<head><foreign>Passus duodecimus</foreign></head>
<l> I am ymagynatyf quod he · Idel was I neuere</l>
<l> Þouȝe I sitte bi my-self · in sikenesse ne<note>Bx.12.2: <hi>ne</hi>: So LMR, defining <hi>neuere</hi>. The <hi>and</hi> of most other mss. is an obvious easier reading, defining the a-verse. See Adams (2000), 179.</note> in helthe</l>
<l> I haue folwed þe in feithe · þis fyue and fourty wyntre</l>
<l> And many tymes haue moeued þe · to þinke on þine ende</l>
<l> And how fele fernȝeres are faren · and so fewe to come</l>
<l> And of þi wylde wantounesse · þo þow ȝonge were</l>
<l> To amende it in þi myddel age · lest miȝte þe faylled<note>Bx.12.7: <hi>faylled</hi>: L and beta2 (CrWHm) have the past subjunctive, "were to fail", which is perhaps less obvious than the present <hi>faile</hi> of all other mss. There is no parallel in <hi>C</hi> for <hi>Bx</hi>.12.4-61.</note></l>
<l> In þyne olde elde · þat yuel can suffre</l>
<l> Pouerte or penaunce · or preyeres bidde</l>
<l> <foreign>Si non in prima vigilia · nec in secunda &c</foreign></l>
<l> Amende þe while þow myȝte · þow hast ben warned ofte</l>
<l> With poustees of pestilences<note>Bx.12.12: <hi>pestilences</hi>: Alpha's <hi>penaunce(s)</hi> is a curious error.</note> [·] with pouerte and with angres</l>
<l> And with þise bitter baleyses · god beteth his dere childeren</l>
<l> <foreign>Quem diligo castigo</foreign></l>
<l> <note>Bx.12.15-16: Alpha omits two lines.</note> And dauid in þe sauter seith · of suche þat loueth Ihesus</l>
<l> <foreign>Virga tua & baculus tuus ipsa me consolata sunt &c</foreign></l>
<l> Al-þough þow stryke me with þi staffe · with stikke or with ȝerde</l>
<l> It is but murth as for me [·] to amende my soule</l>
<l> And þow medlest þe with makyng[e]<note>Bx.12.19: <hi>makynge</hi>: Alpha has the sg. and all beta mss. except M have the plural. There is a parallel with the John But ending of <hi>A</hi>, presumably derived from this line, <hi>And for he medleþ of makyng he made þis ende</hi> (K.12.109).</note> · and myȝtest go sey þi sauter</l>
<l> And bidde for hem þat ȝiueth þe bred · for þere ar bokes ynowe</l>
<l> To telle men what dowel is · dobet and dobest bothe</l>
<l> And prechoures to preue what it is · of many a peyre freres</l>
<l> ¶ I seigh wel he sayde me soth · and<note>Bx.12.23: <hi>and</hi>: R's <hi>ac</hi> may represent alpha, with F substituting <hi>and</hi>, in coincidental agreement with beta.</note> somwhat me to excuse</l>
<l> Seid<note>Bx.12.24: <hi>Seid</hi>: Alpha begins <hi>And seide</hi>, to the detriment of the syntax.</note> catoun conforted his sone · þat clerke þough he were</l>
<l> To solacen hym sum-tyme · as<note>Bx.12.25: <hi>as</hi>: Alpha has <hi>and</hi>, though in a rewritten b-verse in F.</note> I do whan I make</l>
<l> <foreign>Interpone tuis interdum gaudia curis · &c ·</foreign></l>
<l><note>Bx.12.27: <hi></hi>: The paraph is in LWHm only, perhaps prompted by the preceding Latin line.</note> And of holy men I herde<note>Bx.12.27: <hi>herde</hi>: Alpha has the present tense, which may be correct.</note> quod I · how þei otherwhile</l>
<l> Pleyden þe parfiter · to be in many places<note>Bx.12.28: <hi>places</hi>: R's <hi>a place</hi> may represent alpha. F rewrites.</note></l>
<l> Ac<note>Bx.12.29: <hi>Ac</hi>: Not in R; F has <hi>Nou</hi>.</note> if þere were any wight · þat wolde me telle</l>
<l> What were dowel and dobet · and dobest atte laste</l>
<l> Wolde I neuere do werke · but wende to holicherche</l>
<l> And þere bydde my bedes · but whan ich eet or slepe</l>
<l> ¶ Poule in his pistle quod he · preueth what is dowel</l>
<l> <foreign>Fides spes caritas &<note>Bx.12.34: <hi><foreign>&</foreign></hi>: Not in alpha. The text cited by Alford (1992), 78-9, has it; the Clementine Vulgate (I Cor. 13.13) is without it.</note> maior horum &c</foreign></l>
<l> Feith hope and charitee · and<note>Bx.12.35: <hi>and</hi> (2): Following the Latin of the previous line, this is dropped in alpha.</note> alle ben good</l>
<l> And sauen men sundry tymes · ac none so sone as charite</l>
<l> For he doth wel with-oute doute · þat doth as lewte techeth</l>
<l> Þat is if þow be man maried · þi make þow louye</l>
<l> And lyue forth as lawe wole · while<note>Bx.12.39: <hi>while</hi>: Variation between <hi>while</hi> and <hi>þe while</hi> is common in this position; e.g. <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.1.16</ref>, <ref>10.156</ref>, <ref>19.342</ref>.</note> ȝe lyuen bothe</l>
<l><note>Bx.12.40: <hi></hi>: The paraph is in beta and F.</note> Riȝt so if þow be Religious · renne þow neuere ferther</l>
<l> To Rome ne to Rochemadore · but as þi reule techeth</l>
<l> And holde þe vnder obedyence · þat heigh wey is to heuene</l>
<l> ¶ And if þow be [mayde &]<note>Bx.12.43: <hi>mayde & to marye</hi>: R's reading means "a maid and (due) to marry", which has more point than beta's <hi>mayden to marye</hi>, and underlines the contrast with l. <ref>38</ref>. F confirms alpha's <hi>mayde</hi>, but simplifies the construction.</note> to marye · and miȝte wel contynue</l>
<l> Seke þow neuere seynt forther · for no soule helthe</l>
<l> For what made Lucyfer · to lese þe heigh heuene</l>
<l> Or salamon his sapience · or sampson his strengthe</l>
<l> Iob þe Iewe his ioye · dere he it abouȝte</l>
<l> Arestotle and other mo · ypocras & virgyle</l>
<l> Alisaundre þat al wan · elengelich ended</l>
<l><note>Bx.12.50: <hi></hi>: The paraph is in LC, with a new line-group in M.</note> Catel and kynde witte · was combraunce to hem alle</l>
<l> Felyce hir fayrnesse · fel hir al to sklaundre</l>
<l> And Rosamounde riȝt so [·] reufully bysette</l>
