<head><foreign>Passus quindecimus finit</foreign> dowel <foreign>& incipit</foreign> dobet</head>
<l> <note>Bx.15.1-14: The lines have no parallel in <hi>C</hi>.</note> Ac after my wakyng<note>Bx.15.1: <hi>wakyng</hi>: R's <hi>walkynge</hi> is an obvious error.</note> · it was wonder longe</l>
<l> Ar I couth kyndely · knowe what was dowel</l>
<l> And so my witte wex and wanyed · til I a fole were</l>
<l> And somme lakked my lyf · allowed it fewe</l>
<l> And leten [me]<note>Bx.15.5: <hi>me</hi>: Dropped by beta, though supplied on grounds of sense by CrW and inserted by the M corrector.</note> for a lorel · and loth to reuerencen</l>
<l> Lordes or ladyes · or any lyf elles</l>
<l> As persones in pellure · with pendauntes of syluer</l>
<l> To seriauntz ne<note>Bx.15.8: <hi>ne</hi>: The beta reading against <hi>and</hi> in alpha.</note> to suche<note>Bx.15.8: <hi>suche</hi>: R adds <hi>and</hi>; F reads <hi>swiche men</hi> followed by an erasure.</note> · seyde<note>Bx.15.8: <hi>seyde</hi>: The M corrector inserts <hi>I</hi> in line with CrWHm.</note> nouȝte ones</l>
<l> God loke ȝow lordes · ne louted faire</l>
<l> Þat folke helden me a fole · and in þat folye I raued</l>
<l> Tyl resoun hadde reuthe on me · and rokked me aslepe</l>
<l> Tyl I seigh as it sorcerye<note>Bx.15.12: <hi>sorcerye</hi>: R has <hi>of sorserie</hi>; F has <hi>a syght of sorseryȝe</hi>.</note> were · a sotyl þinge with-al</l>
<l> One with-outen tonge and teeth · tolde me whyder I shulde</l>
<l> And wher-of I cam and of what kynde<note>Bx.15.14: <hi>and of what kynde</hi>: Beta4 omits <hi>of</hi>, and F has simply <hi>kendely</hi>. R drops the whole phrase and rewrites as two lines.</note> · I conIured hym atte laste</l>
<l> If he were crystes creature · for crystes loue<note>Bx.15.15: <hi>for crystes loue</hi>: Beta2 presumably lost the phrase. CrW patch with <hi>anoon</hi>, Hm with <hi>leue</hi>. Here comparison with <hi>Cx</hi> recommences (RK.16.166).</note> me to tellen</l>
Bx.15.16KD.15.16, 17
<l> ¶ I am crystes creature quod he · and crystene in many a<note>Bx.15.16: <hi>a</hi>: Dropped by R only, though it appears to be the <hi>Cx</hi> reading.</note> place</l>
<l> In crystes courte I-knowe wel · and of his kynne a partye</l>
<l> Is noyther peter þe porter · ne poule with his<note>Bx.15.18: <hi>his</hi>: The beta reading with which F agrees, supported by the P family of <hi>C</hi>. R's <hi>þe</hi> has the support of the X family, and could be right.</note> fauchoune</l>
<l> Þa[t] wil defende me þe dore · dynge ich neure so late</l>
<l> At mydnyȝt at mydday · my voice [is so]<note>Bx.15.20: <hi>is so</hi>: The reading of alpha, CrHm, and <hi>Cx</hi>. Other beta mss. reverse the word-order.</note> yknowe</l>
<l> Þat eche a creature of his courte · welcometh me fayre</l>
<l> ¶ What ar ȝe called quod I in þat courte<note>Bx.15.22: <hi>quod I in þat courte</hi>: The word-order is reversed in MHm and beta4. The line is not in <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> · amonges crystes peple</l>
<l> <note>Bx.15.23: WHmR have a paraph.</note>Þe whiles I quykke<note>Bx.15.23: <hi>quykke</hi>: CrW read <hi>quykne</hi>, but <hi>Cx</hi> has <hi>quyke</hi> (RK.16.183). Hm and beta4 have <hi>quyk was yn</hi>.</note> þe corps quod he · called am I <foreign>anima</foreign></l>
<l> And whan I wilne and wolde · <foreign>animus</foreign> ich hatte</l>
<l> And for þat I can and knowe · called am I <foreign>mens</foreign><note>Bx.15.25: <hi><foreign>mens</foreign></hi>: R, presumably reproducing his exemplar as usual, adds <hi>thouȝt</hi>, set out as a gloss between punctus. <hi>Cx</hi> misunderstood it as part of the line, so that most mss. read <hi>mens thouhte</hi> or <hi>mannes þouȝte</hi>.</note></l>
<l> And whan I make mone to god · <foreign>memoria</foreign> is my name</l>
<l> And whan I deme domes · and do as treuthe techeth</l>
<l> Þanne is <foreign>racio</foreign> my riȝt name · resoun an englissh</l>
<l> And whan I fele þat folke telleth · my firste name is <foreign>sensus</foreign></l>
<l> And þat is wytte and wisdome · þe welle of alle craftes</l>
<l> And whan I chalange or chalange nouȝte · chepe or refuse</l>
<l> Þanne am I conscience ycalde · goddis clerke and his notarie</l>
<l> And whan I loue lelly · owre lorde and alle other</l>
<l> Þanne is lele loue my name · and in latyn <foreign>amor</foreign></l>
<l> And whan I fl[e]e<note>Bx.15.35: <hi>flee</hi>: L's <hi>flye</hi> may represent the beta reading, also in CO; M's <hi>flee</hi> is a correction. But <hi>Cx</hi> supports alpha and beta2.</note> fro þe flesshe · and forsake þe caroigne</l>
<l> Þanne am I spirit specheles · and<note>Bx.15.36: <hi>and</hi>: L and alpha only, but supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> <foreign>spiritus</foreign> þanne ich hatte</l>
