Passus duodecimus

I am ymagynatyf quod he · Idel was I neuere
Þouȝe I sitte bi my-self · in sikenesse neBx.12.2: ne: So LMR, defining neuere. The and of most other mss. is an obvious easier reading, defining the a-verse. See Adams (2000), 179. in helthe
I haue folwed þe in feithe · þis fyue and fourty wyntre
And many tymes haue moeued þe · to þinke on þine ende
And how fele fernȝeres are faren · and so fewe to come
And of þi wylde wantounesse · þo þow ȝonge were
To amende it in þi myddel age · lest miȝte þe faylledBx.12.7: faylled: L and beta2 (CrWHm) have the past subjunctive, "were to fail", which is perhaps less obvious than the present faile of all other mss. There is no parallel in C for Bx.12.4-61.
In þyne olde elde · þat yuel can suffre
Pouerte or penaunce · or preyeres bidde
Si non in prima vigilia · nec in secunda &c
Amende þe while þow myȝte · þow hast ben warned ofte
With poustees of pestilencesBx.12.12: pestilences: Alpha's penaunce(s) is a curious error. [·] with pouerte and with angres
And with þise bitter baleyses · god beteth his dere childeren
Quem diligo castigo
Bx.12.15-16: Alpha omits two lines. And dauid in þe sauter seith · of suche þat loueth Ihesus
Virga tua & baculus tuus ipsa me consolata sunt &c
Al-þough þow stryke me with þi staffe · with stikke or with ȝerde
It is but murth as for me [·] to amende my soule
And þow medlest þe with makyng[e]Bx.12.19: makynge: Alpha has the sg. and all beta mss. except M have the plural. There is a parallel with the John But ending of A, presumably derived from this line, And for he medleþ of makyng he made þis ende (K.12.109). · and myȝtest go sey þi sauter
And bidde for hem þat ȝiueth þe bred · for þere ar bokes ynowe
To telle men what dowel is · dobet and dobest bothe
And prechoures to preue what it is · of many a peyre freres
¶ I seigh wel he sayde me soth · andBx.12.23: and: R's ac may represent alpha, with F substituting and, in coincidental agreement with beta. somwhat me to excuse
SeidBx.12.24: Seid: Alpha begins And seide, to the detriment of the syntax. catoun conforted his sone · þat clerke þough he were
To solacen hym sum-tyme · asBx.12.25: as: Alpha has and, though in a rewritten b-verse in F. I do whan I make
Interpone tuis interdum gaudia curis · &c ·
Bx.12.27: : The paraph is in LWHm only, perhaps prompted by the preceding Latin line. And of holy men I herdeBx.12.27: herde: Alpha has the present tense, which may be correct. quod I · how þei otherwhile
Pleyden þe parfiter · to be in many placesBx.12.28: places: R's a place may represent alpha. F rewrites.
AcBx.12.29: Ac: Not in R; F has Nou. if þere were any wight · þat wolde me telle
What were dowel and dobet · and dobest atte laste
Wolde I neuere do werke · but wende to holicherche
And þere bydde my bedes · but whan ich eet or slepe
¶ Poule in his pistle quod he · preueth what is dowel
Fides spes caritas &Bx.12.34: &: Not in alpha. The text cited by Alford (1992), 78-9, has it; the Clementine Vulgate (I Cor. 13.13) is without it. maior horum &c
Feith hope and charitee · andBx.12.35: and (2): Following the Latin of the previous line, this is dropped in alpha. alle ben good
And sauen men sundry tymes · ac none so sone as charite
For he doth wel with-oute doute · þat doth as lewte techeth
Þat is if þow be man maried · þi make þow louye
And lyue forth as lawe wole · whileBx.12.39: while: Variation between while and þe while is common in this position; e.g. Bx.1.16, 10.156, 19.342. ȝe lyuen bothe
Bx.12.40: : The paraph is in beta and F. Riȝt so if þow be Religious · renne þow neuere ferther
To Rome ne to Rochemadore · but as þi reule techeth
And holde þe vnder obedyence · þat heigh wey is to heuene
¶ And if þow be [mayde &]Bx.12.43: mayde & to marye: R's reading means "a maid and (due) to marry", which has more point than beta's mayden to marye, and underlines the contrast with l. 38. F confirms alpha's mayde, but simplifies the construction. to marye · and miȝte wel contynue
Seke þow neuere seynt forther · for no soule helthe
For what made Lucyfer · to lese þe heigh heuene
Or salamon his sapience · or sampson his strengthe
Iob þe Iewe his ioye · dere he it abouȝte
Arestotle and other mo · ypocras & virgyle
Alisaundre þat al wan · elengelich ended
Bx.12.50: : The paraph is in LC, with a new line-group in M. Catel and kynde witte · was combraunce to hem alle
Felyce hir fayrnesse · fel hir al to sklaundre
And Rosamounde riȝt so [·] reufully bysette