<l> Þe bewte of hir body · in badnesse she<note>Bx.12.53: <hi>badnesse she</hi>: Alpha's <hi>badd vse</hi> is probably avoidance of a noun rare at this date, though strikingly Langland uses neither the noun <hi>badnesse</hi> nor the adjective <hi>bad</hi> elsewhere.</note> dispended</l>
<l> Of many suche I may<note>Bx.12.54: <hi>I may</hi>: For support for beta's order in this position, cf. <hi>Matrymonye I may nyme</hi> (<ref><hi>Bx</hi>.16.71</ref>).</note> rede · of men and of wommen</l>
<l> Þat wyse wordes wolde shewe · and worche þe contra[r]ye</l>
<l> <foreign>Sunt homines nequam bene de virtute loquentes</foreign></l>
<l><note>Bx.12.57: <hi></hi>: The paraph is in beta and F.</note> And riche renkes riȝt so · gaderen and sparen</l>
<l> And þo men þat þei moste haten · mynistren it atte laste</l>
<l> And for þei suffren & se · so many nedy folkes</l>
<l> And loue hem nouȝt as owre lorde bytte · lesen her soules</l>
<l> <foreign>Date & dabitur vobis &c ·</foreign></l>
<l> <note>Bx.12.62-6: Omitted in beta. The first three lines are in <hi>Cx</hi> (RK.14.17-18a). KD, p. 66, very plausibly suggest the omission was caused by homeoteleuton (<hi>soule(s)</hi> ll. <ref>60</ref>, <ref>65</ref>, followed by a Latin line). We alter the spellings of R to those of L.</note> [So catel and kynde witte · acombreth ful many</l>
<l> Wo is hym þat hem weldeth · but<note>Bx.12.63: <hi>but</hi>: As F and <hi>Cx</hi>. R has <hi>but if</hi>.</note> he hem w[e]l<note>Bx.12.63: <hi>wel</hi>: As F and <hi>Cx</hi>. R has <hi>wil</hi>.</note> dispende</l>
<l> <foreign>Scienti & non facienti variis flagellis vapulabit</foreign><note>Bx.12.64: In part loosely based on Luke 12.47. Alford (1992), 79, quoting the form of the citation adopted by Schmidt and KD from the P family of <hi>C</hi>, does not note the closer parallel in James 4.17, "Scienti igitur bonum facere et non facienti, peccatum est illi". Based on this, F has added <hi>bonum</hi>, but it is not included in R or in mss. of <hi>C</hi>.</note></l>
<l> Sapience seith þe boke · swelleth a mannes soule</l>
<l> <foreign>Sapiencia inflat &c</foreign>]</l>
<l> ¶ And ricchesse riȝt so · but if þe Rote be trewe</l>
<l> Ac grace is a grasse þer-[fore]<note>Bx.12.68: <hi>þer-fore</hi>: Alpha is supported by <hi>Cx</hi> and by sense against beta's <hi>þer-of</hi>. For the sense of <hi>grasse</hi>, "healing herb", see <title>MED</title> <hi>gras</hi> n. 2(b).</note> · þo greuaunces to abate</l>
<l> Ac grace ne groweth nouȝte · but amonges lowe</l>
<l> Pacience<note>Bx.12.70: <hi>Pacience</hi>: R begins <hi>Of pacience</hi>. F drops the line, which is not in <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> and pouerte · þe place is þere it groweth</l>
<l> And in lele lyuynge men · and in lyf-holy</l>
<l> And þorugh þe<note>Bx.12.72: <hi>þe</hi> (1): Not in R. F rewrites.</note> gyfte of þe holygoste · as þe gospel telleth</l>
<l> <foreign>Spiritus vbi vult spirat &c</foreign></l>
<l> Clergye and kynde witte · comth of siȝte and techynge</l>
<l> As þe boke bereth witnesse · to buirnes þat can rede</l>
<l> <foreign>Quod scimus loquimur quod vidimus testamur</foreign></l>
<l> Of <foreign>quod scimus</foreign> cometh clergye · [a]<note>Bx.12.77: <hi>a</hi>: Beta evidently interpreted the indefinite article as a form of <hi>and</hi>. Alpha is supported by the revised line in <hi>Cx</hi> (RK.14.34).</note> connynge of heuene</l>
<l> And of <foreign>quod vidimus</foreign> cometh kynde witte [·] of siȝte of dyue[r]se peple</l>
<l> Ac grace is a gyfte of god · and of gret loue spryngeth</l>
<l> Knewe neuere clerke how it cometh forth · ne kynde witte [his]<note>Bx.12.80: <hi>his</hi>: "its", referring to Grace and following on from <hi>it</hi>. R represents alpha, misunderstood by F. Beta has <hi>þe</hi>.</note> weyes</l>
<l> <foreign>Nescit aliquis vnde venit · aut quo vadit &c</foreign></l>
<l> Ac ȝit is clergye to comende · and kynde witte bothe</l>
<l> And namely clergye for crystes loue · þat of clergye is rote</l>
<l> For Moyses witnesseth þat god wrote · for to wisse þe peple</l>
<l> In þe olde lawe as þe lettre telleth · þat was<note>Bx.12.85: <hi>þat was</hi>: R (= alpha?) drops <hi>þat</hi>; F rewrites. Alpha's reading is quite possibly right, but it is ambiguous, appearing to mean "The Jewish Law was in the Old Law", whereas the line has to mean "In the Old Law, which was the Jewish Law".</note> þe lawe of iewes</l>
<l> Þat what woman were in auoutrie<note>Bx.12.86: <hi>auoutrie</hi>: R has the unusual <hi>deuoutrie</hi> which may be right. See note to <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.2.178</ref>. The line is not in <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> taken · were she<note>Bx.12.86: <hi>were she</hi>: Dropped by Cr and beta4. On WF <hi>where she</hi> see KD, p. 183.</note> riche or pore</l>
<l> With stones men shulde hir stryke · and stone hir to deth</l>
<l> <note>Bx.12.88: Alpha omits the line, as a result of homeoteleuton. (Note that R's form of "death" in l. 87 is <hi>dede</hi>).</note> A womman as we fynden · was gulty of þat dede</l>
<l> Ac cryste of his curteisye · þorw clergye hir saued</l>
<l> For þorw [crystes] carectus<note>Bx.12.90: <hi>crystes carectus</hi>: Beta has instead the clumsier <hi>carectus þat cryst wrot</hi>. It is perhaps more likely that beta was influenced by l. <ref>84</ref> above than that alpha was prompted by l. <ref>100</ref> below. The line is not in <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> · þe iewes knewe hem-seluen</l>
<l> Gultier as afor god · and gretter in synne</l>
<l> Þan þe woman þat þere was · and wenten awey for schame</l>