<l> Austyn and ysodorus [·] ayther of hem bothe</l>
<l> Nempned me þus to name · now þow myȝte chese</l>
<l> How þow coueitest to calle me · now þow knowest alle<note>Bx.15.39: <hi>alle</hi>: W adds <hi>for</hi> at the beginning of the b-verse and drops <hi>alle</hi>. G also drops <hi>alle</hi>, but it is in <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> my names</l>
<l> <foreign>Anima pro diuersis accionibus diuersa nomina sortitur · dum viuificat corpus<lb/>
anima est · dum vult animus est · dum scit mens est · dum recolit memoria est · <lb/>
dum iudicat racio est · dum sentit sensus est · dum amat amor est · dum negat<lb/>
vel consentit consciencia est · dum spirat spiritus est</foreign>
<note>Bx.15.40: L sets this as two lines, F as six and R as ten. Cf. <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.15.124</ref>.</note></l>
<l> ¶ Ȝe ben as a bisshop quod I · al bourdynge þat tyme</l>
<l> For bisshopes yblessed · þei<note>Bx.15.42: <hi>þei</hi>: Dropped in MCGO, but supported by most <hi>C</hi> mss.</note> bereth many names</l>
<l> <foreign>Presul</foreign> and <foreign>pontifex</foreign> · and <foreign>metropolitanus</foreign><note>Bx.15.43: <hi><foreign>metropolitanus</foreign></hi>: Alpha has <hi>metropolanus</hi>, as in eight <hi>C</hi> mss., including X. It may, therefore, be an archetypal error.</note></l>
<l> And other names an hepe [·] <foreign>episcopus & pastor</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ Þat is soth seyde he · now I se þi wille</l>
<l> Þow woldest knowe and kunne · þe cause of alle her names</l>
<l> And of myne if þow myȝtest · me þinketh by þi speche</l>
<l> ¶ Ȝe syre I seyde [·]<note>Bx.15.48: With the short a-verse, the placing of the punctus causes scribes uncertainty. WR put it after <hi>seyde</hi>; F reads <hi>y</hi> for <hi>by</hi> and puts it after that. In HmO it follows <hi>so</hi>; in M it follows <hi>man</hi>. LC omit it.</note> by so no man were greued</l>
<l> Alle þe sciences<note>Bx.15.49: <hi>sciences</hi>: COR have the plural without ending.</note> vnder sonne · and alle þe sotyle craftes</l>
<l> I wolde I knewe and couth · kyndely in myne herte</l>
<l> ¶ Þanne artow inparfit quod he · and one of prydes knyȝtes</l>
<l> For such a luste and lykynge · lucifer fel fram heuene<note>Bx.15.52: F alone adds a line after this.</note></l>
<l> <foreign>Ponam pedem meum in aquilone & similis ero altissimo</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ It were aȝeynes kynde quod he · and alkynnes resoun</l>
<l> Þat any creature shulde kunne<note>Bx.15.55: <hi>kunne</hi>: Alpha and Cr have <hi>kenne</hi> in the sense "know" (<title>MED</title> <hi>kennen</hi> v.(1), 3), but <hi>Cx</hi> supports beta.</note> al · excepte cryste one</l>
<l> Aȝein such salomon speketh · and dispiseth her wittes</l>
<l> And seith <foreign>sicut qui mel comedit multum non est ei bonum</foreign></l>
<l> <foreign>Sic qui scrutator est maiestatis opprim[a]tur<note>Bx.15.58: <hi><foreign>opprimatur</foreign></hi>: R is supported by <hi>Cx</hi> in the present subjunctive, "let him be overwhelmed". Beta has the present indicative, while F corrects to the future as in the Clementine Vulgate (Prov. 25.27). See Schmidt (1995), 395.</note> a gloria</foreign></l>
<l> <note>Bx.15.59: WHmCF begin the line with a paraph, with a line-space in M.</note>To englisch men þis is to mene · þat mowen speke & here</l>
<l> Þe man þat moche hony e[et]<note>Bx.15.60: <hi>eet</hi>: Beta's <hi>eteth</hi> is indisputably present, but alpha's <hi>eet</hi>, which is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>, is probably past tense. Cf. <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.5.386</ref>, <ref>6.303</ref>, <ref>13.66</ref>, etc.</note> · his mawe it engleymeth<note>Bx.15.60: <hi>it engleymeth</hi>: Most <hi>C</hi> mss. support beta against alpha's <hi>is/mote be englaymed</hi>.</note></l>
<l> And þe more þat a man · of good mater hereth</l>
<l> But he do þerafter · it doth hym double scathe</l>
<l> <foreign>Beatus est</foreign> seith seynt Bernard · <foreign>qui scripturas legit</foreign></l>
<l> <foreign>Et verba vertit<note>Bx.15.64: <hi><foreign>verba vertit</foreign></hi>: This order, which is reversed in Hm and alpha, is supported by <hi>Cx</hi> (RK.16.223).</note> in opera</foreign> · fullich to his powere</l>
<l> Coueytise to kunne [·] and to knowe science<note>Bx.15.65: <hi>science</hi>: WF understand this as plural, and write <hi>sciences</hi> as in <hi>Cx</hi>. Cf. l. <ref>49</ref> note.</note></l>
<l> Pulte<note>Bx.15.66: <hi>Pulte</hi>: "thrust", the reading of LR and M before correction. As at <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.1.128</ref>, <ref>8.97</ref>, other scribes adopt easier <hi>Putte</hi>. But <hi>Cx</hi> has <hi>Potte</hi>.</note> out of paradys · Adam and Eue</l>