Þe bewte of hir body · in badnesse sheBx.12.53: badnesse she: Alpha's badd vse is probably avoidance of a noun rare at this date, though strikingly Langland uses neither the noun badnesse nor the adjective bad elsewhere. dispended
Of many suche I mayBx.12.54: I may: For support for beta's order in this position, cf. Matrymonye I may nyme (Bx.16.71). rede · of men and of wommen
Þat wyse wordes wolde shewe · and worche þe contra[r]ye
Sunt homines nequam bene de virtute loquentes
Bx.12.57: : The paraph is in beta and F. And riche renkes riȝt so · gaderen and sparen
And þo men þat þei moste haten · mynistren it atte laste
And for þei suffren & se · so many nedy folkes
And loue hem nouȝt as owre lorde bytte · lesen her soules
Date & dabitur vobis &c ·
Bx.12.62-6: Omitted in beta. The first three lines are in Cx (RK.14.17-18a). KD, p. 66, very plausibly suggest the omission was caused by homeoteleuton (soule(s) ll. 60, 65, followed by a Latin line). We alter the spellings of R to those of L. [So catel and kynde witte · acombreth ful many
Wo is hym þat hem weldeth · butBx.12.63: but: As F and Cx. R has but if. he hem w[e]lBx.12.63: wel: As F and Cx. R has wil. dispende
Scienti & non facienti variis flagellis vapulabitBx.12.64: In part loosely based on Luke 12.47. Alford (1992), 79, quoting the form of the citation adopted by Schmidt and KD from the P family of C, does not note the closer parallel in James 4.17, "Scienti igitur bonum facere et non facienti, peccatum est illi". Based on this, F has added bonum, but it is not included in R or in mss. of C.
Sapience seith þe boke · swelleth a mannes soule
Sapiencia inflat &c]
¶ And ricchesse riȝt so · but if þe Rote be trewe
Ac grace is a grasse þer-[fore]Bx.12.68: þer-fore: Alpha is supported by Cx and by sense against beta's þer-of. For the sense of grasse, "healing herb", see MED gras n. 2(b). · þo greuaunces to abate
Ac grace ne groweth nouȝte · but amonges lowe
PacienceBx.12.70: Pacience: R begins Of pacience. F drops the line, which is not in Cx. and pouerte · þe place is þere it groweth
And in lele lyuynge men · and in lyf-holy
And þorugh þeBx.12.72: þe (1): Not in R. F rewrites. gyfte of þe holygoste · as þe gospel telleth
Spiritus vbi vult spirat &c
Clergye and kynde witte · comth of siȝte and techynge
As þe boke bereth witnesse · to buirnes þat can rede
Quod scimus loquimur quod vidimus testamur
Of quod scimus cometh clergye · [a]Bx.12.77: a: Beta evidently interpreted the indefinite article as a form of and. Alpha is supported by the revised line in Cx (RK.14.34). connynge of heuene
And of quod vidimus cometh kynde witte [·] of siȝte of dyue[r]se peple
Ac grace is a gyfte of god · and of gret loue spryngeth
Knewe neuere clerke how it cometh forth · ne kynde witte [his]Bx.12.80: his: "its", referring to Grace and following on from it. R represents alpha, misunderstood by F. Beta has þe. weyes
Nescit aliquis vnde venit · aut quo vadit &c
Ac ȝit is clergye to comende · and kynde witte bothe
And namely clergye for crystes loue · þat of clergye is rote
For Moyses witnesseth þat god wrote · for to wisse þe peple
In þe olde lawe as þe lettre telleth · þat wasBx.12.85: þat was: R (= alpha?) drops þat; F rewrites. Alpha's reading is quite possibly right, but it is ambiguous, appearing to mean "The Jewish Law was in the Old Law", whereas the line has to mean "In the Old Law, which was the Jewish Law". þe lawe of iewes
Þat what woman were in auoutrieBx.12.86: auoutrie: R has the unusual deuoutrie which may be right. See note to Bx.2.178. The line is not in Cx. taken · were sheBx.12.86: were she: Dropped by Cr and beta4. On WF where she see KD, p. 183. riche or pore
With stones men shulde hir stryke · and stone hir to deth
Bx.12.88: Alpha omits the line, as a result of homeoteleuton. (Note that R's form of "death" in l. 87 is dede). A womman as we fynden · was gulty of þat dede
Ac cryste of his curteisye · þorw clergye hir saued
For þorw [crystes] carectusBx.12.90: crystes carectus: Beta has instead the clumsier carectus þat cryst wrot. It is perhaps more likely that beta was influenced by l. 84 above than that alpha was prompted by l. 100 below. The line is not in Cx. · þe iewes knewe hem-seluen
Gultier as afor god · and gretter in synne
Þan þe woman þat þere was · and wenten awey for schame
Þe clergye þat þere was · conforted þe womman
Holykirke knoweth þis · þat crystes writyng sauedBx.12.94: saued: Beta2 (CrWHm) has saued hire, and M is corrected to that reading. F has hire savede. Cf. l. 89.
