Passus undecimus

Thanne scripture scorned me · and a skile tolde
And lakked me in latyne · and liȝte by me sheBx.11.2: she: Scripture is female in Bx.10.160-1. Alpha reads he, either as the feminine pronoun or taking Scripture as a male personification. Cx omits the pronoun (RK.11.162). Though she is clearly female in l. 4, in l. 110 Scripture is referred to as he by GOCF. sette
And seyde multi multa sciunt [·]Bx.11.3: MHmO and alpha treat this as a standard alliterative line with medial punctuation. & seipsos nesciunt
Þo wepte I for woBx.11.4: wo: Supported by alliteration and Cx against alpha's sorwe. · and wratth of her speche
And in a wynkyng wratth · wex [til] I [was]Bx.11.5: til I was: R's reading is taken to be alpha and Bx. In the a-verse the form wratth is pretty clearly a Bx error (prompted by the previous line) for warth, "entered, fell", where Cx has I warth (RK.11.165). We assume that beta rewrote the b-verse, supposing that the a-verse meant something like "in an angry sleepiness" or "in a sleepy anger". The b-verse in Cx is quite different. F rewrote the whole line and added another five, avoiding the dream within a dream by waking Will up and sending him swiftly back to sleep again. aslepe
A merueillouse meteles · mette me þanneBx.11.6: mette me þanne: Alpha's me tydde to dreme has less satisfactory alliteration. Surprisingly, the verb tiden is never used in the poem.
[For]Bx.11.7: For: Alpha's reading is confirmed by Cx (RK.11.166). I was rauisshed riȝt þere · andBx.11.7: and: R's reading for, though not supported by F, may be Bx, since it is paralleled by the X family of C. The P family has no conjunction. fortune me fette
And in-to þe londe of longynge · alloneBx.11.8: allone: Beta and F are supported by the X family of C, although the P family as well as two of the X family (YU) support R's & loue. For the collocation of love and longing, see MED longing(e (1) (b) and (c). Either reading could easily have given rise to the other. she me brouȝte
And in a myroure þat hiȝt mydlerd · she mad me to biholde
Sitthen she sayde to me · here myȝtow se wondres
And knowe þat þow coueytest · and come þer-to par-aunter
¶ Þanne hadde fortune folwyng hir [·] two faire damoyseles
Concupiscencia carnis · men called þe elder mayde
And coueytise of eyes · ycalled was þat oþer
Pryde of parfyte lyuynge · pursued hem bothe
And badde me for my contenaunce · acounte clergye liȝte
Concupiscencia carnis · colled me aboute þe nekke
And seyde þow art ȝonge and ȝepe · and hast ȝeres ynowe
For to lyue longe · and ladyes to louye
And in þis myroure þow myȝte se · myrthesBx.11.20: myrthes: Beta2's myȝtes has no support from Cx. ful manye
Þat leden þe wil to lykynge · al þi lyf-tyme
Bx.11.22: : The paraph is in beta and F. Þe secounde seide þe same · I shal suwe þi wille
Til þow be a lorde and haue londe · leten þe I nelle
Þat I ne shal folwe þi felawship · if fortune it lyke
He shal fynde me his frende · quod fortune þer-after
Þe freke þat folwedBx.11.26: folwed: Alpha's present tense might equally represent Bx. C has a different line, with present-tense liketh. my wille · failled neuere blisse
¶ Thanne was þere one þat hiȝte elde [·] þat heuy was of chere
Man quod he if I mete with þe · bi Marie of heuene
Þow shalt fynde fortune þe faille ·Bx.11.29: R places the punctuation after fortune, thus alliterating aa/ax rather than aaa/xx. at þi moste nede
And concupiscencia carnis · clene þe forsake
Bitterliche shaltow banne þanne · bothe dayes and niȝtes
Coueytise of eyghe · þat euere þow hir knewe
And pryde of parfyt lyuynge · to moche peril þe brynge
¶ Ȝee recche þe neuere quod recchelesnes · stode forth in ragged clothes
Folwe forth þat fortune wole · þow hast wel fer t[o]Bx.11.35: to: MHmCGO and alpha, supported by Cx, against til in LCrW. Cf. Bx.9.88, 11.83. elde
A man may stoupe tymesBx.11.36: tymes: LMHmR have the plural, presumably representing Bx, though the regular adverbial expression is time enough, "soon enough"; see MED time n.(2), 8c(c). The other B mss. and most C mss. have the regular singular. See Adams (2000), 179. ynow · whan he shal tyne þe croune
Homo proponit quod a poete [þo]Bx.11.37: þo: Alpha is supported by Cx (RK.11.303). · and plato he hyght
And deus disponit quod he · lat god done his wille
If trewthe wil witnesse it be wel do · fortune to folwe
Concupiscencia carnis · ne coueityse of eyes
Ne shal nouȝt greue þe gretlyBx.11.41: gretly: So beta and Cx, but it is hard to explain why alpha might have replaced it with graythly, "quickly, readily". Yet the only other occurrence of graythely in B is Bx.18.298, where it causes the scribes no difficulty. · ne bigyle þe but þow wolt
[¶]Bx.11.42: : The paraph is in WHmC and alpha, with a line-space in M. In L, which lacks the usual line-space, the scribe's paraph marker is unrubricated. Ȝee farewel phippe quod fauntelte [·] and forth gan me drawe
Til concupiscencia carnis · acorded [til]Bx.11.43: til: In beta the verb acorded is used most unusually with direct object; alpha has the prepositions til (R) and with (F). For acord with cf. Bx.20.304, 354. Cx supports R. alle my werkes
¶ Allas eye quod elde · and holynesse bothe
Þat witte shal torne to wrecchednesse · for wille to haue his lykyng
Bx.11.46-9: Omitted by alpha, an easy case of eye-skip, with the same a-verse in ll. 46 and 50, both lines beginning with a paraph. F then also omits ll. 50-1. It is worth noting that Bx.11.47-52 are absent from C, and this may also be attributable to eye-skip. ¶ Coueityse of eyghes · conforted me anon after
And folwed me fourty wynter · and a fyfte more
Þat of dowel ne dobet · no deyntee me neBx.11.48: ne (2): LM only (alpha is absent). þouȝte
I had no lykynge leue me if þeBx.11.49: þe: LMW; Hm has thu and Cr has ye. leste · of hem auȝte to knowe
Bx.11.50: : The paraph is in LR only (F is absent). Coueytyse of eyes · cam ofter inBx.11.50: in: GOR have in my. The line is not in Cx. mynde
Þan dowel or dobet [·] amonge my dedes alle
Coueytise of eyes [·] conforted me ofte
And seyde haue no conscience [·] how þow come to gode
Go confesse [þe]Bx.11.54: þe: LF omit, but supported by Cx. to sum frere · and shewe hym þi synnes