<l> Þe clergye þat þere was · conforted þe womman</l>
<l> Holykirke knoweth þis · þat crystes writyng saued<note>Bx.12.94: <hi>saued</hi>: Beta2 (CrWHm) has <hi>saued hire</hi>, and M is corrected to that reading. F has <hi>hire savede</hi>. Cf. l. <ref>89</ref>.</note></l>
<l> So clergye is conforte · to creatures þat repenten</l>
<l> And to mansed men · myschief at her ende</l>
<l> ¶ For goddes body myȝte nouȝte be of bred · with-outen clergye</l>
<l> Þe which body is bothe · bote to þe riȝtful</l>
<l> And deth and dampnacioun · to hem þat dyeth yuel</l>
<l> As<note>Bx.12.100: <hi>As</hi>: R's <hi>Ac</hi> may be taken as alpha (F has <hi>But</hi> as often). The sense is "just as Christ's writing both comforted the woman and revealed her to be guilty". But correlative <hi>bothe</hi> is oddly placed.</note> crystes carecte conforted [·] and bothe coupable shewed</l>
<l> Þe womman þat þe iewes brouȝte · þat Ihesus þouȝte to saue</l>
<l> <foreign>Nolite iudicare et non iudicabimini &c</foreign></l>
<l> Riȝt so goddes body bretheren · but it be worthily taken</l>
<l> Dampneth vs atte daye of dome · as [dede] þe carect[e]<note>Bx.12.104: <hi>dede þe carecte</hi>: We follow alpha in the word-order and the sg. noun. Beta has reverted to unmarked order, spoiling the metre. For sg. <hi>carecte</hi>, "writing", altered to pl. by some scribes, cf. l. <ref>100</ref>.</note> þe iewes</l>
<l> For-þi I conseille þe for cristes sake · clergye þat þow louye</l>
<l> For kynde witte is of his kyn · and neighe cosynes bothe</l>
<l> To owre lorde leue me · for-þi loue hem I rede</l>
<l> For bothe ben as miroures · to amenden owre defautes</l>
<l> And lederes for lewed men · and for lettred bothe</l>
<l><note>Bx.12.110: <hi></hi>: The paraph is in beta and F.</note> For-þi lakke þow neuere logyke · lawe ne his custumes</l>
<l> Ne countreplede clerkes · I conseille þe for eure</l>
<l> For as a man may nouȝt se · þat mysseth his eyghen<note>Bx.12.112: <hi>eyghen</hi>: Beta is supported by <hi>Cx</hi> against alpha's <hi>siȝte</hi>.</note></l>
<l> Namore can no klerke · but if he cauȝt it first þorugh bokes</l>
<l> Al-þough men made bokes · god was þe maistre</l>
<l> And seynt spirit þe saumplarye · and seide what men<note>Bx.12.115: <hi>men</hi>: Alpha and O have <hi>man</hi>, as in the next line, but <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with beta.</note> sholde write</l>
<l> And riȝt as syȝte serueth a man · to se þe heighe strete</l>
<l> Riȝt so le[r]eth<note>Bx.12.117: <hi>lereth</hi>: So alpha, supported by <hi>Cx</hi> (RK.14.49). Beta's <hi>ledeth</hi> makes excellent sense.</note> letterure · lewed men to resoun</l>
<l> And as a blynde man in bataille · bereth wepne to fiȝte</l>
<l> And hath none happ with his axe · his enemye to hitte</l>
<l> Namore kan a kynde-witted<note>Bx.12.120: <hi>kynde-witted</hi>: "with innate intelligence". R's <hi>kende wedded</hi> presumably represents alpha, with F rewriting as <hi>lewid</hi> to make sense.</note> man · but clerkes hym teche</l>
<l> Come for al his kynde witte · to crystendome and be saued</l>
<l> Whiche is þe coffre of crystes tresore · and clerkes kepe þe keyes</l>
<l> To vnlouken it at her lykynge · and to þe lewed peple</l>
<l> Ȝyue<note>Bx.12.124: <hi>Ȝyue</hi>: Beta is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>. The readings of RF reflect confusion in alpha.</note> mercy for her mysdedes · if men it wole aske</l>
<l> Buxomelich & benygneliche · and bidden it of grace</l>
<l><foreign>Archa dei</foreign> in þe olde lawe · leuites it kepten</l>
<l> Hadde neuere lewed man leue · to leggen honde on þat<note>Bx.12.127: <hi>þat</hi>: Evidently the <hi>Bx</hi> reading supported by <hi>Cx</hi>, though MCGO have <hi>þe</hi> and F rewrites.</note> chest</l>
<l> But he were preste or prestes sone · patriarke or prophete</l>
<l> <note>Bx.12.129-39: Beta drops 11 lines, presumably skipping from paraph to paraph. <hi>Cx</hi> has parallels for all except ll. 131-2. We alter the spellings of R to those of L.</note> [¶ Saul for he sacrifised<note>Bx.12.129: <hi>he sacrifised</hi>: R's a-verse is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> · sorwe hym bitydde</l>
<l> And his sones also · for þat synne myscheued</l>
<l> And many mo other men · þat were no leuites</l>
<l> Þat with <foreign>archa dei</foreign> ȝeden<note>Bx.12.132: <hi>ȝeden</hi>: For alliteration of <hi>ȝede</hi> with vowels, see Turville-Petre (1980), 314, and cf. e.g. <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.11.357</ref>, <ref>20.136</ref>, and <ref>16.178</ref> "And ȝede forth as an ydiote · in contre to aspye", which also has the mute stave <hi>in</hi>. KD instead adopt F's <hi>wentyn</hi> and the b-verse order (based on F) <hi>worship and reuerence</hi>. There is no parallel in <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> · in reuerence and in worship</l>
<l> And leyden honde þer-on to liften it vp · and loren her lif after<note>Bx.12.133: The line is not in the P family of <hi>Cx</hi>. In the X family it reads: "And all lewede þat leide hand þeron loren lyf aftir" (RK.14.63). Alpha clearly had <hi>and</hi> before <hi>loren</hi>, spoiling the construction.</note></l>
<l> For-þi I conseille alle creatures · no clergie to<note>Bx.12.134: <hi>to</hi>: R is supported by <hi>Cx</hi> against F's <hi>yee</hi>.</note> dispise</l>
<l> Ne sette shorte<note>Bx.12.135: <hi>shorte</hi>: R is supported by <hi>Cx</hi> against <hi>lyght</hi> in F.</note> be here science · what-so þei don hem-selue</l>