<l> <foreign>Sciencie appetitus hominem inmortalitatis gloriam<note>Bx.15.67: <hi><foreign>gloriam</foreign></hi>: The form cited by Alford (1992), 92-3. Beta 2, corrected O and some <hi>C</hi> scribes alter to <hi>gloria</hi>, taking it as the expected ablative.</note> spoliauit</foreign></l>
<l> And riȝte as hony is yuel to defye · and engleymeth þe mawe</l>
<l> Riȝt so þat þorw resoun [·] wolde þe rote knowe</l>
<l> Of god and of his grete myȝtes · his graces<note>Bx.15.70: <hi>graces</hi>: HmCGOF have the more obvious singular. The line is rewritten in <hi>C</hi>.</note> it letteth</l>
<l> For in þe lykyng lith a pryde · and a<note>Bx.15.71: <hi>a</hi> (2): Lost by beta2 and F.</note> lycames coueitise</l>
<l> Aȝein crystes conseille · and alle clerkes techyng</l>
<l> That is <foreign>non plus sapere quam oportet sapere</foreign></l>
<l> [¶]<note>Bx.15.74: <hi></hi>: A paraph is warranted by the syntax and supported by MWHmC and alpha.</note> Freres and fele other<note>Bx.15.74: <hi>fele other</hi>: It is possible that beta (apart from G) has added <hi>fele</hi> (not in alpha) to "improve" the alliteration, but obscuring alliteration on /m/. But <hi>Cx</hi> has the word in a revised line (RK.16.231).</note> maistres · þat to þe<note>Bx.15.74: <hi>þe</hi>: Omitted by WOF.</note> lewed men prechen</l>
<l> Ȝe moeuen materes inmesurables<note>Bx.15.75: <hi>inmesurables</hi>: Post-positional French adjectives may have a plural inflection, altered by CrWF. (Mustanoja (1960), 277.) <title>MED</title> citations suggest that the negative prefix is more commonly <hi>vn</hi>-, as in WG and alpha. <hi>Cx</hi> rewrites the line.</note> · to tellen of þe Trinite</l>
<l> Þat ofte tymes þe lewed peple · of her bileue douten<note>Bx.15.76: Alpha drops the line, perhaps as a result of the repeated <hi>bileue</hi> in l. <ref>77</ref>. <hi>Cx</hi> revises (RK.16.233).</note></l>
<l> Bettere byleue were mony<note>Bx.15.77: <hi>Bettere byleue were mony</hi>: "It would be better for many doctors to drop such teaching". This is the reading of LCrHm, and probably that of M before correction, but it caused considerable confusion. The lack of alliteration suggests the line is corrupt. If it is authorial, Langland is presumably punning on the noun <hi>bileue</hi> (l. 76) and <title>MED</title> <hi>bileven</hi> v. (1), "abandon", which some scribes take as <title>MED</title> <hi>bileven</hi> v. (2), "believe". The M corrector rearranged the words as <hi>Bettre were many doctours . bileu{..}</hi>, but subsequently alters the last word to <hi>leue</hi>, giving the reading "Bettre were many doctours leue suche techinge", which makes good sense. W hits on a similar reading. R (= alpha?) alters <hi>were</hi> to <hi>by</hi> and drops <hi>such</hi> in the b-verse. F revises in his usual uncompromising manner. The line is not in <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> · doctoures such techyng</l>
<l> And tellen men of þe ten comaundementz · and touchen þe seuene synnes</l>
<l> And of þe braunches þat burgeouneth of hem · and bryngeth men to helle</l>
<l> And how þat folke in folyes · myspenden her fyue wittes</l>
<l> As wel freres as other folke · folilich spenen<note>Bx.15.81: <hi>spenen</hi>: LR (and CrC) agree against <hi>spenden</hi> in other mss., which is no doubt prompted by <hi>myspenden</hi> in the line above. However, <hi>Cx</hi> has <hi>spenden</hi>. The two verbs (<title>MED</title> <hi>spenden</hi> and <hi>spenen</hi>) have the same origin and mean the same thing.</note></l>
<l> In housyng in haterynge · in to<note>Bx.15.82: <hi>in to</hi>: Perhaps "in displaying too arrogant a learning". So alpha; beta has <hi>and in to</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> has <hi>in</hi>.</note> hiegh clergye shewynge</l>
<l> More for pompe þan for pure charite · þe poeple wote þe sothe</l>
<l> Þat I lye nouȝt loo · for lordes ȝe plesen</l>
<l> And reuerencen þe riche · þe rather for her syluer</l>
<l> <foreign>Confundantur omnes qui adorant scul[p]tilia · & alibi</foreign></l>
<l> <foreign>Vt quid diligitis vanitatem & queritis mendacium</foreign></l>
<l> Go to þe glose of þe verse · ȝe grete clerkes</l>
<l> If I lye on ȝow to my lewed witte · ledeth me to brennynge</l>
<foreign>nota de fratribus</foreign><note>Bx.15.90: <hi><foreign>nota de fratribus</foreign></hi>: In L this is in the scribal hand and boxed in red. Since it is also in M, it is probably at least beta.</note>
<l> For as it semeth ȝe forsaketh · no mannes almesse</l>
<l> Of vsureres of hores · of<note>Bx.15.91: <hi>of</hi> (3): R has <hi>and</hi>; F has <hi>& of</hi>. The line is not in <hi>C</hi>.</note> auarous chapmen</l>