So clergye is conforte · to creatures þat repenten
And to mansed men · myschief at her ende
¶ For goddes body myȝte nouȝte be of bred · with-outen clergye
Þe which body is bothe · bote to þe riȝtful
And deth and dampnacioun · to hem þat dyeth yuel
AsBx.12.100: As: R's Ac may be taken as alpha (F has But as often). The sense is "just as Christ's writing both comforted the woman and revealed her to be guilty". But correlative bothe is oddly placed. crystes carecte conforted [·] and bothe coupable shewed
Þe womman þat þe iewes brouȝte · þat Ihesus þouȝte to saue
Nolite iudicare et non iudicabimini &c
Riȝt so goddes body bretheren · but it be worthily taken
Dampneth vs atte daye of dome · as [dede] þe carect[e]Bx.12.104: dede þe carecte: We follow alpha in the word-order and the sg. noun. Beta has reverted to unmarked order, spoiling the metre. For sg. carecte, "writing", altered to pl. by some scribes, cf. l. 100. þe iewes
For-þi I conseille þe for cristes sake · clergye þat þow louye
For kynde witte is of his kyn · and neighe cosynes bothe
To owre lorde leue me · for-þi loue hem I rede
For bothe ben as miroures · to amenden owre defautes
And lederes for lewed men · and for lettred bothe
Bx.12.110: : The paraph is in beta and F. For-þi lakke þow neuere logyke · lawe ne his custumes
Ne countreplede clerkes · I conseille þe for eure
For as a man may nouȝt se · þat mysseth his eyghenBx.12.112: eyghen: Beta is supported by Cx against alpha's siȝte.
Namore can no klerke · but if he cauȝt it first þorugh bokes
Al-þough men made bokes · god was þe maistre
And seynt spirit þe saumplarye · and seide what menBx.12.115: men: Alpha and O have man, as in the next line, but Cx agrees with beta. sholde write
And riȝt as syȝte serueth a man · to se þe heighe strete
Riȝt so le[r]ethBx.12.117: lereth: So alpha, supported by Cx (RK.14.49). Beta's ledeth makes excellent sense. letterure · lewed men to resoun
And as a blynde man in bataille · bereth wepne to fiȝte
And hath none happ with his axe · his enemye to hitte
Namore kan a kynde-wittedBx.12.120: kynde-witted: "with innate intelligence". R's kende wedded presumably represents alpha, with F rewriting as lewid to make sense. man · but clerkes hym teche
Come for al his kynde witte · to crystendome and be saued
Whiche is þe coffre of crystes tresore · and clerkes kepe þe keyes
To vnlouken it at her lykynge · and to þe lewed peple
ȜyueBx.12.124: Ȝyue: Beta is supported by Cx. The readings of RF reflect confusion in alpha. mercy for her mysdedes · if men it wole aske
Buxomelich & benygneliche · and bidden it of grace
Archa dei in þe olde lawe · leuites it kepten
Hadde neuere lewed man leue · to leggen honde on þatBx.12.127: þat: Evidently the Bx reading supported by Cx, though MCGO have þe and F rewrites. chest
But he were preste or prestes sone · patriarke or prophete
Bx.12.129-39: Beta drops 11 lines, presumably skipping from paraph to paraph. Cx has parallels for all except ll. 131-2. We alter the spellings of R to those of L. [¶ Saul for he sacrifisedBx.12.129: he sacrifised: R's a-verse is supported by Cx. · sorwe hym bitydde
And his sones also · for þat synne myscheued
And many mo other men · þat were no leuites
Þat with archa dei ȝedenBx.12.132: ȝeden: For alliteration of ȝede with vowels, see Turville-Petre (1980), 314, and cf. e.g. Bx.11.357, 20.136, and 16.178 "And ȝede forth as an ydiote · in contre to aspye", which also has the mute stave in. KD instead adopt F's wentyn and the b-verse order (based on F) worship and reuerence. There is no parallel in Cx. · in reuerence and in worship
And leyden honde þer-on to liften it vp · and loren her lif afterBx.12.133: The line is not in the P family of Cx. In the X family it reads: "And all lewede þat leide hand þeron loren lyf aftir" (RK.14.63). Alpha clearly had and before loren, spoiling the construction.