For whiles fortune is þi frende · Freres wil þe louye
And fe[tt]eBx.11.56: fette: R (= alpha) with F misreading as sette. MED fetten notes that "in the ME and Early MnE period fetten is gradually replaced by fecchen", whence beta's reading. Cx has instead festene (RK.12.8). At Bx.18.344 R has fecchest for Bx fettest. þe to her fraternite · and for þe biseke
To her priour prouyncial · a pardoun forto haue
And preyen for þe pol bi pol · ȝif þow be peccuniosus
[P]enaBx.11.59: Pena: Alpha is supported by Cx. Presumably beta's Set pena is an attempt to link the quotation more closely to the argument. Alford (1992), 72. pecuniar[i]a non sufficit pro spiritualibus delictis
¶ By wissynge of þis wenche I [dede]Bx.11.60: dede: The choice of reading is difficult. R is supported by Cx. We therefore suppose that beta corrupted to wrouȝte by alliterative attraction, while F coincidentally included wrowhte in a rewritten a-verse, again prompted by the alliteration. · here wordes were so swete
Tyl I forȝat ȝouthe · and ȝarnBx.11.61: ȝarn: "ran", the form regularly used for alliteration, which HmR lose with ran. Cf. Bx.3.215 and note. in-to elde
And þanne was fortune my foo · for al hir faire biheste
And pouerte pursued me · and put me lowe
And þo fonde I þe Frere aferde · and flyttynge bothe
Aȝeines owre firste forward · for I seyde I nolde
Be buryed at her hous · but at my parissh cherche
For I herde onys · how conscience it tolde
Þat þere a man were crystened · by kynde he shulde be buryed
Or where he were parissheneBx.11.69: parisshene: Alpha adds the indefinite article. There is no parallel in C. · riȝt þere he shulde be grauen
And for I seyde þus to freres · a fool þei me helden
And loued me þe lasse [·] for my lele speche
Ac ȝet I cryed on my confessoure [·] þat helde hym-self so kunnyng
By my feith frere quod I · ȝe faren lyke þise woweres
Þat wedde none wydwes · but forto welde here godis
Riȝte so by þe Rode · rouȝte ȝe neuere
Where my body were buryed · bi so ȝe hadde my siluer
Ich haue moche merueille of ȝow · and so hath many anotherBx.11.77: another: R's other has support from CrCGO. The line is not in C, and is rejected by KD.
Why ȝowre couent coueyteth · to confesse and to burye
Rather þan to baptise barnes · þat ben catekumelynges
Baptizyng and burying · bothe ben ful nedeful
Ac moche more merytorie · me þynke[th]Bx.11.81: þynketh: Only L has þynke. it is to baptize
For a baptized man ·Bx.11.82: L's placing of the punctuation after man has the support of MCR, suggesting a Bx error. Beta2 (CrWHm) and OF correct by placing it after may. may as maistres telleth
Þorugh contricioun come · toBx.11.83: to: R has til, and F has into. þe heigh heuene Sola contricio &cBx.11.83: &c: HmCGO extend the "common saying" (Alford (1992), 72) by adding delet peccatum. In beta (LMCrWHmO) the Latin follows the English on the same line, either as part of the line (MCr) or separated from the English with a space, in L (boxed in red), W (boxed in red preceded by // to indicate an omission), Hm (with caret to indicate omission), and O (which commonly sets Latin quotations in the right margin, underlined in red). In alpha the Latin is given a separate line. Compare l. 85, where it is clear that Bx treats the Latin as the first part of the line. See note to 11.85. ·
¶ Ac a barne with-oute bapteme · may nouȝt so be saued
Nisi quis renatus fueritBx.11.85: CGO extend the quotation (from John 3.5) but LMCrWR show that Bx took the four Latin words as the start of the English line. Cf. 11.83. loke ȝe lettred men · whether I lye or do nouȝte
Bx.11.86: Hm and F have a paraph and M has a line-space.And lewte [þo]Bx.11.86: þo: Alpha's reading has some support from the parallel line in Cx: And thenne louhe leaute for y loured on þe frere (RK.12.23). loked on me · and I loured after
Bx.11.87: A paraph would be appropriate here to mark the beginning of direct speech, but it is supported by WR only. In the next line it has stronger support from WHm and alpha, and in l. 89 from W and alpha. W is much more regular than other scribes in paragraphing speech, and his testimony therefore carries less weight.Wherfore lourestow quod lewte · and loked on me harde
Ȝif I durste quod I amonges men · þis meteles auowe
Ȝe bi peter and bi poule quod he · and takeBx.11.89: take: The imperative is supported by the crucial witnesses LMR, as well as G. Others have the easier past tense. See Adams (2000), 179. hem bothe to witnesse
Non oderis fratres secrete in corde tuo · set publice argue illos
¶ Þei wol alleggen also quod I · and by þe gospel preuen
Nolite iudicare quemquam ·
¶ And wher-of serueth lawe quod lewteBx.11.93: lewte: Cx does not support R's addition of þanne. · if no lyf vndertoke it
Falsenesse ne faytrye · for sumwhat þe apostle seyde
Non oderis fratremBx.11.95: All scribes except F incorporate the Latin quotation into the line. Cf. 11.85. · and in þe sauter also seithe dauid þe prophete
Existimasti inique quod ero tui similis &c
It is licitum for lewed men · to segge þe sothe
If hem lyketh and leste · eche a lawe it graunteth
Excepte parsones and prestes · and prelates of holycherche
It falleth nouȝte for þat folke · no tales to telle
Þough þe tale were trewe · and it touched synne
¶ ÞingeBx.11.102: Þinge: Alpha may have started the line with A (F) or Ac (R), but neither is supported by Cx. þat al þe worlde wote · wherfore shuldestow spare
AndBx.11.103: And: Clearly the Bx reading, though probably an error for To as in WHm and also Cx. reden it in Retoryke · to arate dedly synne
Ac beBx.11.104: be: HmF add thu, as does the P family of C. neuere-more þe fyrste · þe defaute to blame
Þouȝe þow se yuel sey it nouȝte fyrste · be sorye it nere amended
No þinge þat is pryue · publice þow it neuere
Neyther for loue laudeBx.11.107: laude: R has lakke, anticipating the b-verse, while F rewrites. Cx has labbe it out, "blurt it out", for laude it nouȝt. it nouȝt · ne lakke it for enuye
Parum lauda vitupera parcius
¶ He seith sothe quod scripture þo · and skipte an heigh & preched
Ac þe matere þat she meued · if lewed men it kneweBx.11.110: if lewed men it knewe: R's b-verse lewed men it knowe probably represents corruption in alpha (cf. F). Cx supports beta.