<l> And louten to þis lordes · þat mowen lene ȝow nobles</l>
<l> Aȝeine ȝowre reule and Religioun · I take recorde at Ihesus</l>
<l> Þat seide to his disciples · <foreign>ne sitis [acceptores personarum]<note>Bx.15.94: <hi><foreign>acceptores personarum</foreign></hi>: Beta reverses the order, but alpha is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note></foreign></l>
<l> ¶ Of þis matere I myȝte · make a longe<note>Bx.15.95: <hi>longe</hi>: Alpha probably read <hi>grete</hi>, as R, with F increasing the alliteration by altering to <hi>mychil</hi>. There is no guidance from <hi>C</hi>.</note> bible</l>
<l> Ac of curatoures of crystene peple · as clerkes bereth witnesse</l>
<l> I shal tellen it for treuth sake · take hede who-so lyketh</l>
<l> ¶ As holynesse and honest[e] [·] oute of holicherche spredeth</l>
<l> Þorw lele libbyng men · þat goddes lawe<note>Bx.15.99: <hi>lawe</hi>: Alpha has the plural. There is no parallel line in <hi>C</hi>.</note> techen</l>
<l> Riȝt so out of holicherche · alle yueles spredeth</l>
<l> There inparfyt presthod is · prechoures<note>Bx.15.101: <hi>prechoures</hi>: Beta is supported by <hi>Cx</hi> (RK.16.247). Alpha reads <hi>and prechoures</hi>, perhaps anticipating l. <ref>105</ref>.</note> and techeres</l>
<l> And<note>Bx.15.102: <hi>And</hi>: Beta2 has <hi>I</hi>, but this is not supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> se it by ensample [·] in somer tyme on trowes</l>
<l> Þere somme bowes ben leued · and somme bereth none</l>
<l> Þere is a myschief in þe more · of suche manere bowes</l>
<l> Riȝt so parsones and prestes · and prechoures of holy cherche<note>Bx.15.105: <hi>cherche</hi>: R's plural has no support from <hi>Cx</hi>.</note></l>
<l> [Is þe]<note>Bx.15.106: <hi>Is þe</hi>: R is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>. Beta alters to <hi>Þat aren</hi> to correct the syntax; F rewrites. The form <hi>is</hi> can be used for the plural (as at <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.16.241</ref>), but here presumably agrees with <hi>rote</hi> rather than the nouns in the previous line.</note> rote of þe riȝte faith · to reule þe peple</l>
<l> Ac<note>Bx.15.107: <hi>Ac</hi>: The common variation between <hi>Ac ~ But ~ And</hi>. The better <hi>C</hi> mss. support <hi>Ac</hi>.</note> þere þe rote is roten · reson wote þe sothe</l>
<l> Shal neure floure ne frute · ne faire leef be grene</l>
<l> <note>Bx.15.109: Alpha and Hm have a paraph, and in L the line is at the top of the page where it is sometimes missed.</note>For-þi wolde ȝe<note>Bx.15.109: <hi>ȝe</hi>: Alpha has <hi>þe</hi>, as does the P group of <hi>C</hi>. Cf. l. <ref>111</ref> <hi>ȝowre</hi>, altered by F to <hi>here</hi>.</note> lettred leue · þe leccherye of clothynge</l>
<l> And be kynde as bifel for clerkes · and curteise of crystes goodes</l>
<l> Trewe of ȝowre tonge · and of ȝowre taille bothe</l>
<l> And hatien to here harlotrye · and [a]uȝt<note>Bx.15.112: <hi>auȝt</hi>: R's b-verse depends on <hi>wolde ȝe ... hatien</hi>, so "hate under any circumstance to take tithes", and presents aaa/ax alliteration. Beta's <hi>nouȝt</hi> depends, perhaps less plausibly, directly on <hi>wolde ȝe</hi>: "if you would not take tithes" (<hi>to</hi> is used when the auxiliary is separated from the infinitive, as here; see Mustanoja (1960), 522). In beta the pattern is aaa/xx. F rewrites. <hi>Cx</hi> simplifies the line (RK.16.260), with a couple of scribes even so misunderstanding the syntax and adding a negative.</note> to vnderfonge</l>
<l> Tythes of vntrewe<note>Bx.15.113: <hi>of vntrewe</hi>: Obviously better than CrW <hi>but of trewe</hi> and G + alpha <hi>of trewe</hi>. Perhaps the mistake is prompted by l. <ref>111</ref> <hi>Trewe</hi> in the context of the syntactic difficulty shown by the readings in the line above. <hi>Cx</hi> revises (RK.16.261).</note> þinge · ytilied or chaffared</l>
<l><note>Bx.15.114: <hi></hi>: The paraph in LHm and alpha (line-break in M) evidently represents <hi>Bx</hi>, yet the sentence beginning at l. 109 with a series of conditionals must be completed here in the main clause.</note> Lothe were lewed men · but þei ȝowre lore folwed</l>
<l> And amenden hem þat mysdon<note>Bx.15.115: <hi>mysdon</hi>: <hi>Bx</hi> means "(those) who do wrong amend themselves", but could be misunderstood to mean "amend those who do wrong". R's reading <hi>þei misdon</hi> makes it clearer that <hi>hem</hi> is reflexive, "amend themselves of what they do wrong". <hi>Cx</hi> clarifies with <hi>amenden (hem) of here mysdedes</hi> (RK.16.263). </note> · more for ȝowre ensamples</l>
<l> Þan forto prechen & preue it nouȝt · ypocrysie it semeth</l>