For-þi I conseille alle creatures · no clergie toBx.12.134: to: R is supported by Cx against F's yee. dispise
Ne sette shorteBx.12.135: shorte: R is supported by Cx against lyght in F. be here science · what-so þei don hem-selue
Take weBx.12.136: we: F omits, but R is supported by Cx. her wordes at worthe · forBx.12.136: for: F omits, but R is supported by Cx. here witnesseBx.12.136: witnesse: A plural form (see MED), as unambiguously spelt by F. C mss. split, but the most authoritative have witnesses. Cf. Bx.2.149, 9.77 (and note), 12.280 (and note). be trewe
And medleBx.12.137: medle: Both F and Cx omit R's ne, but in other respects R's line is supported by Cx. F rewrites for the sense. we nauȝt muche with hem · to meuen any wrathe
Lest cheste chasenBx.12.138: chasen: Cx has the line as in R, but with chaufen "inflame"; chasen is surely an alpha or Bx error. vs · to choppe vche man other
Nolite tangere christos meos &c]
¶ For clergye is kepereBx.12.140: kepere: So beta. R has kynge and kepere, F has keye & kepere. Cx rewrites the line. [·] vnder cryst of heuene
Was þere neuere no knyȝte · but clergye hym made
Ac kynde witte cometh [·] of alkynnes siȝtes
Of bryddes and of bestes · of tastes of treuthe and of deceytes
¶ Lyueres to-forn vs · vseden to markeBx.12.144: marke: Alpha's make is obviously wrong. Beta is supported by Cx.
Þe selkouthes þat þei seighen · her sones for to teche
And helden it an heighe science · her wittes to knowe
Ac þorugh her science sothely · was neuere no soule ysaued
Ne brouȝteBx.12.148: brouȝte: Beta is supported by Cx against alpha's bouȝte. by her bokes · to blisse ne to ioye
For alle her kynde knowynges · comeBx.12.149: come: Past tense plural; cf. the form cam in alpha and also C mss. but of dyuerse sightes
Bx.12.150: : The paraph is in LW with a new line-group in M. Patriarkes and prophetes · repreuedBx.12.150: repreued: Alpha's present tense is clearly wrong; Cx supports beta. her science
And seiden her wordes ne her wisdomesBx.12.151: wisdomes: Though R has the sg., Cx supports beta's plural. · [w]asBx.12.151: was: Alpha's alliterating verb is supported by Cx; the P family have ne was, as of course Bx might have had. but a folye
As to þe clergye of cryst · counted it but a trufle
Sapiencia huius mundi · stulticiaBx.12.153: stulticia: MWCGF correct the quotation by adding est, as in Cx. The medial punctuation, unusual for a non-metrical Latin line (though cf. l. 164), is recorded in LMCrHmF. apud deum
Bx.12.154-64: These 11 lines are lost in alpha, jumping from one Latin line to another, and possibly from paraph to paraph, though only WHm record a paraph at l. 154. The lines are paralleled in Cx, apart from ll. 159 and 164. For þe heihe holigoste · heuene shal to-cleue
And loue shal lepe out after · in-to þis lowe erthe
And clennesse shal cacchen it · and clerkes shullen it fynde
Pastores loquebantur ad inuicem
¶ He speketh þere of riche men riȝt nouȝt · ne of riȝt witty
Ne of lordes þat were lewed men · but of þe hexte lettred oute
Ibant magi ab oriente &c
¶ If any frere were founde þere · Ich ȝif þe fyue shillynges
Ne in none beggares cote · was þat barne borne
But in a burgeys place · of bethlem þe best
Set non eratBx.12.164: erat: Beta2 (CrWHm) adds ei in line with the source; see Alford (1992), 80. locus in diuersorio [·] & pauper non habet diuersorium
¶ To pastours and to poetes [·] appiered þatBx.12.165: þat: So LM. Choice is difficult, since the other beta mss. read þe, as does Cx, while alpha reads an. LM agreement nearly always establishes the beta reading. Perhaps Bx þat was rejected by other beta scribes and by alpha because it has no antecedent. aungel
And bad hem go to bethlem · goddis burth to honoure
And songeBx.12.167: songe (1): R and the P family of C have syngen. a songe of solas · gloria in excelsis deo
Bx.12.168-9: Beta drops 2 lines, both in Cx, perhaps skipping from paraph to paraph. We alter the spellings of R to those of L. [¶ Riche men rutte þo · andBx.12.168: and: R is supported by Cx against F's þat. in here reste were
Þo it shon so to shepherdesBx.12.169: R's a-verse is supported by Cx. · a shewer of blisse]
Bx.12.170: : The paraph is in beta only, following its loss of text. See note to ll. 168-9. ClerkesBx.12.170: Clerkes: Alpha's addition of And is not supported by Cx. knewe it wel · and comen with here presentz
And deden her homage honourabelyBx.12.171: honourabely: L miswrites the word. · to hym þat was almyȝtyBx.12.171: CGO follow with a spurious line.