Þe lasse as I leue · louyen it þei wolde
[Þe bileue [of] þat lordBx.11.112: of þat lord: The line is recorded only in alpha, though evidently the a-verse has been corrupted, perhaps simply by omitting of as in R. Cx reads of oure lord (RK.12.44). . þat lettred men techeth]
¶ This was her teme and her tyxte · I toke ful gode hede
Multi to a maungerye · and to þe mete were sompned
And whan þe peple was plenere comen · þe porter vnpynned þe ȝate
And plukked in pauci priueliche · and lete þe remenaunt go rowme
¶ Al for tene of her tyxte · trembled myn herte
And in a were gan I waxe · and with my-self to dispute
Whether I were chosen or nouȝt chosen · on holicherche I þouȝte
Þat vnderfonge me atte fonte · for one of goddis chosne
For cryste cleped vs alle · come if we wolde
Sarasenes and scismatikes · and so he dyd þe iewes
O vos omnes scicientesBx.11.123: scicientes: Evidently the Bx (and probably Cx) spelling for the more formally correct sicientes. venite &c
And badde hem souke for synne · sa[ue]Bx.11.124: saue: Beta has saufly, but Alpha's word is supported by the X family of C; the P family has sauete in a rewritten b-verse. Kane (2005) glosses saue RK.12.56 as "decoction of herbs taken internally fig.". See MED save n.(1). at his breste
And drynke bote for bale · brouke it who-so myȝte
¶ Þanne may alle crystene come quod I · and cleyme þere entre
By þe blode þatBx.11.127: þat: G, Alpha and a few C mss. omit. he bouȝte vs with · and þorugh baptesme after
Qui crediderit & baptizatus fuerit &c
For þough a crystene man coueyted · his crystenedome to reneyeBx.11.129: reneye: Beta, supported by sense and by Cx against alpha's receyue.
Riȝtfulliche to renye · no resoun it wolde
¶ For may no cherle chartre make · ne his catel selle
With-outen leue of his lorde · no lawe wil it graunte
Ac he may renne in arrerage · and rowmeBx.11.133: rowme: R repeats renne; F has rayke. Cx supports the verb as in beta, and the omission of so as in alpha, added in beta to fill out a short line. fro home
And as a reneyed caityf [·] reccheleslyBx.11.134: recchelesly: The L corrector assumes omission of a verb, and supplies gon, while Beta2 (CrWHm) repeats rennen from the previous line. Alpha has corrupted the a-verse (R has he renneth for a reneyed), and it appears likely that Cx has to make sense of a corrupted exemplar, since the line becomes As a recheles caytyf or reneyed as hit semeth (RK.12.65). aboute
Ac Resoun shal rekne with hym · Bx.11.135-6: As a result of eyeskip on mid-line with hym, beta drops 135b and 136a. Alpha is supported by Cx.[and rebuken hym at þe laste
And conscience a-counte with hym ·] and casten hym in arrerage
And putten [hym]Bx.11.137: hym: The omission in LMC suggests that the pronoun may have been lost in beta. It is supported by both alpha and Cx. after inBx.11.137: in: LM and beta2 (CrWHm) have in a, but the article is not in alpha or Cx. prisone · in purgatorie to brenne
[And]Bx.11.138: And: Beta drops And, but alpha is supported by the X family of C. The P family reorders the a-verse. for his arrerages rewarden hym þere · [riȝte]Bx.11.138: riȝte: R supplies the Bx reading. The alliterating adverb is supported by Cx. F rewrites the b-verse. to þe daye of dome
But if contricioun w[o]lBx.11.139: wol: LR give strong support for wel, which could be right ("happily", etc.). More probably both scribes mistake wol come for a spelling of welcome (see MED), and in L the line is marked for correction. Cx revises the line. come · and crye bi his lyue
Mercy for his mysdedes · with mouth orBx.11.140: or: Well supported for Bx, though and in WHmF is also the reading of Cx. with herte
¶ Þat is soth seyde scripture [·] may no synne lette
Mercy alle toBx.11.142: alle to: Alpha's may al was perhaps the basis for Cx, which has the a-verse Mercy þat he ne may al amende. However, the syntax is lette to amende "prevent from amending". amende · and mekenesse hir folweBx.11.142: and mekenesse hir folwe: R (= alpha?) muddles through with þat mekenesse he folweth, but Cx supports the b-verse as in beta.
For þey beth as owre bokes telleth · aboue goddes werkes
Misericordia eius super omnia opera eius
¶ Ȝee baw for bokes quod one · was broken oute of helle
Hiȝte troianus had ben a trewe knyȝte · toke witnesse at a pope
How he was ded and dampned · to dwellen in pyne
For an vncristene creature [·] clerkis wyten þe sothe
Þat al þe clergye vnder cryste · miȝteBx.11.149: miȝte: Evidently Bx lost ne, required for sense and supplied by beta2 (CrWHm), as in Cx (RK.12.79). me cracche fro helle
But onliche loue and leaute · [of]Bx.11.150: of: So alpha, against beta's and. The sense is supported by Cx as in my lawes demynge, which also sets Trajan's love and integrity in relation to his justice. my lawful domes
¶ Gregorie wist þis wel · and wilned to my soule
Sauacioun for [þe]Bx.11.152: þe: Alpha, dropped by beta, but supported by Cx. sothenesse · þat he seigh inBx.11.152: seigh in: Beta, supported by Cx, against R's seith of. my werkes
And after þat he wepte · and wilned me were graunted
Grace wyth-outen any bede-byddynge · his bone was vnderfonge
And I saued as ȝe mayBx.11.155: may: Probably R's now is a misreading of an alpha form mowe. se · with-oute syngyng of masses
ByBx.11.156: By: Probably dropped by alpha, with F patching. Alpha may have stumbled over the non-expression of the subject pronoun "that" in the next line (where F again patches). loue and by lernyng [·] of my lyuyng in treuthe
Brouȝte me fro bitter peyne · þere no biddyng myȝte
¶ Lo ȝe lordes what leute did · by an Emperoure of Rome
Þat was an vncrystene creature · as clerkes fyndeth in bokes
Nouȝt þorw preyere of a pope · but for his pure treuthe
Was þat sarasene saued · as seynt Gregorie bereth witnesse
Wel ouȝte ȝeBx.11.162: ȝe: Beta, supported by Cx, against alpha's þe. lordes þat lawes kepe · þis lessoun to haue in mynde
And on troianus treuth to thenke · and do treuthe to þe peple
Bx.11.164-74: Beta omits these 11 lines, perhaps due to eyeskip from paraph to paraph. KD p. 66 suggest an implausible series of homeoarchy. 11.172 is in R alone. The passage is not in C, although Bx.11.171-2 lies behind RK.12.97. R's spellings have been altered to those of L. [¶ Þis matir is merke for mani of ȝow · ac men of holy cherche
Þe legend[a]Bx.11.165: legenda: RF write legende, but cf. Bx.11.229 and 15.280. sanctorum ȝow lereth · more larger þan I ȝow telle
Ac þus lele loue · and lyuynge in treuthe
PulteBx.11.167: Pulte: From pilten (cf. RK.11.206) rather than pullen, pace Kane (2005). Cf. Bx.1.128, 15.66. oute of pyne · a paynym of rome
Yblessed be treuthe · þat so brakBx.11.168: so brak: F reverses the word-order. helle ȝates