<l> For ypocrysie in latyn · is lykned to a dongehul<note>Bx.15.117: <hi>dongehul</hi>: Cf. "a donghel besnewed" (<title>Aȝenbit of Inwit</title>, 81/9-10, translating <title>Somme le Roi</title>). Alpha's <hi>dongoun</hi> misses the allusion.</note></l>
<l> Þat were bysnewed with snowe · and snakes wyth-inne</l>
<l> <note>Bx.15.119: The paraph in L and the line-space in M are clearly not appropriate, and may represent a beta error.</note>Or to a wal þat were whitlymed · and were foule wyth-inne<note>Bx.15.119: The line is lost in HmCG, through eyeskip on <hi>wyth-inne</hi>.</note></l>
<l> Riȝt so many prestes · prechoures and prelates</l>
<l> Ȝe aren enblaunched with <foreign>bele paroles</foreign> · and with clothes<note>Bx.15.121: <hi>and with clothes</hi>: So R. <hi>Cx</hi> has <hi>and with bele clothes</hi>. To repair the archetypal loss of the repeated <hi>bele</hi>, beta lengthens the b-verse with <hi>also</hi> and F supplies alliteration.</note></l>
<l> Ac ȝowre werkes and ȝowre wordes þere-vnder · aren ful [wol]uelich<note>Bx.15.122: <hi>woluelich</hi>: Evidently R has the alpha reading, for which F substitutes <hi>foxly</hi>. Beta misreads as <hi>vnlouelich</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> has an entirely different line, but it ends <hi>as wolues</hi> (RK.16.271).</note></l>
<l><note>Bx.15.123: <hi></hi>: The paraph is recorded by LR only.</note> Iohannes crysostomus · of clerkes speketh and prestes</l>
<l> <note>Bx.15.124: Set as four lines in L, nine in R and three in F. Cf. l. <ref>40</ref>.</note> <foreign>Sicut de templo omne bonum progreditur<note>Bx.15.124: <hi><foreign>progreditur</foreign></hi>: Alpha anticipates <hi>procedit</hi>.</note> · sic de templo · omne malum procedit <lb/>
Si sacerdocium integrum fuerit · tota floret ecclesia · si autem corupt[a]<note>Bx.15.124: <hi><foreign>corupta</foreign></hi>: Since this is the form in alpha and most <hi>C</hi> mss., it is presumably archetypal. Beta corrects to <hi>coruptum</hi>, referring to <hi>sacerdocium</hi> rather than <hi>ecclesia</hi>, as in Alford (1992), 93.</note> fuerit · omnium fides <lb/>
marcida est · Si sacerdocium<note>Bx.15.124: <hi><foreign>sacerdocium</foreign></hi> (2): Alpha has <hi>sacerdos</hi>.</note> fuerit in peccatis · totus populus co[n]uertitur ad peccandum<note>Bx.15.124: <hi><foreign>peccandum</foreign></hi>: Alpha has <hi>peccatum</hi>.</note> <lb/>
Sicut cum videris arborem pallidam & marcidam · inteligis quod vicium habet in radice <lb/>
Ita cum videris populum indisciplinatum · & irreligiosum sine dubio sacerdocium eius non est sanum</foreign>
<l> ¶ If lewed men wist · what þis latyn meneth</l>
<l> And who was myn auctor · moche wonder me þinketh</l>
<l> But if many a<note>Bx.15.127: <hi>many a</hi>: MR have the equally common construction without <hi>a</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> has no parallel for ll. 125-32.</note> prest bere · for here baselardes and here broches<note>Bx.15.127: <hi>baselardes ... broches</hi>: Reversed in R (= alpha?).</note></l>
<l> A peyre<note>Bx.15.128: <hi>peyre</hi>: The idiom is supported by LCGR (cf. <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.12.22</ref>). The others have <hi>peire of</hi>.</note> bedes in her hande · and<note>Bx.15.128: <hi>and</hi>: Alpha has <hi>or</hi>.</note> a boke vnder her arme</l>
<l> Sire Iohan & sire Geffray · hath a gerdel of syluer</l>
<l> A basellarde or a ballokknyf · with botones ouergylte</l>
<l> Ac a portous þat shulde be his plow · placebo to segge</l>
<l> Hadde he neure seruyse to saue<note>Bx.15.132: <hi>saue</hi>: R reads <hi>haue</hi> (which could be right), while F abbreviates the long a-verse.</note> syluer þer-to · seith it with yvel<note>Bx.15.132: <hi>yvel</hi>: The reading of L and alpha, and so presumably <hi>Bx</hi>. Schmidt (1995) translates <hi>with yvel wille</hi> as "with a bad grace". The phrase occurs elsewhere in the sense "malice". KD adopt <hi>wyth ydel wylle</hi> in other beta mss., which Kane (2005) glosses "perfunctorily", though there are no parallels. O's <hi>for spendyng at ale</hi> is an inspired invention simplifying a puzzling line. As Skeat explains it, the priest expects to be paid for saying a mass in addition to (<hi>þer-to</hi>) the Placebo, so that <hi>Hadde he neure</hi> means "If he did not have".</note> wille</l>
<l> Allas ȝe lewed men · moche lese ȝe on prestes</l>
<l> Ac þinge þat wykkedlich is wonne · and with false sleigthes</l>
<l> Wolde neuere witte<note>Bx.15.135: <hi>witte</hi>: Scribes are puzzled, with W substituting <hi>þe wit</hi> and Hm <hi>þe wylle</hi>. CGO revise further. For <hi>witte of witty god</hi>, "the wisdom of wise God", <hi>Cx</hi> reads <hi>oþerwyse god</hi>. Langland seems to mean that since good men should not benefit from goods obtained wickedly (ll. <ref>112-13</ref>), wicked men must enjoy them.</note> of witty god · but wikked men it hadde<note>Bx.15.135: <hi>hadde</hi>: Alpha reads <hi>maked</hi>, but beta is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note></l>