Why I haue toldeBx.12.172: tolde: So evidently beta, though CGO add þe. R also has þe, probably representing alpha (F alters to told þis tale). Most C mss. have þe, though ms. X is without it. It seems easier added than lost. al þis · I toke ful gode hede
How þow contraryedest clergye · with crabbed wordes
How þat lewed men liȝtloker · þan lettred were saued
Þan clerkes or kynde-witted men · of crystene peple
¶ And þow seidest soth of somme · ac se in what manereBx.12.176: what manere: R offers an extreme example of his willingness to reproduce his exemplar with whanere. F makes sense of it.
Take two stronge men · and in themese caste hem
And bothe naked as a nedle · her none sykerBx.12.178: syker: The agreement of L, original M and R is sufficient to establish Bx. Others (including M) make the obvious correction to sikerer, "stronger" (MED siker 2 (b)), though see KD p. 179, who conjecture an original reading sadder. Cx has instead heuegore, "heavier". See Adams (2000), 179. þan other
Þat one hath connynge and can [·] swymmen and dyuen
Þat other is lewed of þat laboure · lerned neuere swymmeBx.12.180: swymme: LWR; as often, scribes tend to add the infinitive marker to. In C the X family has it, but the P family is without.
Which trowestow of þo two · in themese is in moste drede
He þat neuere neBx.12.182: ne (1): As in LWCO, but not in MCrHmG and alpha. It improves the alliteration, yet may not be Bx. Cx revises to alliterate on /s/. dyued · ne nouȝt can of swymmynge
Or þe swymmere þat is sauf · bi so hym-self lyke
Þere his felaw flet forth · as þe flode lyketh
And is in drede to drenche · þat neuere dede swymme
Bx.12.186: Alpha drops the line, which is supported by Cx. Its loss is easily accounted for if Bx had the paraph that is recorded only by L (though MW have a line-space). See Burrow (2010), 25. ¶ Þat swymme can nouȝt I seide · it semeth to my wittes
¶ Riȝt so quod þe Renke [·] resoun it sheweth
Þat he þat knoweth clergye [·] can sonner aryse
Out of synne and beBx.12.189: be: CrR have he be. It is not supported by Cx. sauf · þough he synne ofte
If hym lyketh and lest · þan any lewed lelly
For if þe clerke be konnynge · he knoweth what is synne
And how contricioun with-oute confessioun · conforteth þe soule
As þow seest in þe sauter · in psalmeBx.12.193: psalme: The odd sg. is certainly Bx; it is the reading of LMR (and F), though M corrects to the more obvious plural. Cx has the plural. one or tweyne
How contricioun is commended · for it caccheth awey synne
Beati quorum remisse sunt iniquitates & quorum tecta sunt &cBx.12.195: &c: Alpha adds peccata. The familiar verse from Psalm 31.1 is quoted in part several times; cf. Bx.13.56, 14.103. Cx ends with iniquitates. ·
And þis conforteth vch a clerke · and keuerethBx.12.196: keuereth: Supported by Cx (and sense) against alpha's kenneth. hym fram wanhope
In which flode þe fende · fondeth a man hardest
Þere þe lewed lith stille · and loketh after lente
And hath no contricioun ar he come to shryfte · & þanneBx.12.199: þanne: Beta has support from Cx against alpha's omission. can he litel telle
AndBx.12.200: And: WHm + F have But. Although this reading is preferable and is supported by Cx, it is unlikely to be the Bx reading. as his lores-man leres hym · bileueth & troweth
And þat is after person or parisch prest · and parauenture [bothe]Bx.12.201: bothe: Beta drops, and WO expand a short b-verse. Alpha is supported by Cx, which, however, indicates that Bx broke the line too early. Cx reads paraunter bothe lewede / To lere lewede men ... (RK.14.123-4).
Vnconnynge to lere lewed men · as luk bereth witnesse
Dum cecus ducit cecum &c ·
¶ Wo was hym marked · þat wade mote with þe lewedBx.12.204: Alpha drops the line, which is preserved in Cx.
Wel may þe barne blisse · þat hym to boke setteBx.12.205: to boke sette: Beta is supported by Cx and by the alliterative pattern against alpha's sette to scole.
Þat lyuynge after letterure [·] saued hym lyf and soule
Dominus pars hereditatis mee [·] is a meri verset
Þat has take fro tybourne · twenti stronge þeues
Þere lewed theues ben lolled vp · loke how þei be saued
Þe thef þat had grace of god · on gode fryday as þow spekeBx.12.210: speke: Past tense 2nd sg. (cf. CrCG), misunderstood as present by WHmO. Cx reads toldest.