And saued þe sarasyn · fram sathanas and his power
Þere no clergie ne couthe · ne konnynge of lawes
Loue and leute [·] is a lele science
For þat is þe boke blessede · of blisse and of ioye
God wrouȝt it and wrot hit · with his oneBx.11.173: one: R's on is his usual form of "one". F has owne. fynger
And toke it moyses vpon þe mount · alle men toBx.11.174: to: F supplies an object it, perhaps rightly. lere]
[¶]Bx.11.175: : Since we suppose that the beta scribe skipped from one paraph to another, we insert the paraph supplied only in R and Hm. In L the line is at the top of the leaf.Lawe with-outen loue quod troianus [·] leye þere a bene
Or any science vnder sonne · þe seuene artz and alle
ButBx.11.177: But: In L the corrector has added if, but it is without support. þei ben lerned for owre lordes loue · loste is alle þe tyme
For no cause to cacche siluer þere-by · ne to be called a mayster
But al for loue of owre lorde · and þe bet to loue þe peple
For seynte Iohan seyde it · and soth aren his wordes
Qui non diligit manet in morte
Bx.11.182: : The paraph is in beta only. In R the line is at the top of the page. Who-so loueth nouȝte leue me · he lyueth in deth-deyinge
And þat alle manere men · enemys and frendes
Louen her eyther other · and lene hem as her-selue
Who-soBx.11.185: Who-so: Alpha begins For ho-so, obscuring the parallel with l. 182. lenethBx.11.185: leneth: Alpha's leueth (also Cr) is not approprate to the argument that follows. nouȝte he loueth nouȝte · [oure lorde]Bx.11.185: oure lorde: The reading is very uncertain since it is attested by R alone. Possibly R altered Bx god for the sake of alliteration, but that would be very untypical behaviour. More probably beta read god, coincidentally adopted by F. These lines are not in C. Perhaps reflecting the lack of b-verse alliteration with the reading god, all scribes except W, beta4 and R punctuate after each nouȝte. wote þe sothe
And comaundethBx.11.186: comaundeth: O and Alpha have the past tense. Either alpha or beta could be right. eche creature · to confourme hym to louye
And souereynelyche pore poeple · and here ennemys after
For hem þat hateth vs · is owre meryte to louye
And pore peple to plese · here prayeres may vs helpe
For owre ioye and owre [Iuwel]Bx.11.190: Iuwel: KD's conjecture, proposed on p. 184, is persuasive as the reading of Bx, and fits the alliteration on /j/. R's nonsensical euel can hardly have been prompted by the commonplace hele, helthe of beta and F, but is more likely to be a misinterpretation of an alpha spelling iuel. If so, then beta and F misunderstood or objected to the rare use of "jewel" to refer to Christ. The closest parallel is Pearl 795; cf. also Bx.18.447. · IhesuBx.11.190: Ihesu: Alpha has is ihesu, but Ihesu is subject of pursueth in the next line. cryst of heuene
In a pore mannes apparaille · pursueth vs euere
And loketh on vs in her liknesse · and þat with louely chere
To knowen vs by owre kynde herte · and castyng of owre eyen
Wheþer we loue þe lordes here · byfor owreBx.11.194: owre: Strong support from LMR and CO, against þe in beta2 and GF. lorde of blisse
Bx.11.195: : Only LR have a paraph. And exciteth vs bi þe euangelye · þat when we maken festes
We shulde nouȝte clepe owre kynne þer-to · ne none kynnes richeBx.11.196: kynnes riche: Probably "rich of any sort", translating Luke 14.12 "vicinos divites". R may have confused with kine-riche, "kingdom", or interpreted as "rich kin", following kyn (Luke's "cognatos") in the a-verse. Cf. also GO, and F's apparent difficulty with the b-verse. It is noteworthy that Cx, which has knyhtes in the a-verse, has none kyne ryche, "no rich kin" in the b-verse (RK.12.103).
Cum facitis conuiuia nolite inuitare amicos
Ac calleth þe careful þer-to [·] þe croked and þe pore
For ȝowre frendes wil feden ȝow · and fonde ȝow to quite
Ȝowre festynge and ȝowre faire ȝifteBx.11.200: ȝifte: Clearly beta, though beta4 (CGO) has plural, as does alpha. · vche frende quyteth so other
¶ Ac for þe pore I shal paye · and pure wel quyte her trauaille
Þat ȝiueth hem mete or moneye · and loueth hem for my sake
[¶ God myȝte riche haue made . alle men if he wolde]Bx.11.203: God myȝte riche haue made alle: We suppose that F represents alpha and also Bx, in a line that is lost in beta. We take F's a as "have". R is defective in sense, though KD's emendation based on R is attractive: "Alle myȝte god haue maad riche men if he wolde". Lines 202-6 are not in C.
[Ac]Bx.11.204: Ac: So R. Having lost the previous line, beta drops the co-ordinating conjunction. F as usual alters to But. for þe best ben somme riche · and somme beggers and pore
For alle are we crystes creatures · and of his coffres riche
AndBx.11.206: And: R has As, but it is not supported by Cx. bretheren as of o blode · as wel beggares as erles
For [at]Bx.11.207: at: Alpha is supported by Cx (RK.12.109). caluarye of crystes blode · crystenedome gan sprynge
And blody bretheren we bycome þere · of o body ywonne
As quasi modo geniti · and gentil men vche one
No beggere ne boye amonges vs · but if it synne made
Qui facit peccatum seruus est peccati &c
¶ In þe olde lawe · as [þe]Bx.11.212: þe (2): Alpha is supported by Cx. Beta is probably filling out a short b-verse. In Cx, this whole line becomes the a-verse, and the next line the b-verse, dropping vchone. lettre telleth
Mennes sones · men called vs vchone
Of adames issue and Eue · ay til god-man deyde
And after his resurreccioun · Redemptor was his name
And we his bretheren þourgh hym ybouȝt · bothe riche and pore
For-þi loue we as leue [children]Bx.11.217: children: Alpha, supported by Cx; beta repeats bretheren from the previous line. shalBx.11.217: shal: Strong support for Bx from all except WCrF, which omit as in Cx. · and vche man laughe vpBx.11.217: vp: LMCR, against on GOF and of WHm. The b-verse is revised in Cx. other
And of þat eche man may forbere · amende þere it nedeth
And euery man helpe otherBx.11.219: other: Alpha adds here, but Cx supports beta. · for hennes shal we alle
Alter alterius onera portate
And be we nouȝte vnkynde of owre catel · ne of owre kunnynge neyther
For noetBx.11.222: noet: Supported by LMCOR against woot in others. This passage to l. 237 is not in C. no man how neighe it is · to be ynome fro bothe
For-þi lakke no lyf other · þough he more latyne knowe
Ne vnder-nym nouȝte foule · for is none with-oute fauteBx.11.224: faute: So LMCrCGO. Curiously the word is only used once in the three versions, at Bx.10.111 (where F reads defawte). In contrast, defaute, as in WHm and alpha, is common, though generally in the senses "lack, hardship". We follow copy-text.
