Passus nonus de visione vt supra & primus de Dowel
In a castel þat kynde made · of foure kynnesBx.9.2: kynnes: Alpha's non-alliterative maner is not supported by AC (K.10.2, RK.10.219) þinges
Of erthe and eyre is itBx.9.3: is it: The order is reversed in HmOF. AC also vary. made · medled togideres
With wynde and with water · witterly enioyned
A proude pryker of Fraunce · prynceps huius mundi
And hath doBx.9.11: hath do: So LMR and GO, as in Ax and most C mss.; beta2 and CF have the simple present tense, as in some of the P family of C. hir with sireBx.9.11: sire: So AC, though omitted by alpha. dowel · isBx.9.11: is: Certainly Bx, though omitted by GOF and AC. duke of þisBx.9.11: þis: So AC. R has þe and F þat. marches
Dobet is hir damoisele · sire doweles douȝter
Anima þat lady · is ladde bi his leryngeBx.9.16: lerynge: The beta reading (though M is a correction), with the late texts CrG altering as usual to lerneing. But alpha also has lernyng. The better C mss. have leryng.
Sire sewel and saywel · and herewelsire herewelBx.9.20: herewel / sire herewel: Beta is supported by Ax, but alpha's addition of sire is also in Cx. Beta alliterates aaa/bb, alpha aaa/abb. þe hende
And sire godfrey gowel · gret lordesBx.9.22: gret lordes: Beta's plural is supported by AC against the sg. in alpha. for-sothe
Tyl kynde come or sende [·] to saue hir for euereBx.9.24: saue hir for euere: Agreement of beta and R confirms this as the Bx reading even if corrupt. F's kepen hire hym-selue is the AC reading, taken by F from his A ms.
¶ Kynde quod witte is aBx.9.26: a: Clearly established for Bx, though omitted by Cx and most A mss. KD record it as omitted in MR, but in both it is erased. Misunderstanding in Bx may have been caused, or further compounded, by reading creatour as creature (as in HmCO), though the spelling of the two words is often confused; see MED creatour and creature. creatour · of alle kynnes þinges
AndBx.9.26: And: Beta1 reads And þat is, supported by Ax. M reads And þis is. But L originally agreed with R before correcting to the beta1 reading. F rewrites the a-verse. Cx rewrites as The which is. þe gret god [·] þat gynnynge had neuere
Lorde of lyf and of lyȝte · of lysseBx.9.29: lysse: Alpha spoils alliteration with blisse, as does the corrector in M. The two late texts CrG adopt the easier reading to avoid the obsolete synonym. and of peyne
Ac man is hym mosteBx.9.31: hym moste: Alpha reverses, but beta's order is supported by AC. From here to the end of the passus C is rewritten or heavily revised. lyke · of marke and of schafte
For þorugh þe worde þat he spake · wexen forth bestesBx.9.32: F follows with three unique lines, the third of which is based on K.10.34, and omits Bx.9.33.
id est adamBx.9.34: id est adam: This gloss appears above the line in LM, and was incorporated into the text in CrHmF. It was therefore presumably a feature of the archetypal text. In R man is a correction in a second hand, perhaps indicating the scribe's confusion.
For he was synguler hym-self · andBx.9.36: and: R (= alpha?) omits, and F has he. The passage is not in AC. seyde faciamus
As who seithBx.9.37: seith: CrCGR have subjunctive sey. The line is not in AC. more mote here-to · þan my worde one
Þough he couth write neuere so wel · ȝif he had no penne
¶ And so it semeth bi hym · as þe bibleBx.9.42: bible: Beta4 has book. telleth
Þere he seyde [·] dixit & facta suntBx.9.43: dixit & facta sunt: (Psalm 148.5), repeating l. 33. L punctuates after dixit, but the punctuation after seyde in other mss. is more appropriate. F's faciamus hominem ad ymaginem &c (Gen.1.26), is from A (K.10.41a), where it follows the line equivalent to Bx.9.53. Cf. also Bx.9.36.