<l> Þe which aren prestes inparfit · and prechoures after syluer</l>
<l> Sectoures and sudenes · somnoures and her lemmannes</l>
<l> Þis þat with gyle was geten · vngraciouslich is spended<note>Bx.15.138: <hi>spended</hi>: R has <hi>spened</hi>, agreeing with the X family of <hi>C</hi>. Cf. l. <ref>81</ref> note.</note></l>
<l> So harlotes and hores · ar hulpen with such goodis</l>
<l> And<note>Bx.15.140: <hi>And</hi>: R (= alpha) has <hi>Ac</hi> (with F reading <hi>But</hi> as usual). Cf. the variants at ll. <ref>107</ref>, <ref>131</ref> etc. The line is not in <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> goddes folke for defaute þer-of · forfaren and spillen</l>
<l> ¶ Curatoures of holykirke · a[nd]<note>Bx.15.141: <hi>and</hi>: Alpha is supported by <hi>Cx</hi> against beta's <hi>as</hi>, which, however, gives good sense.</note> clerkes þat ben auerouse</l>
<l> Liȝtlich þat þey leuen · loselles it habbeth</l>
<l> Or dyeth intestate · and þanne þe bisshop entreth</l>
<l> And maketh murthe þere-with · and his men<note>Bx.15.144: <hi>men</hi>: Support for <hi>meyne</hi> comes from HmF alone. Lines 143-62 are rewritten in <hi>C</hi>.</note> bothe</l>
<l> And seggen he was a nygarde · þat no good myȝte asspare</l>
<l> To frende ne to fremmed · þe fende haue his soule</l>
<l> For a wrecched hous he helde · al his lyf-tyme</l>
<l> And þat he spared and bispered · spene<note>Bx.15.148: <hi>spene</hi>: The form in LMR. For variation with <hi>spende</hi>, cf. ll. <ref>81</ref>, <ref>138</ref>, <ref>149</ref> and <ref>340</ref>.</note> we in murthe</l>
<l> ¶ By lered by lewed · þat loth is to spende<note>Bx.15.149: <hi>spende</hi>: Cf. the previous line. In this case only R has <hi>spene</hi>.</note></l>
<l> Þus gone her godes · be þe goste faren</l>
<l> Ac for good men god wote · gret dole men maken</l>
<l> And bymeneth good mete-ȝyueres · and in mynde haueth<note>Bx.15.152: <hi>haueth</hi>: Alpha has <hi>hem haueth</hi>, which may be right. There is no parallel in <hi>C</hi>.</note></l>
<foreign>quid est caritas</foreign><note>Bx.15.153: <hi><foreign>quid est caritas</foreign></hi>: Written in the right-hand margin in the main hand in LM, so probably beta.</note>
<l> In prayers and in penaunces<note>Bx.15.153: <hi>penaunces</hi>: For variation of the plural with and without <-s>, see note to <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.14.211</ref>.</note> · and in parfyt charite</l>
<l> ¶ What is charite quod I þo · a childissh þinge he seide</l>
<l> <foreign>Nisi efficiamini sicut paruuli · non intrabitis in regnum celorum</foreign></l>
<l> With-outen fauntelte or foly · a fre liberal wille</l>
<l><note>Bx.15.157: <hi></hi>: The paraph in LW (with a new line-group in M) marks the start of Will's speech.</note> Where shulde men fynde such a frende · with so fre an herte</l>
<l> <note>Bx.15.158: Alpha and Hm mistake this as the beginning of Will's speech, with a paraph here rather than at l. 157. But the line is certainly notable. A later annotator in L writes: "nota the name of thaucto[r]". R has "Longe Wylle" in display script in red in the right margin; in M a later annotator has scribbled "longe will".</note> I haue lyued in londe quod I<note>Bx.15.158: <hi>I</hi> (2): Beta2 reads <hi>he</hi>.</note> · my name is longe wille</l>
<l> And fonde I neuere ful charite · bifore ne bihynde</l>
<l> Men beth mercyable · to mendynantz & to pore</l>
<l> And wolen lene þere þei leue · lelly to ben payed</l>
<l><note>Bx.15.162: <hi></hi>: The paraph is in LM only and may be spurious. WHmCF have a paraph at l. <ref>164</ref> instead.</note> Ac charite þat poule preyseth best · and most plesaunte to owre saueoure<note>Bx.15.162: <hi>owre saueoure</hi>: Evidently beta, despite WCr's <hi>oure lord</hi>. Alpha presumably had R's <hi>god</hi>.</note></l>
<l> As<note>Bx.15.163: <hi>As</hi>: Beta2 has <hi>Is</hi>, and M is altered to that reading. The word is dropped by CG and is not in <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> <foreign>non inflatu[r]<note>Bx.15.163: <hi><foreign>inflatur</foreign></hi>: Perhaps beta had the error <hi>inflatus</hi>, retained by L and corrected in M.</note> non [est]<note>Bx.15.163: <hi><foreign>est</foreign></hi>: Not in L and added in M and Hm, again suggesting that beta was perhaps in error.</note> ambiciosa non querit que sua sunt</foreign></l>
<l> I seigh neuere such a man · so me god helpe</l>
<l> That he ne wolde aske after his · and otherwhile coueyte</l>
<l> Þinge þat neded hym<note>Bx.15.166: <hi>neded hym</hi>: Supported by <hi>Cx</hi> against alpha's reversal and the present tense in CGO.</note> nouȝt · and nyme it if he myȝte</l>