For what-euere clerkis carpe [·] of crystenedome or elles
Cryst to a comune woman seyde · in comune at a feste
Þat fides sua shulde sauen hir [·] and saluen hir of alleBx.11.227: alle: So LCrHmR; MGC read hire, while WOF omit. synnes
¶ Þanne is byleue a lele helpe [·] aboue logyke or lawe
Of logyke ne of lawe [·] in legenda sanctorum
Is litel allowaunce madeBx.11.230: litel allowaunce made: Although we adopt beta's a-verse, alpha's phrase litel alowed has a parallel in Bx.14.335 For lordes alloweth hym litel. · but ifBx.11.230: if: Omitted by G and alpha. There are plenty of parallels for either reading. bileue hem helpe
For it is ouerlonge ar logyke · any lessoun assoille
And lawe is loth to louye · but if he lacche syluer
Bothe logyke and lawe · þat loueth nouȝte to lye
I conseille alle crysteneBx.11.234: crystene: For independent scribal addition of men in this a-verse, cf. Bx.9.185. The a-verse is repeated at Bx.7.211 and 15.360. · cleue nouȝte þer-on to sore
For sum wordes I fynde ywryten · were of faithes techyng
Þat saued synful men · as seynt Iohan bereth wytnesse
Eadem mensura qua mensi fueritis remecietur vobis
Bx.11.238: : The paraph is in beta and F. For-þi lerne we þe lawe of loue · as owre lorde tauȝte
And as seynte Gregory seide · for mannes soule helthe
Melius est scrutari scelera nostra · quam naturas rerum
¶ Why I moue þis matere · is moste for þe pore
For in her lyknesse owre lorde · ofte hath ben yknowe
Witnesse in þe Paske-wyke · whan he ȝede to Emaus
Cleophas ne knewe hym nauȝte · þat he cryste were
For his pore parailleBx.11.245: paraille: So LR. C mss. vary. However, cf. l. 252 where (in the absence of F) R alone has the aphetic form. · and pylgrymes wedes
Tyl he blessed and brak · þe bred þat þei eten
So bi his werkes þei wisten · þat he was Ihesus
Ac by clothyng þei knewe hym nouȝte · ne bi carpynge of tonge
Bx.11.238: : The paraph is in beta only. And al was ensample [for-sothe]Bx.11.249: ensample for-sothe: R's reading, doubtfully adopted on the basis of Cx ensample sothly. The adverb supplies a second alliterative stave for the a-verse. Beta has in ensample, although M shares the reading of F without in. · to vs synful here
Þat we shulde be low · and loueliche of speche
And apparaille vs nouȝte ouer-Bx.11.251: ouer-: Supported by LMR and WHm (C has to), but dropped by CrGOF.proudly · for pylgrymes ar we alle
And in þe apparaille of a pore man · and pilgrymes lyknesse
Many tyme god hath ben mette · amonge nedy peple
Þere neuere segge hym seigh · in secte of þe riche
¶ Seynt Iohan and other seyntes · were seyne in pore clothynge
And as pore pilgrymes · preyed mennesBx.11.256: mennes: In alpha men is object of preyude, "begged men (for their) goods", and is so expanded by F. godis
Ihesu cryste on a iewes douȝter alyȝte · gentil woman þough she were
WasBx.11.258: Was: R (F drops lines 257-8) repeats A, "she" from the previous line, as does Hm sche, but Cx is without it. a pure pore mayde · and to a pore man wedded
¶ Martha on Marye magdeleyne · an huge pleynte she made
And to owre saueour self · seyde þise wordes
Domine non est tibi cure quod soror mea reliquit me solaBx.11.261: sola: So LM and F (R truncates after cure), together with some C mss. The accusative solam is expected, as in other mss. ministrare &c
Bx.11.262: : The paraph is in beta only. And hastiliche god answered · and eytheres wille folwed
Bothe Marthaes and Maries · as Mathew bereth witnesse
Ac pouerte god put bifore · and preysed it þe bettre
Maria optimam partem elegit · que non &cBx.11.265: non &c: LMCrW end at this point; R stops after elegit, while the others continue auferetur ab ea. C mss. show the same variation, though the X family ends with non &c.
Bx.11.266: : The paraph is in beta only. And alle þe wyse þat euere were · by auȝte I can aspye
PreysenBx.11.267: Preysen: Only MW have the past tense, following on from were in the previous line. However, it must be observed that Cx also has the past. See next note. pouerte for best lyf · if pacience it folweBx.11.267: folwe: W continues with the past tense, as do six C mss. Alpha's wolde/welde is presumably a misreading of folwede; two C mss. have the same curious reading.
And bothe bettere and blisseder · by many folde þan ricchesse
AlthoughBx.11.269: Although: The reading of LM and alpha and the X family of C. Other beta mss. have And though. See Adams (2000), 179. it be soure to suffre · þere cometh swete after
As on a walnot with-oute [·] is a bitter barke
And after þat bitter barke · be þe shelle aweye
Is a kirnelle of conforte · kynde to restore
So is after pouerte or penaunce · pacientlyche ytake
[M]akethBx.11.274: Maketh: Beta begins For it maketh, but the clause without subject as in alpha is supported by Cx. a man to haue mynde in gode · and a grete wille
To wepe and to wel bydde · wher-of wexeth mercy
Of which cryst is a kirnelle · to conforte þe soule
And wel sykerer he slepyth · þe [segge]Bx.11.277: segge: Beta's man is a straightforward example of the substitution of an easier reading. Cx supports alpha. þat is pore
And lasse he dredeth deth · and in derke to be robbed
Þan he þat is riȝte ryche · resoun bereth wytnesse
Pauper ego ludo dum tu diues meditaris
Bx.11.281: : The paraph in L is supported by WF. Alþough salamon seide · as folkeBx.11.281: folke: Presumably on this occasion alpha has adopted the easier reading; cf. l. 277. From here to l. 301 there is no parallel in C. seeth in þe bible
Diuicias nec paupertates &c
Wyser þan salamon was · bereth witnesse and tauȝte
Þat parfyte pouert was · no possessioun to haue
And lyf moste lykynge to god · as luke bereth witnesse
Si vis perfectus esse · vade & vende &c
Bx.11.287: MWHmC would support a paraph here, but it is not particularly appropriate and not supported by alpha.And is to mene to men · þat on þis molde lyuen
Who-so wil be pure parfyt · mote possessioun forsake
Or selle it as seith þe boke · and þe syluer dele
To beggeres þat gone and begge · and bidden good for goddes loue
¶ For failled neuere man mete · þat myȝtful god seruedBx.11.291: serued: Despite beta2 (CrWHm), beta probably has the past tense and alpha the present. Either could be right: the past following on from failled, or the present anticipating seith and the verbs in ll. 293 and 295.