He moste worche with his worde · and his witte shewe
And of his grete grace [·] graunted hym blisse
And þat is lyf þat ay shal last · to al [his]Bx.9.49: his: Lost in beta though independently restored by W on grounds of sense (Cr adds our instead). Alpha is supported by Ax. lynage after
And þat he wrouȝt with werke · and with wordeBx.9.52: worde: Alpha's his word(es) is not supported by Ax. bothe
Ouer-al in mannes body · heBx.9.56: he: "she". See Introduction IV.1. walketh and wandreth
Ac Inwitte is in þe hed · and to the herte heBx.9.58: he: Omitted by CrR. loketh
What anima is lief or loth · he latBx.9.59: lat: The variants confirm this as a form of "leads". hir at his wille
For after þe grace of god · þe grettest is Inwitte
¶ Moche wo worth þat [wiȝte]Bx.9.61: wiȝte: Though not an unusual word, wiȝte is sporadically replaced by man (e.g. Bx.P.208 (R), 5.118 (F), 8.53 (Hm), 8.73 (O)). Alpha's alliterative pattern is aaa/xa (on /w/); beta's man gives the standard alliterative pattern aa/ax (on /m/). Cx does not help to establish the reading, but indicates dissatisfaction with whatever it was, reversing the b-verse: "And moche wo worth hym þat inwit myspeneth" (RK.10.175). · þat mys-reuleth his Inwitte
For þei seruen sathan · her souleBx.9.64: soule: The reading of LMR is enough to establish Bx against the more obvious plural in other mss. Cf. the distributive sg. again in the next line. shal he haue
And alle þat lyuen good lyf · aren likeBx.9.66: like: The agreement of LR supports this against like to in beta1. Both locutions are used elsewhere. M originally read vnto, corrected to to, and F has lyk after. god almiȝti
¶ Allas þat drynke shal for-do · þat god dere bouȝte
And doth god forsaken hem · þat shope [hem]Bx.9.69: shope hem: Beta's he shope gives an unmetrical b-verse (x x / x x / x), and the alpha reading is syntactically difficult enough to have generated it. However, KD, p. 143, ascribe the alpha reading to "parallelism induced by preceding forsaken hem". to his liknesse
Amen dico vobis nescio vos · & alibi et dimisi eos secundum desideria eorumBx.9.70: & alibi et dimisi eos secundum desideria eorum: This (Psalm 80.13) is not in alpha: in fact F drops both quotations. It finds it way into Cx at this point (RK.10.165a).
¶ Of þis matere I myȝte · make a longe tale
And þat I lye nouȝt of þatBx.9.78: of þat: Lost in alpha, and F further abbreviates to make sense of the omission. I lere þe · luke bereth witnesse
Bx.9.84: CO and alpha have a paraph.Shulde no crystene creature · crien atte ȝate
Ne faille payn neBx.9.85: Ne ... ne: Alpha has And ... and. potage · and prelates did as þei shulden
For alle þe moeblesBx.9.87: moebles: HmR nobles is a good example of coincidental error. on þis molde · and he amende it miȝte
¶ Allas þat a crestene creature · shal be vnkynde tilBx.9.88: til: So LWHmR against to in others. an other
As Iuwes þat ben owre lores-men · shameBx.9.92: shame: R (= alpha?) has to schame, with F altering to It is shame. to vs alle
And biddeth þe begger go · for his broke clothes
NeBx.9.100: Ne: Beta2 and F repeat He from the previous line. loueth nouȝt salamones sawes · þat sapience tauȝte
¶ Þat dredeth god he doth wel · þat dredeth hym for loueBx.9.102-03: Beta4 abbreviates these two lines and runs them together.
He doth best þat with-draweth hym · by day and bi nyȝte
Qui offendit in verboBx.9.106: verbo: This is probably Bx since it is the reading of LR and probably original M, corrected to vno in conformity with James 2.10. Beta1 also has vno, while F includes both words, vno verbo. The reading verbo is presumably Langland's adaptation of the quotation for the context, with some scribes reverting to the biblical text. (The line in L is marked for correction, perhaps significantly.) The quotation also occurs at Bx.11.326, where no ms. has verbo. While verbo must have been present in Bx, it may alternatively have been in the form of an interlinear gloss to vno. See Donaldson (1955), 198-9; Schmidt (1995), 379-80; Burrow (2003), 191-2. in omnibus est reus
And sitthe to spille speche · þat spyreBx.9.109: spyre: "offspring", as in L, beta4 and R, evidently puzzled other scribes. is of grace
Ne his gleman a gedelyng · a goer to tauernes
Inquirentes autem dominum non minuentur omni bono
For of her kynde þeiBx.9.119: þei: Alpha has the form he. See Introduction IV.1. come · þat confessoures ben nempned
Kynges and kniȝtes · kayseres and cherlesBx.9.120: cherles: F's clerkys is the A reading (K.10.137).
Þe wyf was made þe weyeBx.9.122: weye, "man, husband". Perhaps only F understood the word, for the usual spelling in L and elsewhere is wye. However C mss. regularly spell it wey(e). · for to help worche
And þus was wedloke ywrouȝt · with a mene personeBx.9.123b-26a: Alpha omits as a result of homoarchy (And þus was wedloke ywrouȝt 123a, 126a).