<l> ¶ Clerkis kenne me þat cryst · is in alle places</l>
<l> Ac I seygh hym neuere sothly · but as my-self in a<note>Bx.15.168: <hi>a</hi>: Alpha omits. The line is not in <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> miroure</l>
<l> <foreign>[Hic]<note>Bx.15.169: <hi><foreign>Hic</foreign></hi>: M and alpha are supported by <hi>Cx</hi> against <hi>It</hi> in L, <hi>Ita</hi> in CGO, and omission in beta2. In 1 Cor. 13.12 the word is <hi>nunc</hi>.</note> in enigmate tunc facie ad faciem</foreign></l>
<l> And so I trowe trewly · by þat men telleth of charite</l>
<l> It is nouȝt championes fyȝte · ne chaffare as I trowe</l>
<l> ¶ Charite quod he ne chaffareth nouȝte · ne chalengeth ne craueth</l>
<l> As proude of a peny · as of a pounde of golde</l>
<l> And is as gladde of a goune · of a graye russet</l>
<l> As of a tunicle of tarse · or of trye scarlet</l>
<l> He is gladde with alle gladde · and good ty[l] alle wykked</l>
<l> And<note>Bx.15.177: <hi>And</hi>: Alpha has <hi>He</hi>. Lines 177-87 are rewritten in <hi>C</hi>.</note> leueth<note>Bx.15.177: <hi>leueth</hi>: R clearly reads <hi>leueth</hi> (though not recorded by KD), and F's <hi>beleviþ</hi> supports this as alpha's reading. Cr has <hi>leueth</hi> and in G <hi>lenithe</hi> is altered to <hi>levithe</hi>, as is to be expected in these late texts. In all other beta mss. it is impossible to determine whether the reading is <hi>u</hi> or <hi>n</hi> (though it looks more like <hi>u</hi> in O). Our transcriptions followed KD in reading <hi>leneth</hi> (though with a note of caution in W). We should probably have followed Skeat, who read L as <hi>leueth</hi>, with a note glossing it "believes; answering to <hi>let it soth</hi>" (l. <ref>180</ref>).</note> and loueth alle · þat owre lorde made</l>
<l> Curseth he no creature · ne he can bere no wratthe</l>
<l> Ne no lykynge hath to lye · ne laughe men to scorne</l>
<l> Al þat men seith he let it soth · and in solace taketh</l>
<l> And alle manere meschiefs · in myldenesse he suffreth</l>
<l> Coueiteth he none erthly good<note>Bx.15.182: <hi>good</hi>: Alpha has <hi>godes</hi>.</note> · but heuene-riche blisse</l>
<l> ¶ Hath he any rentes or ricchesse · or any riche frendes</l>
<l> ¶ Of rentes ne of ricchesse · ne reccheth he neuere</l>
<l> For a frende þat fyndeth<note>Bx.15.185: <hi>fyndeth</hi>: The evidence supports this as the <hi>Bx</hi> form in this line against R's monosyllabic <hi>fynt</hi>, whereas <hi>Bx</hi> evidently had <hi>fynt</hi> in the next line.</note> hym · failled hym neuere at nede</l>
<l> <foreign>Fiat voluntas tua</foreign> [·] fynt hym euer-more</l>
<l> And if he soupeth<note>Bx.15.187: <hi>soupeth</hi>: Only MCGO have subjunctive <hi>soupe</hi>.</note> et[eth]<note>Bx.15.187: <hi>eteth</hi>: The present tense is required by the sense. L's <hi>ette</hi> must be past, and R's <hi>eet</hi> (= alpha?) may be. See note to l. <ref>60</ref> above. Hm and beta4 have <hi>he eteþ</hi>.</note> but a soppe [·] of <foreign>spera in deo</foreign></l>
<l> He can purtreye wel þe pater noster · and peynte it with aues<note>Bx.15.188: <hi>aues</hi>: Beta's plural is supported by <hi>Cx</hi> (RK.16.323).</note></l>
<l> And other-while is his wone<note>Bx.15.189: <hi>is his wone</hi>: LMHm (R drops <hi>his</hi>). CrW, beta4 and F have <hi>he is woned</hi>, but <hi>Cx</hi> has <hi>his wone is</hi>.</note> · to wende in pilgrymage<note>Bx.15.189: <hi>in pilgrymage</hi>: Only LM have <hi>in</hi>, though this is the <hi>Cx</hi> reading. <hi>Bx</hi> clearly had sg. <hi>pilgrymage</hi>, though WCF have the plural, as does <hi>Cx</hi>. See <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.14.211</ref> and <ref>19.387</ref> for a similar situation.</note></l>
<l> Þere pore men and prisones<note>Bx.15.190: <hi>prisones</hi>: The form has good support for both <hi>Bx</hi> and <hi>Cx</hi>. See note to <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.3.138</ref>.</note> liggeth · her pardoun to haue</l>
<l> Þough he bere hem no bred · he bereth hem swetter lyflode</l>
<l> Loueth hem as owre lorde biddeth · and loketh how þei fare</l>
<l> ¶ And whan he is wery of þat werke · þanne wil he some-tyme</l>
<l> Labory in a<note>Bx.15.194: <hi>a</hi> (1): In LR only, though <hi>Cx</hi> has <hi>þe</hi>.</note> lauendrye · wel þe lengthe of a myle</l>
<l> And ȝerne in-to ȝouthe · and ȝepliche s[eche]<note>Bx.15.195: <hi>seche</hi>: Alpha is supported by <hi>Cx</hi> (as well as sense) against beta's <hi>speke</hi>.</note></l>
<l> Pryde with al þe appurtenaunce<note>Bx.15.196: <hi>appurtenaunce</hi>: The choice is between this and alpha's <hi>purtenaunce</hi>. This could represent the plural, as MCrWGF unambiguously do. <hi>C</hi> mss. have the same variation.</note> · and pakken hem togyderes</l>