<l> Take we<note>Bx.12.136: <hi>we</hi>: F omits, but R is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> her wordes at worthe · for<note>Bx.12.136: <hi>for</hi>: F omits, but R is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> here witnesse<note>Bx.12.136: <hi>witnesse</hi>: A plural form (see <title>MED</title>), as unambiguously spelt by F. <hi>C</hi> mss. split, but the most authoritative have <hi>witnesses</hi>. Cf. <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.2.149</ref>, <ref>9.77</ref> (and note), <ref>12.280</ref> (and note).</note> be trewe</l>
<l> And medle<note>Bx.12.137: <hi>medle</hi>: Both F and <hi>Cx</hi> omit R's <hi>ne</hi>, but in other respects R's line is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>. F rewrites for the sense.</note> we nauȝt muche with hem · to meuen any wrathe</l>
<l> Lest cheste chasen<note>Bx.12.138: <hi>chasen</hi>: <hi>Cx</hi> has the line as in R, but with <hi>chaufen</hi> "inflame"; <hi>chasen</hi> is surely an alpha or <hi>Bx</hi> error.</note> vs · to choppe vche man other</l>
<l> <foreign>Nolite tangere christos meos &c</foreign>]</l>
<l> ¶ For clergye is kepere<note>Bx.12.140: <hi>kepere</hi>: So beta. R has <hi>kynge and kepere</hi>, F has <hi>keye & kepere</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> rewrites the line.</note> [·] vnder cryst of heuene</l>
<l> Was þere neuere no knyȝte · but clergye hym made</l>
<l> Ac kynde witte cometh [·] of alkynnes siȝtes</l>
<l> Of bryddes and of bestes · of tastes of treuthe and of deceytes</l>
<l> ¶ Lyueres to-forn vs · vseden to marke<note>Bx.12.144: <hi>marke</hi>: Alpha's <hi>make</hi> is obviously wrong. Beta is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note></l>
<l> Þe selkouthes þat þei seighen · her sones for to teche</l>
<l> And helden it an heighe science · her wittes to knowe</l>
<l> Ac þorugh her science sothely · was neuere no soule ysaued</l>
<l> Ne brouȝte<note>Bx.12.148: <hi>brouȝte</hi>: Beta is supported by <hi>Cx</hi> against alpha's <hi>bouȝte</hi>.</note> by her bokes · to blisse ne to ioye</l>
<l> For alle her kynde knowynges · come<note>Bx.12.149: <hi>come</hi>: Past tense plural; cf. the form <hi>cam</hi> in alpha and also <hi>C</hi> mss.</note> but of dyuerse sightes</l>
<l><note>Bx.12.150: <hi></hi>: The paraph is in LW with a new line-group in M.</note> Patriarkes and prophetes · repreued<note>Bx.12.150: <hi>repreued</hi>: Alpha's present tense is clearly wrong; <hi>Cx</hi> supports beta.</note> her science</l>
<l> And seiden her wordes ne her wisdomes<note>Bx.12.151: <hi>wisdomes</hi>: Though R has the sg., <hi>Cx</hi> supports beta's plural.</note> · [w]as<note>Bx.12.151: <hi>was</hi>: Alpha's alliterating verb is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>; the P family have <hi>ne was</hi>, as of course <hi>Bx</hi> might have had.</note> but a folye</l>
<l> As to þe clergye of cryst · counted it but a trufle</l>
<l> <foreign>Sapiencia huius mundi · stulticia<note>Bx.12.153: <hi><foreign>stulticia</foreign></hi>: MWCGF correct the quotation by adding <hi>est</hi>, as in <hi>Cx</hi>. The medial punctuation, unusual for a non-metrical Latin line (though cf. l. <ref>164</ref>), is recorded in LMCrHmF.</note> apud deum</foreign></l>
<l> <note>Bx.12.154-64: These 11 lines are lost in alpha, jumping from one Latin line to another, and possibly from paraph to paraph, though only WHm record a paraph at l. 154. The lines are paralleled in <hi>Cx</hi>, apart from ll. 159 and 164.</note> For þe heihe holigoste · heuene shal to-cleue</l>
<l> And loue shal lepe out after · in-to þis lowe erthe</l>
<l> And clennesse shal cacchen it · and clerkes shullen it fynde</l>
<l> <foreign>Pastores loquebantur ad inuicem</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ He speketh þere of riche men riȝt nouȝt · ne of riȝt witty</l>
<l> Ne of lordes þat were lewed men · but of þe hexte lettred oute</l>
<l> <foreign>Ibant magi ab oriente &c</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ If any frere were founde þere · Ich ȝif þe fyue shillynges</l>
<l> Ne in none beggares cote · was þat barne borne</l>
<l> But in a burgeys place · of bethlem þe best</l>
<l> <foreign>Set non erat<note>Bx.12.164: <hi><foreign>erat</foreign></hi>: Beta2 (CrWHm) adds <hi>ei</hi> in line with the source; see Alford (1992), 80.</note> locus in diuersorio [·] & pauper non habet diuersorium</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ To pastours and to poetes [·] appiered þat<note>Bx.12.165: <hi>þat</hi>: So LM. Choice is difficult, since the other beta mss. read <hi>þe</hi>, as does <hi>Cx</hi>, while alpha reads <hi>an</hi>. LM agreement nearly always establishes the beta reading. Perhaps <hi>Bx</hi> <hi>þat</hi> was rejected by other beta scribes and by alpha because it has no antecedent.</note> aungel</l>
<l> And bad hem go to bethlem · goddis burth to honoure</l>
<l> And songe<note>Bx.12.167: <hi>songe</hi> (1): R and the P family of <hi>C</hi> have <hi>syngen</hi>.</note> a songe of solas · <foreign>gloria in excelsis deo</foreign></l>
<l> <note>Bx.12.168-9: Beta drops 2 lines, both in <hi>Cx</hi>, perhaps skipping from paraph to paraph. We alter the spellings of R to those of L.</note> [¶ Riche men rutte þo · and<note>Bx.12.168: <hi>and</hi>: R is supported by <hi>Cx</hi> against F's <hi>þat</hi>.</note> in here reste were</l>
<l> Þo it shon so to shepherdes<note>Bx.12.169: R's a-verse is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> · a shewer of blisse]</l>
<l><note>Bx.12.170: <hi></hi>: The paraph is in beta only, following its loss of text. See note to ll. <ref>168-9</ref>.</note> Clerkes<note>Bx.12.170: <hi>Clerkes</hi>: Alpha's addition of <hi>And</hi> is not supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> knewe it wel · and comen with here presentz</l>