First bi þe faderes wille · and þe frendes conseille
In erthe þe heuene isBx.9.127: þe heuene is: The syntax of the a-verse, "the heaven (of wedlock) is on earth", puzzled alpha (þere / here heuen is) and CrW (and in heuene). M is altered to CrW's reading. · hym-self was þeBx.9.127: was þe: WCF have bereþ, attracted to the common collocation (Bx.2.39, 7.53, 7.93, etc.). witnesse
¶ Ac fals folke [and]Bx.9.128: and: Alpha is supported by Ax (K.10.139). faithlees · theues and lieres
Conceyued ben in yuelBx.9.130: yuel: Certainly the Bx reading, though Ax has alliterating cursid. tyme · as caym was on Eue
Concepit in doloreBx.9.132: in dolore: The beta reading is that of Cx (RK.10.212a) while alpha (and Hm by correction) have dolorem, as do some A mss. (K.10.150). The adaptation of scriptural dolorem (Job 15.35, Psalms 7.15) on the model of l. 130 in yuel tyme suggests scribal hypercorrection in alpha, as demonstrated directly in Hm. See Alford (1992), 61-2. et peperit iniquitatem &c
And nouȝt þi kynde with caymesBx.9.136: caymes: Alpha has caym, but the possessive is supported by Ax (K.10.158). · ycoupled ne yspoused
Tyl god wratthed forBx.9.139: for: The reading of L, beta2 and R; it is perhaps harder than MGOF with, which however has some support from Ax was wroþ wiþ (K.10.161). her werkis · and suche a worde seyde
Þiself and þi sones three · and sithen ȝowre wyues
Tyl fourty dayes be fulfilde · þat flode haue ywasshenBx.9.146: ywasshen: Beta is supported by AC against alpha's Iwasted.
¶ Bestes þat now ben · shulle banne þe tyme
Alle shal deye for his dedes · bi dales andBx.9.150: and: So M and R (=alpha?), supported by Ax and most C mss. against and bi in L and beta1. F drops the line. hulles
And þe foules þat fleeghen · for[th]Bx.9.151: forth: L has for. with other bestes
Excepte oneliche [·] of eche kynde a couple
Þat in þiBx.9.153: þi: R has þis (F omits the line). Ax has þe; Cx supports beta. shyngled shippe · shul ben ysaued
Þe gospel is here-ageine · in o degre I fynde
¶ Impe onBx.9.160: on: So beta, though Hm has vpon, C in and G off. Alpha has vp-on. The line is not in AC. an ellerne · and if þine apple be swete
Numquam colligitur de spinis vuasBx.9.164: colligitur de spinis vuas: So LM and R, therefore Bx. F has the Vulgate reading "colligunt de spinis uvas" (Matt. 7.19). Other scribes correct to a grammatical reading in which vua is subject of colligitur (beta2 and corrected M), or vuas object of colligimus (CGO). · nec de tribulis fycus
[¶]Bx.9.165: ¶: There is no paraph in L, but the line appears at the top of the leaf and the rubricator probably missed it. WHmR have a paraph and M a line break. And þus þourw cursed caym · cam care vppon erthe
For some as I se now · soth forto telle
As careful concepcioun [·] cometh of suche mariagesBx.9.170: of such mariages: R's to þat mariages presumably represents alpha, with F altering for sense.
As bifel of þeBx.9.171: þe: Beta is supported by Ax (K.10.185) against alpha's þat. folke · þat I bifore of tolde
id est boni
id est bonas
Bx.9.172-3: Both lines are omitted in alpha skipping from paraph to paraph (though R has an erased line after l. 171). They are not present in Ax but are transmitted to Cx (RK.10.254-5). See Hanna (1996), 217. ¶Bx.9.172: ¶: The paraph, in L alone, is perhaps not archetypal, yet eyeskip from paraph to paraph would account for the loss of ll. 172-3 in alpha. See Burrow (2010), 24-6. For goode shulde wedde goodeBx.9.172: goode (1) and (2): Glossed id est boni and id est bonas above the line in LM in the main hand, suggesting that this was a feature of beta. Although the line is not in alpha, we take this to be derived from Bx and include the glosses in the text. Cf. the gloss above l. 34. · þough hij no good hadde
¶ It is an oncomelyBx.9.174: an oncomely: L originally wrote an comely, but the line is noted for correction and then corrected. F also has an komely. M omitted the adjective altogether, then correcting a to an vncomely above the line. couple · bi crystBx.9.174: cryst: Alpha has Ihesus, but beta is supported by Ax and by the alliteration. as me þinketh
Or wedden any widwe · for welth of hir goodis
Þat neuere shal barne bere · but ifBx.9.177: if: As in LCrWCOR, though omitted by MHmG (F rewrites) and Ax. it be in armes
Many a peire sithen þe pestilence · han pliȝt h[e]mBx.9.178: hem: L's form hom is perhaps a miswriting; the scribe uses it nowhere else. togideres
In ialousye ioyeles · and ianglyng on beddeBx.9.180: The line is omitted by alpha, but is in AC.