<l> And bouken hem at his brest · and beten hem clene</l>
<l> And leggen on longe · with <foreign>laboraui in gemitu meo</foreign></l>
<l> And with warme water at his eyghen · wasshen hem after</l>
<l> And<note>Bx.15.200: <hi>And</hi>: Beta is supported by the X family of <hi>C</hi>, but alpha's omission has support from the P family.</note> þanne he syngeth whan he doth so · & some-tyme seith wepyng</l>
<l> <foreign>Cor contritum & humiliatum deus non despicies</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ By cryst I wolde þat I knewe hym quod I · no creature leuere</l>
<l> ¶ With-outen helpe of Piers plowman<note>Bx.15.203: <hi>plowman</hi>: MR have <hi>þe plowman</hi>; F drops the two words. Cf. l. <ref>206</ref>. Lines 202-24 are heavily revised in <hi>C</hi>, with few parallels.</note> quod he · his persone seestow neuere</l>
<l> ¶ Where clerkes knowen hym quod I · þat kepen holykirke</l>
<l> ¶ Clerkes haue no knowyng quod he · but by werkes and bi wordes</l>
<l> Ac piers þe plowman · parceyueth more depper</l>
<l> Þat<note>Bx.15.207: <hi>Þat</hi>: This odd reading, supported by L and alpha, evidently puzzled the scribes. M is altered to <hi>What</hi>, the reading of beta2, while CGO have <hi>Where</hi>. There is no parallel in <hi>C</hi>. </note> is þe<note>Bx.15.207: <hi>þe</hi>: Lost in alpha, prompting F to alter <hi>wil</hi> to <hi>why</hi>.</note> wille and wherfore · þat many wyȝte suffreth</l>
<l> <foreign>Et vidit deus cogitaciones eorum</foreign></l>
<l> For þere ar ful proude-herted men · paciente of tonge</l>
<l> And boxome as of berynge · to burgeys and to lordes</l>
<l> And to pore peple · han peper in þe nose</l>
<l> And as a lyoun he loketh · þere men lakketh his werkes</l>
<l> ¶ For þere ar beggeres and bidderes · bedmen as it were</l>
<l> Loketh as lambren · and semen lyf-holy</l>
<l> Ac it is more to haue her mete · [on]<note>Bx.15.215: <hi>on</hi>: Alpha's reading gives the required sense. LMCrW suggest that beta had <hi>with</hi>, although Hm and beta4 have <hi>in</hi>.</note> such an esy manere</l>
<l> Þan for penaunce and parfitnesse · þe pouerte þat such taketh</l>
<l> ¶ Þere-fore by coloure ne by clergye · knowe shaltow hym neuere</l>
<l> Noyther þorw wordes ne werkes · but þorw wille one</l>
<l> And þat knoweth no clerke · ne creature in<note>Bx.15.219: <hi>in</hi>: Beta probably had <hi>in</hi>, altered by beta2 (the line is omitted by Hm) to the more usual <hi>on</hi>. F also reads <hi>on</hi>, though R has the unusual form <hi>an</hi>.</note> erthe</l>
<l> But piers þe plowman · <foreign>petrus id est cristus</foreign></l>
<l> For he ne is<note>Bx.15.221: <hi>ne is</hi>: LM. In practice there is no distinction between this and <hi>nys</hi> in WHmR. We follow copy-text.</note> nouȝte in lolleres · ne in lande-leperes hermytes</l>
<l> Ne at ancres þere a box hangeth · alle suche þei faiten</l>
<l> Fy on faitoures · and <foreign>in fautores suos</foreign></l>
<l> <note>Bx.15.224: Alpha has a paraph.</note>For charyte is goddis champioun · and as a good chylde hende</l>
<l> And þe meryest of mouth · at mete where he sitteth</l>
<l> Þe loue þat lith in his herte · maketh hym lyȝte of speche</l>
<l> And is compenable and confortatyf · as cryst bit hym-selue</l>
<l> <foreign>Nolite fieri sicut ypocrite tristes &c</foreign><note>Bx.15.228: R alone has the word-order as in <hi>Cx</hi>. Perhaps beta and F reverted to the Vulgate order, since it was a well-known quotation used as an antiphon on Ash Wednesday. See Alford (1992), 94.</note></l>
<l> <note>Bx.15.229: Hm and alpha have a paraph. In L the line is at the top of the page where a paraph is sometimes missed.</note>For I haue seyn hym in sylke · and somme-tyme in russet</l>
<l> Bothe in grey and in grys · and in gulte herneys</l>
<l> And as gladlich he it gaf · to gomes þat it neded</l>
<l> ¶ Edmonde and Edwarde · eyther were kynges</l>
<l> And seyntes ysette · [so]<note>Bx.15.233: <hi>so</hi>: Alpha's alliterating reading means "so much did they practice charity". Beta's <hi>tyl</hi> makes no sense, prompting the reading <hi>for</hi> in CrW, and the alteration to that reading in MHm. KD and Schmidt (1995), 396, oddly conjecture <hi>stille</hi>, though the latter has an elaborate explanation.</note> charite hem folwed</l>
<l> ¶ I haue seyne charite also · syngen and reden</l>
<l> Ryden and rennen · in ragged wedes</l>
<l> Ac biddyng as beggeres · bihelde I hym neuere</l>
<l> Ac in riche robes · rathest he walketh</l>
<l> Ycalled and ycrimiled · and his crowne shaue<note>Bx.15.238: Following this beta4 has an additional line. It is not in <hi>C</hi>.</note></l>
<l> And in a freres frokke · he was yfounde ones</l>
<l> