen: Alpha's misunderstanding writen is shared with three C mss. (RK.19.142). fuste [·] or werkmanschip of fyngres
For þe paume hath powere [·] to pu[l]tBx.17.181: pult: MED pilten, 3 "extend". R is supported by the X family of C, though as elsewhere most mss. alter to putte as beta does here. Cf. notes to Bx.1.128, 8.97, 11.167, 15.66. oute þeBx.17.181: þe (2): Beta reads alle þe, but alpha is supported by Cx. ioyntes
And to vnfolde þe fusteBx.17.182: fuste: Beta has folden fuste, but Cx supports alpha. Beta, skipping from fuste to fuste, then drops the b-verse of l. 182, l. 183, and the a-verse of l. 184. [· for hym it bilongethBx.17.182: for hym it bilongeth: R's form of the b-verse (lost in beta) is supported by Cx.
And receyue þat þe fyngres recheth · and refuse botheBx.17.183: bothe: Cx reads yf hym liketh.
Whan he feleth þe fuste · andBx.17.184: and: So alpha. Beta's at (as in beta4) links 182a with 184b. The line is revised in Cx.] þe fyngres wille
Þan is þe sire [or]Bx.17.186: or: Alpha is supported by Cx against beta's and. þe sone · & in þe same myȝte
Vnfolden or folden · my fuste & myn paume
Al is [it]Bx.17.189: it (1): Lost in beta. Alpha is supported by Cx, though several C mss. also omit it. but an hande · how-so I torne itBx.17.189: how-so I torne it: 189b and 190a are lost in beta mss. apart from LCr, skipping from hande to hande. The M corrector adds the missing words, which are in Cx.
Bx.17.191: Beta4 drops this line, and F loses 191b-196a through eyeskip. He may receyue riȝt nouȝte · resoun it sheweth
For þe fyngres þat folde shulde · and þe fuste make
¶ Were þe myddel of myn honde · ymaymed or ypersshedBx.17.195: ypersshed: "pierced" (R has ypersed). The other beta mss. have perisshed etc., which MED percen lists as a variant spelling, though it seems more probable that scribes took it to be perishen. Lines 195b-8a are not in Cx.
I shulde receyue riȝte nouȝte · of þat I reche myȝte
Ac þough my thombe & my fyngres [·] bothe were to-shullenBx.17.197: to-shullen: This is evidently the beta reading, with M altering to the easier to-swollen in agreement with Hm and alpha. MED ?toshellen, "shatter", cites no other instances.
Bothe meue and amende · þough alle my fyngres oke
Bi þis skil [he seide]Bx.17.201: he seide: Alpha is supported by alliteration and the reading of Cx against beta's me þynketh. · I se an euydence
And as wex and weyke · and [warme]Bx.17.213: warme: Alpha's reading, supported by alliteration and by Cx. fyre togyderes
Bx.17.216: The line is omitted by WHm. Fostren forth amonges folke · loue & bileue
With-oute leye or liȝte · þat þe macche brenneth
Bx.17.224-50: These 27 lines are omitted by alpha, skipping from paraph to paraph. The passage as in beta is almost identical in Cx. ¶ And as glowandeBx.17.224: glowande: The -ande form of the present ppl. is used only once elsewhere in L, pleyande Bx.16.269. See note to l. 50 above. gledes · gladieth nouȝte þis werkmen
GraunteBx.17.228: Graunte: L has the -eth ending of the present plural, but the infinitive (as in all other mss. and Cx) is required after doth. no grace · ne forȝifnesse of synnes
And þanne flaumbeth he as fyre [·] on fader & on filius
Ysekeles in euesesBx.17.234: eueses: The form is supported by LMCrHm. WCG have euesynges, which is the form in C mss. [·] þorw hete of þe sonne
So grace of þe holygoste · þe grete myȝte of þe trinite
Wil brennen & blasen · be þeiBx.17.239: be þei: Supported by Cx against all in MCr. to-gyderes
And solacen hem þat mayBx.17.240: may: Clearly an error for may not as in Cx (RK.19.203). In the absence of alpha, it is impossible to determine whether beta or Bx is responsible for the mistake. se · þat sitten in derkenesse
And if it suffice nouȝte for assetzBx.17.244: assetz: "reparation" (sg.). The form in CrHmC ending -eth is a variant spelling. · þat in suche a wille deyeth