Haue þei no children but chesteBx.9.181: cheste: "strife". Beta is supported by AC and alliteration against alpha's synonym iangelynge. · anBx.9.181: an: "and". choppyngBx.9.181: choppyng: "striking". So LCGO. CrW read clappyng and Hm carpynge. M is revised to chidynge, Alpha was probably even more confused, since R has gaying (sic), and F omits altogether. AC have choppes. hem bitwene
Bx.9.182-4: Beta's readings of these lines on the Dunmow flitch are supported by AC. Lines 182b-4 in RF are clearly scribal replacements. Perhaps they were damaged in alpha and were invented independently by R and F, but this is unprecedented behaviour for R. Furthermore, although they are independent, there are enough similarities to suggest a common original. 182b to fecche hom here bakon (R), & fecche þere bakoun (F) must be alpha, and it signals the disruption. 183 is quite different in the two mss., but similarities in 184 are þus þei lyuen in (R), lyven þus in (F), and þe deuel (R), þe develys (F). Bx.9.182: The paraph, in LC only (with a new line-group in M), interrupts the argument. And þough þei don hem to donmowe · but if þe deuel help
And but þei bothe be forsworne · þat bacoun þei tyne
¶ For-þi I conseille alle crystene · coueite nouȝt beBx.9.185: be: MCrR read to be. AC mss. vary similarly, but while Ax is perhaps the latter, Cx is certainly the former. wedded
Ac maydenes and maydenes · maccheBx.9.187: macche: Beta, supported by Ax. F's marye probably reflects dissatisfaction with alpha's synonym make (as in R), yet it is the reading of Cx. ȝow togideres
Widwe[r]s and widw[e]sBx.9.188: Widwers and widwes: Alpha's word-order has the support of Ax and the P family of C, though the X family has beta's order. · worcheth þe same
And þanne gete ȝe þe graceBx.9.190: þe grace: Alpha has grace. In the absence of a parallel in AC, this could be right, but þe is easily lost after ȝe. of god · and good ynogh to lyue with
Bx.9.191-9: These nine lines are omitted in alpha. They are not in Ax, but are transmitted to Cx. The cause of the omission is not obvious. KD, p. 68, suggest eyeskip from maner ... man 191 to man and womman 200, but this is unconvincing, especially as man 191 is their emendation and not Bx. More probably alpha jumped from the paraph at 191, since at the point of resumption alpha (but not beta) has a paraph. ¶ And euery maner seculer [·] þat may nouȝt continue
Wysly go wedde · and war hym fro synne
Dum sis vir fortis · ne des tua robora scortis
Bx.9.200: Alpha has a paraph.For in vntyme trewli · bitwene man & womman
Ne shulde no bourde on beddeBx.9.201: bourde on bedde: "fun in bed". Beta's reading is the basis of the RF variants, and is supported by AC bedbourd (K.10.203; RK.10.290). be · but if þei bothe were clene
Bothe of lyf andBx.9.202: and (1): L has & and in error. of soule · and in parfyte charitee
Þat ilke derne dede [·] do noman sholdeBx.9.203: sholde: Beta has ne sholde, but Cx supports alpha (though F is revised) without ne. A mss. are divided. Beta needs to lengthen the b-verse as a result of placing the punctuation after do rather than before it. See Smith (2008), 90-1.
And if þei leden þus her lyf · it likedBx.9.204: liked: The LR reading, supported by F's wold lyke against the present tense of other mss. The line is not in AC. god almiȝti
Bonum est vt vnusquisque vxorem suam habeat propter fornicacionemBx.9.206: propter fornicacionem: Omitted in alpha, but beta is supported by Cx.
¶Bx.9.207: ¶: The paraph is in LWHm, with a new line-group in M. In R the line is at the foot of the page. And þei þat oþergatis ben geten · for gedelynges ben holden
A[nd]Bx.9.208: And: Alpha is supported by AC against beta's As. false folke fondelynges · faitoures and lyars
And after her deth-day · shulle dwelle with þe sameBx.9.212: þe same: Beta is supported by Ax. R (= alpha?) repeats þe deuel from the previous line, with F, here Mayster, varying the expression. Cx has instead dwellen shollen in helle.
Bx.9.214-17: Lines omitted in alpha, skipping from Dowel to dowel and from paraph to paraph. Once again they are not in Ax, but are transmitted to Cx. Compare the same situation in Bx.9.172-3 and 191-9. In all three instances skipped paraphs are involved. ¶ Dowel my frende is ·Bx.9.214: Scribes have understandable uncertainty about the placing of the mid-line punctus. to don as lawe techeth
To ȝiuen and to ȝemen · bothe ȝonge and olde
¶ And [þus is] dowelBx.9.218: And þus is dowel: Alpha's word-order is supported by Cx. Ax has Þanne is dowel. to drede god · and dobet to suffre
And þat is wikked wille · þat many werkeBx.9.220: werke: Beta's distributive sg. is supported by Ax. shendeth