As dauid seith in þe sauter · to suche þat ben in willeBx.11.292: Following this line, alpha evidently had the half line With eny wel or wo, reproduced by R. F makes a full line by coupling it with l. 292b which he has replaced by a half-line of his own.
To serue god godeliche · ne greueth hymBx.11.293: hym: MCr and alpha have pl. hem. We follow copy-text. no penaunce
Nichil inpossibileBx.11.294: inpossibile: Alford (1992), 75, quotes the proverb in this form. Alpha, with difficile instead, may have known another form. The Oxford Dictionary of English Proverbs, p. 463, cites Heywood (1546) "Nothing is impossible to a willyng hart", and Fergusson (1641) "Nothing is difficile to a well willit man". volenti
Ne lakketh neuereBx.11.295: neuere: R has noyther; F drops the line. lyflode · lynnen ne wollen
Inquirentes autem dominum · non minuentur omni bono
[¶]Bx.11.297: : The rubricator in L misses the paraph since the line is at the top of the page. It is supported by WHmRF and a line-space in M. If prestes weren parfytBx.11.297: parfyt: Both KD and Schmidt adopt alpha's wise for the sake of the alliteration, although Schmidt (1995) considers that alpha gives "less good sense" (p. 386). However, the parallel line in Cx (following a divergence from B of 190 lines) is Vch a parfit prest to pouerte sholde drawe (RK.13.100), which precedes the line parallel to Bx.11.302. Perhaps Bx syluer is an error picked up from that line for pens. Parfit priesthood is a favourite concept of Langland's; cf. ȝif presthod were parfit (Bx.15.566). · þei wolde no syluer take
For masses ne for matynes · nouȝte her mete of vsureres
Ne neither kirtel ne cote · þeigh þey for colde shulde deye
And þei her deuor dedeBx.11.300: dede: Dropped in alpha, but necessary for the sense, which leads F to revise. · as dauid seith in þe sauter
Iudica me deus & discerne causam meam
Spera in deo speketh of prestes · þat haue no spendyng syluer
Þat ȝif þei trauaille trewlich · and trusten in god almiȝti
Hem shulde lakke no lyflode · noyther wollen ne lynnenBx.11.304: wollen ne lynnen: WHm reverse the nouns, as in the nearly identical l. 295, thus no doubt correcting a Bx error. Cx, which only uses the line once, has lynnen ne wollene, to alliterate aa/ax.
And þe title þat [ȝe]Bx.11.305: ȝe (1): The reading of R, and also of W's text, but significantly not of the catchword, which has the beta reading þei. W's reading is thus an enlightened correction, and it is the Cx reading. F revises, but keeping the second person. take ordres by · telleth ȝe ben auaunced
Þanne nedeth nouȝte ȝowBx.11.306: nouȝte ȝow: This appears to be the order in beta, reversed to the commonplace in MW; alpha perhaps had ȝow nouȝt as in R. We follow copy-text. Cx omits the pronoun, and replaces take with alliterating nyme. to take syluer · for masses þat ȝe syngen
For he þat toke ȝow ȝowre tytle · shulde take ȝow ȝowre wages
Or þe bisshop þat blesseth ȝow · if þat ȝe ben worthy
¶ For made neuere kyngeBx.11.309: kynge: LHm read no kynge. Hm subsequently erases the no before knygth. no knyȝte · but he hadde catel to spende
As bifel for a kniȝte · or fonde hym for his strengthe
It is a careful knyȝte · and of a caytyue kynges makynge
Þat hath noBx.11.312: no: Alpha's noþer may equally be right. The P family of C have the beta reading, the X family the alpha. londe ne lynage richeBx.11.312: riche: Omitted by alpha, but supported by Cx. · ne good loos of his handes
Þe same I segge for sothe · by alle suche prestes
Þat han noyther kunnynge ne kynne · but a croune one
And a tytle a tale of nouȝte · to his lyflode atBx.11.315: at: Beta2 (CrWHm) adds his. Cx ends the line as hit were. myschief
He hath more bileue as I leue · to lacche þorw his croune
Cure ·Bx.11.317: The syntactic punctuation after Cure is recorded in LMWOF. þan for konnyng · or knowen for clene of berynge
I haue wonder & why · and wher-fore þe bisshop
Maketh suche prestes · þat lewed men bytrayen
¶ A chartre is chalengeable · byfor a chief iustice
If false latyne be in þa[t]Bx.11.321: þat: L has þa; the line is marked for correction. lettre · þe lawe it inpugneth
Or peynted parenterlinarie · parcelesBx.11.322: parceles: In beta2 (CrWHm) and F the b-verse begins or, but this is not supported by Cx (RK.13.119). ouer-skipped
Þe gome þat gloseth so chartres · for a goky is holden
¶ So is it a goky by god · þat in his gospel failleth
Or in masse or in matynes · maketh any defaute
Qui offendit in vno in omnibus est reus &c
And also in þe sauter · seyth dauyd to ouerskippers
Psallite deo nostro psallite quoniam rex terre deus israel psallite sapienter
Bx.11.329: LR do not have a paraph here, but it might be added on the basis of MWHmCF.Þe bisshop shal be blamed · bifor god as I leue
Þat crouneth suche goddes kniȝtes · þat conneth nouȝt sapienter
Synge ne psalmes rede · ne segge a messe of þe day
Ac neuer neyther is blamelees · þe bisshop ne þe chapleyne
For her eyther is endited · and þat ofBx.11.333: of: Beta2 (CrWHm) alters to is; F has ys be. ignorancia
Non excusat episcopos · nec idiotes prestes
¶ Þis lokynge on lewed prestes · haþ don me lepe fram pouerte
Þe whiche I preyse þere pacyence is · more parfyt þan ricchesse
¶ Ac moche more in metynge þus · with me gan one disputeBx.11.337: Instead of this line F has nine lines in which Will wakes, and falls asleep again in the line corresponding to l. 338.
And slepynge I seigh al þis · and sithen cam kynde
And nempned me by my name · and bad me nymen hede
And þorw þe wondresBx.11.340: wondres: So beta. R has wordes, presumably reproducing alpha, which F improves to worchynge. of þis worlde · wytte for to take
And on a mountaigne þat mydelerd hyȝte · as me þo þouȝte
I was fette forth · by ensaumples to knowe
Þorugh eche a creature and kynde · my creatoure to louye
I seigh þe sonne and þe see · and þe sonde after
And where þat bryddes and bestes · by here makeBx.11.345: make: CrWGF have makes, as does the P family of C. þeiBx.11.345: þei: Well supported for Bx, but omitted by WGOF and by the P family of C. ȝeden
Wylde wormes in wodes · and wonderful foules
With flekked fetheres · and of fele coloures
Man and his make · I myȝte [se bothe]Bx.11.348: se bothe: R is supported by Cx.