<l> And deden her homage honourabely<note>Bx.12.171: <hi>honourabely</hi>: L miswrites the word.</note> · to hym þat was almyȝty<note>Bx.12.171: CGO follow with a spurious line.</note></l>
<l> Why I haue tolde<note>Bx.12.172: <hi>tolde</hi>: So evidently beta, though CGO add <hi>þe</hi>. R also has <hi>þe</hi>, probably representing alpha (F alters to <hi>told þis tale</hi>). Most <hi>C</hi> mss. have <hi>þe</hi>, though ms. X is without it. It seems easier added than lost.</note> al þis · I toke ful gode hede</l>
<l> How þow contraryedest clergye · with crabbed wordes</l>
<l> How þat lewed men liȝtloker · þan lettred were saued</l>
<l> Þan clerkes or kynde-witted men · of crystene peple</l>
<l> ¶ And þow seidest soth of somme · ac se in what manere<note>Bx.12.176: <hi>what manere</hi>: R offers an extreme example of his willingness to reproduce his exemplar with <hi>whanere</hi>. F makes sense of it.</note></l>
<l> Take two stronge men · and in themese caste hem</l>
<l> And bothe naked as a nedle · her none syker<note>Bx.12.178: <hi>syker</hi>: The agreement of L, original M and R is sufficient to establish <hi>Bx</hi>. Others (including M) make the obvious correction to <hi>sikerer</hi>, "stronger" (<title>MED</title> <hi>siker</hi> 2 (b)), though see KD p. 179, who conjecture an original reading <hi>sadder</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> has instead <hi>heuegore</hi>, "heavier". See Adams (2000), 179.</note> þan other</l>
<l> Þat one hath connynge and can [·] swymmen and dyuen</l>
<l> Þat other is lewed of þat laboure · lerned neuere swymme<note>Bx.12.180: <hi>swymme</hi>: LWR; as often, scribes tend to add the infinitive marker <hi>to</hi>. In <hi>C</hi> the X family has it, but the P family is without.</note></l>
<l> Which trowestow of þo two · in themese is in moste drede</l>
<l> He þat neuere ne<note>Bx.12.182: <hi>ne</hi> (1): As in LWCO, but not in MCrHmG and alpha. It improves the alliteration, yet may not be <hi>Bx</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> revises to alliterate on /s/.</note> dyued · ne nouȝt can of swymmynge</l>
<l> Or þe swymmere þat is sauf · bi so hym-self lyke</l>
<l> Þere his felaw flet forth · as þe flode lyketh</l>
<l> And is in drede to drenche · þat neuere dede swymme</l>
<l> <note>Bx.12.186: Alpha drops the line, which is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>. Its loss is easily accounted for if <hi>Bx</hi> had the paraph that is recorded only by L (though MW have a line-space). See Burrow (2010), 25.</note> ¶ Þat swymme can nouȝt I seide · it semeth to my wittes</l>
<l> ¶ Riȝt so quod þe Renke [·] resoun it sheweth</l>
<l> Þat he þat knoweth clergye [·] can sonner aryse</l>
<l> Out of synne and be<note>Bx.12.189: <hi>be</hi>: CrR have <hi>he be</hi>. It is not supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> sauf · þough he synne ofte</l>
<l> If hym lyketh and lest · þan any lewed lelly</l>
<l> For if þe clerke be konnynge · he knoweth what is synne</l>
<l> And how contricioun with-oute confessioun · conforteth þe soule</l>
<l> As þow seest in þe sauter · in psalme<note>Bx.12.193: <hi>psalme</hi>: The odd sg. is certainly <hi>Bx</hi>; it is the reading of LMR (and F), though M corrects to the more obvious plural. <hi>Cx</hi> has the plural.</note> one or tweyne</l>
<l> How contricioun is commended · for it caccheth awey synne</l>
<l> <foreign>Beati quorum remisse sunt iniquitates & quorum tecta sunt &c<note>Bx.12.195: <hi><foreign>&c</foreign></hi>: Alpha adds <hi>peccata</hi>. The familiar verse from Psalm 31.1 is quoted in part several times; cf. <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.13.56</ref>, <ref>14.103</ref>. <hi>Cx</hi> ends with <hi>iniquitates</hi>.</note> ·</foreign></l>
<l> And þis conforteth vch a clerke · and keuereth<note>Bx.12.196: <hi>keuereth</hi>: Supported by <hi>Cx</hi> (and sense) against alpha's <hi>kenneth</hi>.</note> hym fram wanhope</l>
<l> In which flode þe fende · fondeth a man hardest</l>
<l> Þere þe lewed lith stille · and loketh after lente</l>
<l> And hath no contricioun ar he come to shryfte · & þanne<note>Bx.12.199: <hi>þanne</hi>: Beta has support from <hi>Cx</hi> against alpha's omission.</note> can he litel telle</l>
<l> And<note>Bx.12.200: <hi>And</hi>: WHm + F have <hi>But</hi>. Although this reading is preferable and is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>, it is unlikely to be the <hi>Bx</hi> reading.</note> as his lores-man leres hym · bileueth & troweth</l>
<l> And þat is after person or parisch prest · and parauenture [bothe]<note>Bx.12.201: <hi>bothe</hi>: Beta drops, and WO expand a short b-verse. Alpha is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>, which, however, indicates that <hi>Bx</hi> broke the line too early. <hi>Cx</hi> reads <hi>paraunter bothe lewede / To lere lewede men</hi> ... (RK.14.123-4).</note></l>
<l> Vnconnynge to lere lewed men · as luk bereth witnesse</l>
<l> <foreign>Dum cecus ducit cecum &c ·</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ Wo was hym marked · þat wade mote with þe lewed<note>Bx.12.204: Alpha drops the line, which is preserved in <hi>Cx</hi>.</note></l>
<l> Wel may þe barne blisse · þat hym to boke sette<note>Bx.12.205: <hi>to boke sette</hi>: Beta is supported by <hi>Cx</hi> and by the alliterative pattern against alpha's <hi>sette to scole</hi>.</note></l>
<l> Þat lyuynge after letterure [·] saued hym lyf and soule</l>
<l> <foreign>Dominus pars hereditatis mee</foreign> [·] is a meri verset</l>