So wil cryst of his curteisye · and men crye hym mercy
¶ Ac hew fyre at aBx.17.251: at a: Beta is supported by the X family of C, while the P family has of a. flynte · fowre hundreth wyntre
Bot þow haue [tacche]Bx.17.252: tacche: Alpha is supported by Cx, with confusion among some scribes. MED tach(e n. (2), "tinder", has no other citations of the word. to take it with · tondre or broches
To alle vnkynde creatures · cryst hym-self witnesseth
And purchace al þe pardoun [·] of Pampiloun & Rome
Ne brenne ne blase clere · for blowynge of vnkyndenesse
Poule þe apostle [·] preueth wherBx.17.265: wher: "whether". I lye
For-thy beth war ȝe wyse men · þat with þe wo[r]ldeBx.17.267: worlde: The corrector has noted the error in L. deleth
That riche ben & resoun knoweth · reuleth wel ȝowre soule
Ȝe brenne but ȝe blaseth nouȝte · [&]Bx.17.271: &: Alpha is supported by Cx against beta's omission of the word. þat is a blynde bekene
Non omnis qui dicit domine domine intrabit &c ·
Of his mete & hisBx.17.274: & his: So LMC. The reading is uncertain. The other beta copies have and of his, R has and, and F rewrites. C mss. are split between the two beta versions. moneye [·] to men that it neded
And gyueth ȝowre good to þat god · þat grace of ariseth
For þatBx.17.277: þat: WHmCG have þei þat (F þo þat). The P family of C also add a pronoun, with ȝe þat (RK.19.253). ben vnkynde to his · hope I none other
Þe grace of þe holy gooste · goddes owne kynde
For þat kynde dothe vnkynde fordoth ·Bx.17.281: LWHmCG punctuate after fordoth, R after deth, while MF punctuate at both points. as þese cursed theues
For þat þe holygoste hath to kepe · þo harlotes destroyeth
And who-[so]Bx.17.288: who-so: LW have who, perhaps representing the beta reading, with MCr reading who þat. However HmCG and alpha and Cx agree on who-so. morthereth a good man · me thynketh by myn Inwyt
Synnen aȝein þe seynt spirit · assenten to destruye
Bx.17.294: The line is omitted in beta3 and beta4. How myȝte he axe mercy · or any mercy hym helpe
Innocence is nexte god · & nyȝte and day it crieth
Thus veniaunce veniaunce [·] verrey charite asketh
¶ I pose I hadde synned so · and shulde now deye
And nowBx.17.305: now: Alpha's nouȝt is an obvious misreading, perhaps of archetypal nouthe. am sory þat [I]Bx.17.305: I: The placement of the pronoun is supported by Cx. However, it may not represent Bx. L omits it entirely, R postpones it to the b-verse, MWHm have it twice in the a-verse. It is possible that Bx omitted it, as in L. so · þe seint spirit agulte
¶ Ȝus seide þe Samaritan · so þow myȝte[st]Bx.17.308: so þow myȝtest: Construed with Þat in the next line: "in such a way that". Alpha is supported by Cx. Beta has so wel þow myȝte (subjunctive). repente
Þat riȝtwisnesse þorwBx.17.309: þorw: Beta is supported by Cx against alpha's to. repentance · to reuthe myȝte torne
Any creature [be]Bx.17.311: be: Alpha supported by Cx. Beta is presumably trying to smooth a difficult construction. coupable · aforBx.17.311: afor: This is apparently the beta reading, with MCr and alpha regressing to the commonplace bifore as elsewhere. See note to Bx.5.12 for other examples. Nevertheless the reading of Bx is doubtful, since Cx has bifore. a kynges iustice
Be raunsoned for his repentaunceBx.17.312: repentaunce: Beta, as in Cx. Lost by R (= alpha), with F repairing. · þere alle resoun hym dampneth
For þere þat partye pursueth · þe peleBx.17.313: pele: "accusation". So L + alpha, supported by Cx's apele. Cr has plee, with M altered to that reading; the other beta mss. have nonsensical peple. is so huge
Numquam dimittitur peccatum &c
Þus it fareth bi suche folke · þat falsely al her lyuesBx.17.317: lyues: Alpha has the distributive sg., perhaps rightly. The b-verse is rewritten in Cx.
Þat mercy in her mynde · may nauȝt þanne falle]
Nouȝt of þe nounpowereBx.17.322: nounpowere: "impotence", beta as Cx. Alpha mistakes it for nounper, "umpire". of god · þat he ne is myȝtful
Þan alle owre wykked werkes · as holiwrit telleth
Bx.17.327: The line is in beta only. It lacks b-verse alliteration. The revised line in Cx has suche as or suche þat for beta's hym þat. His sorwe is satisfaccioun [·] for hym þat may nouȝte paye
¶ Thre þinges þere ben · þat doth a man by strengthe
Her fiere fleethBx.17.331: fleeth: Beta has fleeth fro. Alpha, with the transitive verb as two lines above, is supported by the X family of C, while beta shares the reading with the P family. hyr · for fere of her tonge
And if his hous be vnhiled · and reyne on his bedde
Til he be blerenyedBx.17.337: blerenyed: The form (though misdivided in L) is supported by R's blereneyed. See MED blere-eied. or blynde · and [þe borre]Bx.17.337: þe borre: This is clearly the authorial reading, attested by Cx. MED burre n.(1), 2(b), "hoarsness", cites only this instance of the phrase. Beta's hors and alpha's cowȝhe avoid a difficult phrase, and F restores alliteration by adding a bold. in þe throte
¶ Þise thre þat I telle of · [þus ben]Bx.17.340: þus ben: So R. Beta has ben þus to, and F has þus ben to, with vnderstonde therefore infinitive rather than past ppl. In C the X family supports R, the P family supports F. vnderstonde
And þowgh it falle it fynt skiles · þ[at]Bx.17.343: þat: LHm read þe, but sense requires þat, which is the reading of Cx. frelete it made
And þat is liȝtly forȝeuen · and forȝeten bothe
Ben sikenessesBx.17.347: sikenesses: The form without -es in CrWCG may also be plural. & [other]Bx.17.347: other: The reading depends on R alone, with the support of Cx. sorwes · þat we suffren [ouȝte]Bx.17.347: ouȝte: Alpha is supported by the more reliable C mss., though many have beta's easier reading oft. Confusion is likely, since oft is a possible spelling of "ought" in south-western texts. See Jordan (1974), para. 196, remark, and para. 294.
As Powle þe Apostle · to þe peple tauȝte
And [be]Bx.17.351: be: So alpha and Cx, but apparently lost by beta, and added on grounds of sense by beta2. inpacient in here penaunce · pure resoun knoweth
Þat þei han causeBx.17.352: cause: Alpha repeats resoun from the previous line and loses the alliteration. to contrarie · by kynde of her sykenesse
¶ Ac þe smoke and þe smolder [·] þat smyt in owre eyghenBx.17.355: Here O resumes.
Þat isBx.17.356: is: R drops the verb and consequently drops the relative in the b-verse. Beta4 has Is for Þat is. LMF and beta2 are supported by Cx. coueityse and vnkyndenesse · þat quencheth goddes mercy
Þat he ne may louye & hym lyke · and leneBx.17.359: lene: Cr has leue; the others are ambiguous. of his herte
Alle manere menBx.17.361: men: Lost in MCr, which read of. · mercy & forȝifnesse
And louye hemBx.17.362: hem: MCr have hym. liche hym-self · and his lyf amende
And went away as wynde · and þere-with I awaked