Pouerte and plente · bothe pees and werre
Blisse and bale · bothe I seigh atBx.11.350: at: Beta2 (CrWHm) has al at, not supported by Cx. ones
And how men token Mede · and mercy refused
¶ Resoune I seighe sothly [·] suen alle bestes
In etyng in drynkynge · and in engendrynge of kynde
And after course of concepcioun · none toke kepe of other
As whan þei hadde ryde in rotey-tyme · anon riȝte þer-after
Males drowen hem to males · a-mornynges bi hem-self
And in euenynges also · ȝe[de]Bx.11.357: ȝede: In the absence of F which omits ll. 355-7, R represents alpha and also Bx. On the evidence of L, beta read ȝe, which scribes "corrected" to þe (or misread ye), and lost the alliteration. Beta2 (CrWHm) then smoothed by adding the verb ben. See Schmidt (1995), 387. For alliteration of ȝede with vowels, cf. Bx.20.136 etc. The line is rewritten in Cx. males fro femeles
Þere ne was cow ne cowkynde · þat conceyued hadde
Þat wolde belwe after boles · ne bore after sowe
Bothe horse and houndes · and alle other bestes
Medled nouȝte wyth here makes · þat with fole were
¶ Briddes I bihelde · þat in buskes made nestes
Hadde neuere wye witte · to worche þe leest
I hadde wonder at whom · and where þe pye lerned
To legge stykkesBx.11.365: stykkes: Beta includes the definite article: Cx Lernede to legge stikkes gives slight support to alpha's omission. · in whiche she leytheBx.11.365: she leythe: An interesting example of how a minor alpha error (lenth for leith), faithfully reproduced by R, has prompted F to make sense (but the wrong sense). F interprets a as "in" rather than "she", takes the additional minim in lenth (for leith) as a spelling of "length", and sensibly supposes bredeth to be an error for breede, "breadth". and bredeth
Þere nysBx.11.366: nys: Alpha's is no might equally be right; it is shared by C mss. (a few have nys no). wriȝte as I wene · shulde worche hir neste to paye
If any masoun made a molde þer-to · moche wonder it were
¶ And ȝet me merueilled more · manyBx.11.368: many: Probably R represents the alpha reading, with F adding of to complete the construction with merueilled. For the same reason most beta mss. add how (though G also has off). Cx supports R with merueylede more mony of þe briddes. other briddes
Hudden and hileden · her egges ful derne
In mareys and mores · for men sholde hem nouȝt fynde
And hudden here egges · whan þei þere-fro wente
For fere of other foules · and for wylde bestis
¶ And some tr[e]denBx.11.373: treden: Alpha's present tense is supported by Cx. her makes · and on trees bredden
And brouȝtenBx.11.374: brouȝten: Beta is supported by Cx. R repeats the verb bredde from the previous line. forth her bryddes so · al aboue þe grounde
And some bryddes at þe bille · þorwgh brethynge conceyued
And some kauked I toke kepe · how pekokes bredden
Moche merueilled me · what maister þei hadde
And who tauȝte hem on trees · to tymbre so heigh
Þere noither buirn ne beste · may her briddes rechen
¶ And sythen I loked vponBx.11.380: vpon (1 & 2): Both in the a-verse and in the b-verse, the readings of LMWR support this as Bx, though Cx has on for both, as do other B mss. (Hm has vpon and yn.) þe see · and so forth vpon þe sterres
Many selcouthes I seygh · ben nought to seye nouthe
¶ I seigh floures in þe fritthe · and her faire coloures
And how amonge þe grene grasse · grewe so many hewes
And somme soure and some swete · selcouthe me þouȝte
Of her kynde and [of]Bx.11.385: of (2): R is supported by Cx. Beta evidently dropped it (added in Cr); F rephrases the a-verse. her coloure · to carpe it were to longe
¶ Ac þat moste moeued me · and my mode chaunged
Þat resoun rewarded · and reuled alle bestes
Saue man and his make · many tymeBx.11.388: tyme: Variation between many tyme / tymes / a tyme is unpatterned, except that alpha shows a tendency to prefer tymes, as here: e.g. Bx.13.4, 14.4, and (in the same b-verse) 20.26 (where R is out). There is the same variation in AC (e.g. K.8.150, 9.29; RK.4.167, 22.26, etc.). Here, though the majority of C mss. have tymes, seven have tyme (RK.13.181). and ofte
No resoun hem folwed · and þanne I rebukedBx.11.389: This and the following line are defective in Bx. In Cx the lines read: Resoun reulede hem nat, noþer ryche ne pore / Thenne y aresonede resoun and ryht til hym y sayde (RK.13.182-3). F's line presumably represents an intelligent revision for the alliteration; the reading rewlyþ for folwed must be contamination from C or coincidental, picking up rewlede two lines above.
Resoun · and riȝte til hym-seluen I seydeBx.11.390: In this defective line the punctuation follows Resoun in LMCrWOR, with R adding a second punctuation after hym; HmC punctuate after right, creating an aa/bb line. F again revises for the metre.
I haue wonder of þe quod I · þat witty art holden
Why þow ne suwest man and his make · þat no mysfait hem folwe
¶ And resoun arated me · and seyde recche þe neuere
Whi I suffre or nouȝt suffre · þi-self hast nouȝt to done
Amende þow it if þow myȝte · for my tyme is to abyde
Suffraunce is a souereygne vertue · and a swyfte veniaunce
Who suffreth more þan god quod he · no gome as I leue
He miȝte amende in a Minute-while · al þat mys-standeth
Ac he suffreth for somme mannes good · and so is owre bettre
Bx.11.400-11: These 12 lines have been lost in beta, probably as a result of eyeskip from one paraph to the next, as so often. Lines 403-09 are paralleled in Cx. We follow R, with spellings altered to those of L. There are many differences in F's version. [¶ Holy writt quod þat wye · wisseth men to suffre
Propter deum subiecti estote omni creature
Frenche men and fre men · affaiteth þus her children
[B]eleBx.11.403: Bele: F is supported by Cx (RK.13.203). vertue est soffrance · mal dire est pety veniance
Bien dire et bien soffrer · fait lui soffrant a bien venir
For-þi I rede [þe] quodBx.11.405: þe quod: R is without þe and F without quod. In the b-verse F has þou rewle for R's rewle. The X family of C has Forthy quod Resoun y rede thow while the P family has ... rede þe. reson · reule þi tonge bettere
And ar þow lakke my lyf · loke þowBx.11.406: þow (2): R has if þow where F has þyn, perhaps influenced by þy tunge in the previous line. Cx's loke ho is to preyse, though different, lends support to R's nominative but not to the conjunction. be to preyse
For is no creature vnder criste · can formen hym-seluen
And if a man miȝte [·] make hym-self good to þe poepleBx.11.408: With evident corruption in both mss., it is impossible to recover Bx. If R reproduces alpha, F has improved by picking up lakles, "without fault", from the following line to replace goed to þe poeple. F suggests that the punctuation should follow miȝte rather than make as in R. If so, Bx may have read simply And if a man miȝte · make hymself good, with alpha expanding a short line. Cx rewrites with much the same sense: And if creatures cristene couth make hemsulue (RK.13.208).
Vch a lif wold be lakles · leue þow non other
Ne þow shalt fynde but fewe · fayne for to here
Of here defautes foule · by-for hem rehersed]
Bx.11.412: : The paraph (following the gap in beta) is in LR, with a new line-group in M. Þe wyse and þe witty · wrote þus in þe bible
De re que te non molestat nolyBx.11.413: noly: R has nolite. C mss. vary between noli, nolite and noli te (RK.13.196a). certare
Bx.11.414: Only LR are without a paraph here.For be a man faire or foule · it falleth nouȝte forto lakke
Þe shappe ne þe shafte · þat god shope hym-selue
For al þat he [wrouȝt]Bx.11.416: wrouȝt: Alpha's reading carries the alliteration. This passage is not in C. was wel ydo · as holywrit witnesseth
Et vidit deus cunta que fecerat et erant valde bona
Bx.11.418: : Following the Latin line, only LW have the paraph. It is perhaps not archetypal. And badde eueryBx.11.418: euery: R has to vch a; F has ech. creature · in his kynde encrees
Al to murthe with man · þat most woo tholyeBx.11.419: tholye: Infinitive dependent upon most, "must". O and Alpha take most to mean "most", but this gives weak sense.
In fondynge of þe flesshe · and of þe fende bothe
For man was made of suche a matere · he may nouȝt wel astert
ÞatBx.11.422: Þat: Beta has Þat ne, but alpha is supported by Cx. some-tymesBx.11.422: tymes: L is supported by R against tyme in other mss. C mss. are divided. The -s form of sometimes is rare and late in Middle English; in L it occurs again only at Bx.13.323. See Adams (2000), 184 and note to l. 388. hym bitit · to folwen his kynde
Catoun acordeth þere-withBx.11.423: þere-with: Beta is supported by Cx. · nemo sine crimine viuit
¶ Tho cauȝte I coloure anon · and comsed to ben aschamed
And awaked þer-with · wo was me þanne
Þat I in meteles ne myȝte · more haue yknowen
And þanne seyde I to my-self · and chidde þat tyme
Now I wote what dowel is quod I · by dere god as me þinketh
And as I caste vp myn eyghen · one loked on me and axed
Of me what þinge it were · ywisse sire I seide
To se moche and suffre more · certes quod I is dowel
¶ Haddestow suffred he seyde · slepyng þo þow were
Þow sholdest haue knowen þat clergye can · and conceiuedBx.11.433: conceiued: The variants kend and contreued in beta2 are not supported by Cx. more þorughBx.11.433: þorugh: As in Cx, against bi in CrHmGF. resoun
For resoun wolde haue reherced þe · riȝte as clergye saide
Ac for þine entermetyng · here artow forsake
Philosophus esses si tacuisses
Bx.11.437: : The paraph is in beta only. Adam whilesBx.11.437: whiles: R has þe whiles, as does the X family of C. he spak nouȝt · had paradys at wille
Ac whan he mameled aboute mete · and entermetedBx.11.438: entermeted: MCGO add hym. Cx rewrites. to knowe
Þe wisdom and þe witte of god · he was put fram blisse
And riȝt so ferde resoun bi the · þow withBx.11.440: þow with: Beta2 (CrWHm) and CF add thy. Cx rewrites as for thy rude speche. rude speche
Lakkedest and losedest þinge · þat longed nouȝt [þe to] doneBx.11.441: nouȝt þe to done: In beta the b-verse probably ends nouȝt to be done, though WO have noȝt to doon and W adds the pronoun þe. W's reading is also that of alpha, "which was not appropriate for you to do", which gives stronger sense than beta's reading. We adopt R's b-verse with its less usual word-order, although we recognise that þe may be an alpha addition. The line is not in Cx.
Þo hadde he no lykynge · forto lere þe more
¶ Pruide now and presumpcioun · par-auenture wole þe appele
That clergye þi compaignye · ne kepeth nouȝt to sueBx.11.444: to sue: Alpha sometimes avoids the verb: cf. Bx.10.214, 11.352, 392. Here he revises the line, adding in before þi and ending efte to sitte.
[For]Bx.11.445: For: Alpha's reading is supported by Cx. shal neuere chalangynge ne chydynge · chaste a man so sone
As shal shame and shenden hym · and shape hym to amende
For lat a dronken daffe · in a dyke falle
Late hym ligge loke nouȝte on hym · til hym lest to ryse
Bx.11.449-51: As a result of eyeskip (mid-line hym þanne 449 and 451), beta drops ll. 449b-451a. The lines are in Cx (RK.13.236-8). For þough resoun rebuked hym þanne [· reccheth h[e]Bx.4.449: he: F is supported by Cx against R's hym. neuere
Of clergie ne of his conseil · he counteth nouȝt a rusche
OrBx.11.451: Or: Dropped by F. Cx begins To blame hym or to bete. for to bete hym þanne] · it were but pure synne
Ac whan nede nymeth hym vp · for doute lest he sterue
And shame shrapeth his clothes · & his shynes wassheth
Þanne wote þe dronken daffe · wherfore he is to blame
¶ Ȝe seggen soth [by my soule]Bx.11.455: by my soule: Alpha's phrase is also Cx. quod I · ich haue yseyne it ofte
Þere smitte no þinge so smerte · ne smelleth so [foule]Bx.11.456: foule: The reading of R alone, but it is supported by Cx. F rewrites the b-verse, with the sense "upsets no-one so greatly". Beta's soure is a simple misreading; G, additionally misreading the verb, adopts an appropriate adverb.
As shame þere he sheweth him · for euery man hym shonyethBx.11.457: for euery man hym shonyeth: Cx supports beta's verb with vch man shoneth his companye, which is perhaps a revision for the sake of the alliteration. Alpha is quite different from either with no man loueth his felachippe, though one might note that "fellowship" is a synonym of "company".
Why ȝe wisse me þus quod I · was for I rebuked resoun
¶ Certes quod he þat is soth · and shope hym forto walken
And I aros vp riȝt with þat · and folwed hym after
And preyed hym of his curteisye · to telle me his name