<l> Þat has take fro tybourne · twenti stronge þeues</l>
<l> Þere lewed theues ben lolled vp · loke how þei be saued</l>
<l> Þe thef þat had grace of god · on gode fryday as þow speke<note>Bx.12.210: <hi>speke</hi>: Past tense 2nd sg. (cf. CrCG), misunderstood as present by WHmO. <hi>Cx</hi> reads <hi>toldest</hi>.</note></l>
<l> Was for he ȝelte hym creaunt<note>Bx.12.211: <hi>creaunt</hi>: MR read <hi>recreaunt</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> has the shorter form.</note> to cryst on þe crosse<note>Bx.12.211: <hi>on þe crosse</hi>: Not in <hi>Cx</hi>, but certainly in <hi>Bx</hi>, perhaps as a gloss. CrHmF adopt different ways of shortening the line. For the same phrase see l. <ref>234</ref>.</note> · & knewleched hym gulty</l>
<l> <note>Bx.12.212: The line is dropped in alpha. W strengthens the alliteration. <hi>Cx</hi> has <hi>And god is ay gracious to alle þat gredeth to hym</hi> (RK.14.133).</note> And grace axed of god · and he is euer redy</l>
<l> Þat boxomeliche biddeth it · and ben in wille to amenden hem</l>
<l> <note>Bx.12.214: Hm and alpha start a new paragraph here.</note>Ac þough þat þef had heuene · he hadde none heigh blisse</l>
<l> As seynt Iohan and other seyntes · þat asserued<note>Bx.12.215: <hi>asserued</hi>: Supported for <hi>Bx</hi> by LR and the majority of <hi>C</hi> mss. against the common <hi>deserued</hi> of other <hi>B</hi> witnesses. See Adams (2000), 184.</note> hadde bettere</l>
<l> Riȝt as sum man ȝeue me mete · and sette me amydde þe flore</l>
<l> Ich haue mete more þan ynough · ac nouȝt so moche worship</l>
<l> As þo þat seten atte syde table · or with þe souereignes of þe halle</l>
<l> But sitte as a begger bordelees · bi my-self on þe grounde</l>
<l> So it fareth bi þat feloun · þat a gode fryday was saued</l>
<l> He sitte neither with Seynt<note>Bx.12.221: <hi>Seynt</hi>: Alpha drops the word, but it is necessary for the alliteration and supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> Iohan · Symonde<note>Bx.12.221: <hi>Symonde</hi>: R begins the b-verse with <hi>ne</hi> perhaps correctly (F rewrites). In <hi>C</hi> the X family has it, the P family is without.</note> ne Iude</l>
<l> Ne wyth maydenes ne with martires [·] [ne]<note>Bx.12.222: <hi>ne</hi> (3): In this case the support for R's <hi>ne</hi> is stronger (cf. previous line). Though F and <hi>Cx</hi> revise, they share the <hi>ne</hi> at the start of the b-verse.</note> confessoures ne wydwes</l>
<l> But by hym-self as a soleyne · and serued on þe<note>Bx.12.223: <hi>þe</hi>: Lost by beta2 (CrWHm).</note> erthe</l>
<l> For he þat is ones a thef · is euermore in daungere</l>
<l> And as lawe lyketh · to lyue or to deye</l>
<l> <foreign>De peccato propiciato noli esse sine metu</foreign></l>
<l> And forto seruen a seynt · and such a thef togyderes</l>
<l> It were noyther resoun ne riȝt · to rewarde bothe<note>Bx.12.228: <hi>bothe</hi>: Following R, supported by <hi>Cx</hi> (RK.14.148). MF substitute <hi>hem</hi>, while all beta mss. apart from M have <hi>hem bothe</hi>.</note> aliche</l>
<l><note>Bx.12.229: <hi></hi>: The paraph is recorded by LW, with M starting a new line-group.</note> And riȝt as troianus þe trewe knyȝt · tilde<note>Bx.12.229: <hi>tilde</hi>: Beta2 (CrWHm) has the easier <hi>dwelte</hi>.</note> nouȝt depe in helle</l>
<l> Þat owre lorde ne had hym liȝtlich oute · so leue I þe thef<note>Bx.12.230: <hi>thef</hi>: Alpha, reproduced by R, misread <hi>þe þef</hi> and lost the noun; F repairs. </note> be in heuene</l>
<l> For he is in þe lowest of heuene<note>Bx.12.231: <hi>lowest of heuene</hi>: "lowest part of heaven"; so LWHmR and the X family of <hi>C</hi>. MCrCGO omit <hi>of</hi>, as does the P family.</note> · if owre bileue be trewe</l>
<l> And wel loselyche<note>Bx.12.232: <hi>loselyche</hi>: Commentators take this as a form of <title>MED</title> <hi>losli(e</hi>, "loosely", interpreting "precariously" (Kane (2005)). It is clear that some scribes also took it this way (so CG <hi>lowselyche</hi>, F <hi>loosly</hi>), but the careful beta2 spelling <hi>loselly</hi> suggests instead derivation from <hi>losel</hi>, "worthless person", as in <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.P.77</ref>, <ref>10.52</ref>, <ref>15.142</ref>. <hi>C</hi> scribes had considerable difficulty with the word, the majority taking it as a form of <hi>loveli</hi>.</note> he lolleth þere · by þe lawe of holycherche</l>
<l> <foreign>Quia reddit<note>Bx.12.233: <hi><foreign>Quia reddit</foreign></hi>: The beta reading; beta2 (CrWHm) begins <hi>Qui</hi>, and M is altered to that reading. Alpha, represented by R, begins <hi>And reddite</hi>, which may be right, since <hi>Cx</hi> has <hi>Et reddet</hi>. The injunction is phrased variously throughout the Bible: see Alford (1992), 80.</note> vnicuique iuxta opera sua &c</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ A[c]<note>Bx.12.234: <hi>Ac</hi>: The alpha reading, as in R, with F altering to <hi>But</hi> as usual. It is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> why þat one thef on<note>Bx.12.234: <hi>on</hi>: Beta, together with F, against R's <hi>vpon</hi>. Choice is difficult, since <hi>C</hi> mss. also vary, but <hi>Cx</hi> probably had <hi>vpon</hi>.</note> þe crosse · creaunt hym ȝelt</l>
<l> Rather þan þat other thef · þough þow wolde appose</l>
<l> Alle þe clerkes vnder cryst · ne couthe þe skil assoille<note>Bx.12.236: <hi>assoile</hi>: Beta supported by <hi>Cx</hi>, against alpha's <hi>telle</hi>.</note></l>
<l> <foreign>Quare placuit quia voluit</foreign></l>
<l> [¶]<note>Bx.12.238: <hi></hi>: The paraph, though not in L, is recorded in beta2 and alpha.</note> And so I sey by þe · þat sekest after þe whyes</l>