Was for he ȝelte hym creauntBx.12.211: creaunt: MR read recreaunt. Cx has the shorter form. to cryst on þe crosseBx.12.211: on þe crosse: Not in Cx, but certainly in Bx, perhaps as a gloss. CrHmF adopt different ways of shortening the line. For the same phrase see l. 234. · & knewleched hym gulty
Bx.12.212: The line is dropped in alpha. W strengthens the alliteration. Cx has And god is ay gracious to alle þat gredeth to hym (RK.14.133). And grace axed of god · and he is euer redy
Þat boxomeliche biddeth it · and ben in wille to amenden hem
Bx.12.214: Hm and alpha start a new paragraph here.Ac þough þat þef had heuene · he hadde none heigh blisse
As seynt Iohan and other seyntes · þat asseruedBx.12.215: asserued: Supported for Bx by LR and the majority of C mss. against the common deserued of other B witnesses. See Adams (2000), 184. hadde bettere
Riȝt as sum man ȝeue me mete · and sette me amydde þe flore
Ich haue mete more þan ynough · ac nouȝt so moche worship
As þo þat seten atte syde table · or with þe souereignes of þe halle
But sitte as a begger bordelees · bi my-self on þe grounde
So it fareth bi þat feloun · þat a gode fryday was saued
He sitte neither with SeyntBx.12.221: Seynt: Alpha drops the word, but it is necessary for the alliteration and supported by Cx. Iohan · SymondeBx.12.221: Symonde: R begins the b-verse with ne perhaps correctly (F rewrites). In C the X family has it, the P family is without. ne Iude
Ne wyth maydenes ne with martires [·] [ne]Bx.12.222: ne (3): In this case the support for R's ne is stronger (cf. previous line). Though F and Cx revise, they share the ne at the start of the b-verse. confessoures ne wydwes
But by hym-self as a soleyne · and serued on þeBx.12.223: þe: Lost by beta2 (CrWHm). erthe
For he þat is ones a thef · is euermore in daungere
And as lawe lyketh · to lyue or to deye
De peccato propiciato noli esse sine metu
And forto seruen a seynt · and such a thef togyderes
It were noyther resoun ne riȝt · to rewarde botheBx.12.228: bothe: Following R, supported by Cx (RK.14.148). MF substitute hem, while all beta mss. apart from M have hem bothe. aliche
Bx.12.229: : The paraph is recorded by LW, with M starting a new line-group. And riȝt as troianus þe trewe knyȝt · tildeBx.12.229: tilde: Beta2 (CrWHm) has the easier dwelte. nouȝt depe in helle
Þat owre lorde ne had hym liȝtlich oute · so leue I þe thefBx.12.230: thef: Alpha, reproduced by R, misread þe þef and lost the noun; F repairs. be in heuene
For he is in þe lowest of heueneBx.12.231: lowest of heuene: "lowest part of heaven"; so LWHmR and the X family of C. MCrCGO omit of, as does the P family. · if owre bileue be trewe
And wel loselycheBx.12.232: loselyche: Commentators take this as a form of MED losli(e, "loosely", interpreting "precariously" (Kane (2005)). It is clear that some scribes also took it this way (so CG lowselyche, F loosly), but the careful beta2 spelling loselly suggests instead derivation from losel, "worthless person", as in Bx.P.77, 10.52, 15.142. C scribes had considerable difficulty with the word, the majority taking it as a form of loveli. he lolleth þere · by þe lawe of holycherche
Quia redditBx.12.233: Quia reddit: The beta reading; beta2 (CrWHm) begins Qui, and M is altered to that reading. Alpha, represented by R, begins And reddite, which may be right, since Cx has Et reddet. The injunction is phrased variously throughout the Bible: see Alford (1992), 80. vnicuique iuxta opera sua &c
¶ A[c]Bx.12.234: Ac: The alpha reading, as in R, with F altering to But as usual. It is supported by Cx. why þat one thef onBx.12.234: on: Beta, together with F, against R's vpon. Choice is difficult, since C mss. also vary, but Cx probably had vpon. þe crosse · creaunt hym ȝelt
Rather þan þat other thef · þough þow wolde appose
Alle þe clerkes vnder cryst · ne couthe þe skil assoilleBx.12.236: assoile: Beta supported by Cx, against alpha's telle.
Quare placuit quia voluit
[¶]Bx.12.238: : The paraph, though not in L, is recorded in beta2 and alpha. And so I sey by þe · þat sekest after þe whyes
And aresonedest resoun · a rebukyng as it were
Bx.12.240-3: The syntax makes it clear that alpha's order is right. Beta reverses it through eyeskip from it were in l. 239 to it were in l. 241, supplying skipped 240-1 after 242-3. Only Bx.12.242 is in Cx (RK.14.158). [And willest of briddes and ofBx.12.240: of (2): Omitted by CrCGO and supplied in L, but supported by MWHmR. bestes · and of hire bredyng toBx.12.240: to: Dropped in HmCGO. knowe
Why somme be alowe and somme alofte · þi lykyng it were
And of þe floures in þe fryth · and of her feire hewes
Where-of þei cacche her colouresBx.12.243: coloures: Beta's pl. follows from hewes in the previous line, though alpha has the sg. There is no parallel for Bx.12.243-82 in Cx. · so clere and so briȝte]
And of þe stones and of þe sterres · þow studyest as I leue
How euere beste or brydde · hath so breme wittes
¶ Clergye ne kynde witte [·] ne knewe neuere þe cause
Ac kynde knoweth þe cause hym-selue · no creature elles
He is þe pyes patroun · and putteth it in hire ere
Þat þere þe þorne is thikkest · [þere]Bx.12.249: þere (2): The repetition as in alpha clarifies the syntax and provides b-verse alliteration, though without it the pattern aaa/bb would be satisfactory. to buylden and brede
And kynde kennedBx.12.250: kenned: The past tense is supported by LMWR; cf. the next line. þe pecok · to cauken in swich a kynde
And [kynde]Bx.12.251: kynde: Easily lost before kennede in beta, especially in the context of the punning kynde in the previous line. It provides alliteration for the a-verse. kenned Adam · to knowe his pryue membres
And tauȝte hym and Eue · to hylien hem with leues
¶ Lewed men many tymes · maistres þei apposen
Why Adam neBx.12.254: ne: Supported by LMWR. hiled nouȝt firste · his mouth þat eet þe apple
Rather þan his lykam alow · lewed axen þus clerkes
Kynde knoweth whi he dede so · ac no clerke elles
Ac of briddes and of bestes · men by olde tyme
Ensamples token and termes · as telleth þis poetes
And þat þe fairest foule · foulest engendreth
And feblest foule of flyght is · þat fleegheth or swymmeth
And þat isBx.12.261: þat is: WHm drop is, and Cr drops both words. þe pekok & þe pohenne proude ·Bx.12.261: In LMR the punctuation follows pohenne proude. In beta2 and O the punctuation precedes proude riche, while C drops proude. There is better support for proude as qualifying pohenne in an aaa/xx line. The usual word-order in Middle English is adj. + n. + adj. rather than adj. + adj. + n. riche men þeiBx.12.261: þei: Dropped in WHm. bitokneth
For þe pekok and men pursue hym · mayBx.12.262: may: R's ne may could be alpha, since F has he may, but note that Cr adds he. nouȝte fleighe heighe
For þe traillyng of his taille · ouertaken is he sone
And his flesshe is foule flesshe · and his feet bothe
And vnlouelich of ledene · and laith for to here
¶ Riȝt so þe riche [·] if he his ricchesse kepe
And deleth it nouȝt tyl his deth-day · þe tailleBx.12.267: taille: "tally", with a pun on "tail". M is altered to conform to Beta2. M also adds is, which improves the syntax but is not Bx. of al sorwe
Riȝt as þe pennes of þe pecok · paynedBx.12.268: payned: M alters to the expected present tense, in line with CrW, and OF also have the present, but the past is supported by LHmCGR. hym in his fliȝte
So is possessioun payne · of pens and of nobles
To alle hem þat it holdeth · til her taille be plukked
And þough þe riche repente þanne · and birewe þe tyme
Þat euere he gadered so grete · and gaf þere-of so litel
Þough he crye to cryst þanne · with kene wille I leue
His ledne be in owre lordes ere · lyke a pyesBx.12.274: pyes: The M corrector adds chiteryng to bring the text in line with Beta2 (CrWHm). Clearly the Bx b-verse (attested by LR, original M, as well as CGO) is too short. F rewrites. Schmidt (1995), 389, conjectures misdivision between ll. 273-4, with I leue beginning l. 274 and the a-verse ending be.
And whan his caroigne shal come · in caue to be buryed
I leue it flaumbe ful foule · þe folde al aboute
And alle þe other þer it lyth · enuenymedBx.12.277: enuenymed: p.ppl., with "are" understood. The reading of LCrR and probably original M, subsequently corrected to the easier present tense of all other mss. þorgh his attere
By þe p[o]feetBx.12.278: pofeet: The L scribe writes the word correctly and then alters it to profeet. is vnderstonde · as I haue lerned in auynet
E[x]ecutoures fals frendes · þat fulfille nouȝt his wille
Þat was writen and þei witnesseBx.12.280: witnesse: A noun, sg. or pl., "they as witness(es)". R is unambiguously plural. See note to Bx.12.136. · to worche riȝt as itBx.12.280: it: So beta, against alpha he. See KD, p. 146, who explain it as referring to "the actual testamentary document". wolde
Þus þe poete preues ·Bx.12.281: W shows understandable uncertainty over the placing of the half-line break, with punctuation after both preueþ and pecok; LMR support the former. þat þe pecok for his fetheres is reuerenced
Riȝt so is þe riche · bi resoun of his godis
¶ Þe larke þat is a lasse foule · is more louelich of ledne
And wel awey of wenge [·] swifter þan þe pecok
And of flesch by fele-folde · fatter and swetter
To lowe-lybbyng men · þe larke is resembled
¶ ArestotleBx.12.287: Arestotle: Alpha begins For aristotel. We follow copy-text. þe grete clerke [·] suche tales he telleth
Bx.12.288: Only L has a paraph.Thus he lykneth in his logykBx.12.288: logyk: Beta is supported by the alliteration and by Cx; alpha has glosinge. · þe leste foule oute
And where he be sauf or nouȝt saufBx.12.289: sauf (2): CrCGOF omit, but it is supported by Cx (RK.14.192). · þe sothe wote no clergye
Ne of sortes ne of salamon · no scripture can telle
Ac god is so good I hope · þat sitth he gaf hem wittis
To wissen vs weyes þere-with · þat wissenBx.12.292: wissen (2): A spelling of "wish", influenced by (and punning on) wissen in the a-verse. vs to be saued
And þe better for her bokes · to bidden we ben holden
Þat god for his grace [·] gyue her soulesBx.12.294: soules: Beta's plural is supported by Cx. reste
For lettred men were lewed menBx.12.295: men (2): Omitted by CGOF, but supported by Cx. ȝut · ne were lore of herBx.12.295: her: Beta only, since R has þe and F omits. Cx probably reads þo clerkes. bokes
¶ Alle þise clerkes quod I þo · þat on cryst leuen
Seggen in her sarmones · þat noyther sarasenes ne iewes
Ne no creature of cristes lyknesse · with-outen crystendome worth saued
Contra quod ymagynatyf þo · and comsed for to loure
And seyde saluabitur vix iustus in die iudicij
Bx.12.301: : The paraph is recorded by LR only. Ergo saluabitur quod he · and seyde namore latyne
Troianus was a trewe knyȝte · and toke neuere cristendome
And he isBx.12.303: is: Since this is omitted in R and inserted in L, it is possible that the ellipsis is Bx; however the verb is in Cx. sauf so seith þe boke · and his soule in heuene
[Ac]Bx.12.304: Ac: R (= alpha, F has But as usual) is supported by the X family of C (most of the P family omit the conjunction). Schmidt (1995), 457, argues that it "has the force of Sed in scholastic debate (`but) now'". However, it might have been picked up from l. 307. For discussion of the passage see Burrow (1993), 13-14. þere is fullyng of fonte · and fullyng in blode shedyng
And þorugh fuire is fullyng · and þat is ferme bileue
Aduenit ignis diuinus non comburens sed illuminans &c ·
¶ Ac trewth þat trespassed neuere · ne transuersedBx.12.307: transuersed: Though most beta mss. have trauersed, the form in LCr and alpha is also in many C mss. and is the Cx form at RK.3.446. The two verbs are of the same ultimate origin. aȝeines his lawe
But lyue[d] as his lawe t[auȝte]Bx.12.308: lyued ... tauȝte: Alpha's past tense is supported by Cx. · and leueth þere be no bettere
And if þere were he wolde amende · and in suche wille deyeth
Ne wolde neuere trewe god · but [trewe]Bx.12.310: trewe (2): Beta drops the adjective and F rewrites; R is supported by Cx. treuth were allowed
And where it worth or worth nouȝtBx.12.311: The a-verse is supported by LMR, with minor variations in the other mss. Where and were are both forms of "whether" as in W; see MED whether adv. & conj. C mss. vary similarly, with the P family reversing the order of worth nouȝt. · þe bileue is grete of treuth
And an hope hangyng þer-inne · to haue aBx.12.312: a: Supported by LWHmR. Cx rewrites the b-verse. Mede for his treuth
For deus dicitur quasi dans vitam eternam · suis hoc est fidelibus
Et alibi si ambulauero in medio vmbre mortis
Þe glose graunteth vpon þat vers · a gret mede to treuthe
And witt and wisdome quod þat wye · was somme-tyme tresore
To kepe with a comune · no katel was holde bettere
And moche murth and manhod · and riȝt withBx.12.318: with: Schmidt adopts R's mid for alliteration; see Schmidt (2008), 412. It would be easy to suppose that this was independently altered by F and beta, but Cx has þerwith following a different a-verse. þat he vanesched