<l> And aresonedest resoun · a rebukyng as it were</l>
<l> <note>Bx.12.240-3: The syntax makes it clear that alpha's order is right. Beta reverses it through eyeskip from <hi>it were</hi> in l. 239 to <hi>it were</hi> in l. 241, supplying skipped 240-1 after 242-3. Only <hi>Bx</hi>.12.242 is in <hi>Cx</hi> (RK.14.158).</note> [And willest of briddes and of<note>Bx.12.240: <hi>of</hi> (2): Omitted by CrCGO and supplied in L, but supported by MWHmR.</note> bestes · and of hire bredyng to<note>Bx.12.240: <hi>to</hi>: Dropped in HmCGO.</note> knowe</l>
<l> Why somme be alowe and somme alofte · þi lykyng it were</l>
<l> And of þe floures in þe fryth · and of her feire hewes</l>
<l> Where-of þei cacche her coloures<note>Bx.12.243: <hi>coloures</hi>: Beta's pl. follows from <hi>hewes</hi> in the previous line, though alpha has the sg. There is no parallel for <hi>Bx</hi>.12.243-82 in <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> · so clere and so briȝte]</l>
<l> And of þe stones and of þe sterres · þow studyest as I leue</l>
<l> How euere beste or brydde · hath so breme wittes</l>
<l> ¶ Clergye ne kynde witte [·] ne knewe neuere þe cause</l>
<l> Ac kynde knoweth þe cause hym-selue · no creature elles</l>
<l> He is þe pyes patroun · and putteth it in hire ere</l>
<l> Þat þere þe þorne is thikkest · [þere]<note>Bx.12.249: <hi>þere</hi> (2): The repetition as in alpha clarifies the syntax and provides b-verse alliteration, though without it the pattern aaa/bb would be satisfactory.</note> to buylden and brede</l>
<l> And kynde kenned<note>Bx.12.250: <hi>kenned</hi>: The past tense is supported by LMWR; cf. the next line.</note> þe pecok · to cauken in swich a kynde</l>
<l> And [kynde]<note>Bx.12.251: <hi>kynde</hi>: Easily lost before <hi>kennede</hi> in beta, especially in the context of the punning <hi>kynde</hi> in the previous line. It provides alliteration for the a-verse.</note> kenned Adam · to knowe his pryue membres</l>
<l> And tauȝte hym and Eue · to hylien hem with leues</l>
<l> ¶ Lewed men many tymes · maistres þei apposen</l>
<l> Why Adam ne<note>Bx.12.254: <hi>ne</hi>: Supported by LMWR.</note> hiled nouȝt firste · his mouth þat eet þe apple</l>
<l> Rather þan his lykam alow · lewed axen þus clerkes</l>
<l> Kynde knoweth whi he dede so · ac no clerke elles</l>
<l> Ac of briddes and of bestes · men by olde tyme</l>
<l> Ensamples token and termes · as telleth þis poetes</l>
<l> And þat þe fairest foule · foulest engendreth</l>
<l> And feblest foule of flyght is · þat fleegheth or swymmeth</l>
<l> And þat is<note>Bx.12.261: <hi>þat is</hi>: WHm drop <hi>is</hi>, and Cr drops both words.</note> þe pekok & þe pohenne proude ·<note>Bx.12.261: In LMR the punctuation follows <hi>pohenne proude</hi>. In beta2 and O the punctuation precedes <hi>proude riche</hi>, while C drops <hi>proude</hi>. There is better support for <hi>proude</hi> as qualifying <hi>pohenne</hi> in an aaa/xx line. The usual word-order in Middle English is adj. + n. + adj. rather than adj. + adj. + n.</note> riche men þei<note>Bx.12.261: <hi>þei</hi>: Dropped in WHm.</note> bitokneth</l>
<l> For þe pekok and men pursue hym · may<note>Bx.12.262: <hi>may</hi>: R's <hi>ne may</hi> could be alpha, since F has <hi>he may</hi>, but note that Cr adds <hi>he</hi>.</note> nouȝte fleighe heighe</l>
<l> For þe traillyng of his taille · ouertaken is he sone</l>
<l> And his flesshe is foule flesshe · and his feet bothe</l>
<l> And vnlouelich of ledene · and laith for to here</l>
<l> ¶ Riȝt so þe riche [·] if he his ricchesse kepe</l>
<l> And deleth it nouȝt tyl his deth-day · þe taille<note>Bx.12.267: <hi>taille</hi>: "tally", with a pun on "tail". M is altered to conform to Beta2. M also adds <hi>is</hi>, which improves the syntax but is not <hi>Bx</hi>.</note> of al sorwe</l>
<l> Riȝt as þe pennes of þe pecok · payned<note>Bx.12.268: <hi>payned</hi>: M alters to the expected present tense, in line with CrW, and OF also have the present, but the past is supported by LHmCGR.</note> hym in his fliȝte</l>
<l> So is possessioun payne · of pens and of nobles</l>
<l> To alle hem þat it holdeth · til her taille be plukked</l>
<l> And þough þe riche repente þanne · and birewe þe tyme</l>
<l> Þat euere he gadered so grete · and gaf þere-of so litel</l>
<l> Þough he crye to cryst þanne · with kene wille I leue</l>
<l> His ledne be in owre lordes ere · lyke a pyes<note>Bx.12.274: <hi>pyes</hi>: The M corrector adds <hi>chiteryng</hi> to bring the text in line with Beta2 (CrWHm). Clearly the <hi>Bx</hi> b-verse (attested by LR, original M, as well as CGO) is too short. F rewrites. Schmidt (1995), 389, conjectures misdivision between ll. 273-4, with <hi>I leue</hi> beginning l. 274 and the a-verse ending <hi>be</hi>.</note></l>
<l> And whan his caroigne shal come · in caue to be buryed</l>
<l> I leue it flaumbe ful foule · þe folde al aboute</l>
<l> And alle þe other þer it lyth · enuenymed<note>Bx.12.277: <hi>enuenymed</hi>: p.ppl., with "are" understood. The reading of LCrR and probably original M, subsequently corrected to the easier present tense of all other mss.</note> þorgh his attere</l>
<l> By þe p[o]feet<note>Bx.12.278: <hi>pofeet</hi>: The L scribe writes the word correctly and then alters it to <hi>profeet</hi>.</note> is vnderstonde · as I haue lerned in auynet</l>
<l> E[x]ecutoures fals frendes · þat fulfille nouȝt his wille</l>
<l> Þat was writen and þei witnesse<note>Bx.12.280: <hi>witnesse</hi>: A noun, sg. or pl., "they as witness(es)". R is unambiguously plural. See note to <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.12.136</ref>.</note> · to worche riȝt as it<note>Bx.12.280: <hi>it</hi>: So beta, against alpha <hi>he</hi>. See KD, p. 146, who explain <hi>it</hi> as referring to "the actual testamentary document".</note> wolde</l>
<l> Þus þe poete preues ·<note>Bx.12.281: W shows understandable uncertainty over the placing of the half-line break, with punctuation after both <hi>preueþ</hi> and <hi>pecok</hi>; LMR support the former.</note> þat þe pecok for his fetheres is reuerenced</l>
<l> Riȝt so is þe riche · bi resoun of his godis</l>
<l> ¶ Þe larke þat is a lasse foule · is more louelich of ledne</l>
<l> And wel awey of wenge [·] swifter þan þe pecok</l>
<l> And of flesch by fele-folde · fatter and swetter</l>
<l> To lowe-lybbyng men · þe larke is resembled</l>
<l> ¶ Arestotle<note>Bx.12.287: <hi>Arestotle</hi>: Alpha begins <hi>For aristotel</hi>. We follow copy-text.</note> þe grete clerke [·] suche tales he telleth</l>
<l> <note>Bx.12.288: Only L has a paraph.</note>Thus he lykneth in his logyk<note>Bx.12.288: <hi>logyk</hi>: Beta is supported by the alliteration and by <hi>Cx</hi>; alpha has <hi>glosinge</hi>.</note> · þe leste foule oute</l>
<l> And where he be sauf or nouȝt sauf<note>Bx.12.289: <hi>sauf</hi> (2): CrCGOF omit, but it is supported by <hi>Cx</hi> (RK.14.192).</note> · þe sothe wote no clergye</l>
<l> Ne of sortes ne of salamon · no scripture can telle</l>
<l> Ac god is so good I hope · þat sitth he gaf hem wittis</l>
<l> To wissen vs weyes þere-with · þat wissen<note>Bx.12.292: <hi>wissen</hi> (2): A spelling of "wish", influenced by (and punning on) <hi>wissen</hi> in the a-verse.</note> vs to be saued</l>
<l> And þe better for her bokes · to bidden we ben holden</l>
<l> Þat god for his grace [·] gyue her soules<note>Bx.12.294: <hi>soules</hi>: Beta's plural is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> reste</l>
<l> For lettred men were lewed men<note>Bx.12.295: <hi>men</hi> (2): Omitted by CGOF, but supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> ȝut · ne were lore of her<note>Bx.12.295: <hi>her</hi>: Beta only, since R has <hi>þe</hi> and F omits. <hi>Cx</hi> probably reads <hi>þo clerkes</hi>.</note> bokes</l>
<l> ¶ Alle þise clerkes quod I þo · þat on cryst leuen</l>
<l> Seggen in her sarmones · þat noyther sarasenes ne iewes</l>
<l> Ne no creature of cristes lyknesse · with-outen crystendome worth saued</l>
<l><foreign>Contra</foreign> quod ymagynatyf þo · and comsed for to loure</l>
<l> And seyde <foreign>saluabitur vix iustus in die iudicij</foreign></l>
<l><note>Bx.12.301: <hi></hi>: The paraph is recorded by LR only.</note> <foreign>Ergo saluabitur</foreign> quod he · and seyde namore latyne</l>
<l> Troianus was a trewe knyȝte · and toke neuere cristendome</l>
<l> And he is<note>Bx.12.303: <hi>is</hi>: Since this is omitted in R and inserted in L, it is possible that the ellipsis is <hi>Bx</hi>; however the verb is in <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> sauf so seith þe boke · and his soule in heuene</l>
<l> [Ac]<note>Bx.12.304: <hi>Ac</hi>: R (= alpha, F has <hi>But</hi> as usual) is supported by the X family of <hi>C</hi> (most of the P family omit the conjunction). Schmidt (1995), 457, argues that it "has the force of <hi>Sed</hi> in scholastic debate (`but) now'". However, it might have been picked up from l. <ref>307</ref>. For discussion of the passage see Burrow (1993), 13-14.</note> þere is fullyng of fonte · and fullyng in blode shedyng</l>
<l> And þorugh fuire is fullyng · and þat is ferme bileue</l>
<l> <foreign>Aduenit ignis diuinus non comburens sed illuminans &c ·</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ Ac trewth þat trespassed neuere · ne transuersed<note>Bx.12.307: <hi>transuersed</hi>: Though most beta mss. have <hi>trauersed</hi>, the form in LCr and alpha is also in many <hi>C</hi> mss. and is the <hi>Cx</hi> form at RK.3.446. The two verbs are of the same ultimate origin.</note> aȝeines his lawe</l>
<l> But lyue[d] as his lawe t[auȝte]<note>Bx.12.308: <hi>lyued ... tauȝte</hi>: Alpha's past tense is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> · and leueth þere be no bettere</l>
<l> And if þere were he wolde amende · and in suche wille deyeth</l>
<l> Ne wolde neuere trewe god · but [trewe]<note>Bx.12.310: <hi>trewe</hi> (2): Beta drops the adjective and F rewrites; R is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> treuth were allowed</l>
<l> And where it worth or worth nouȝt<note>Bx.12.311: The a-verse is supported by LMR, with minor variations in the other mss. <hi>Where</hi> and <hi>were</hi> are both forms of "whether" as in W; see <hi>MED</hi> <hi>whether</hi> adv. & conj. <hi>C</hi> mss. vary similarly, with the P family reversing the order of <hi>worth nouȝt</hi>.</note> · þe bileue is grete of treuth</l>
<l> And an hope hangyng þer-inne · to haue a<note>Bx.12.312: <hi>a</hi>: Supported by LWHmR. <hi>Cx</hi> rewrites the b-verse.</note> Mede for his treuth</l>
<l> For <foreign>deus dicitur quasi dans vitam eternam · suis hoc est fidelibus</foreign></l>
<l> <foreign>Et alibi si ambulauero in medio vmbre mortis</foreign></l>
<l> Þe glose graunteth vpon þat vers · a gret mede to treuthe</l>
<l> And witt and wisdome quod þat wye · was somme-tyme tresore</l>
<l> To kepe with a comune · no katel was holde bettere</l>
<l> And moche murth and manhod · and riȝt with<note>Bx.12.318: <hi>with</hi>: Schmidt adopts R's <hi>mid</hi> for alliteration; see Schmidt (2008), 412. It would be easy to suppose that this was independently altered by F and beta, but <hi>Cx</hi> has <hi>þerwith</hi> following a different a-verse.</note> þat he vanesched</l>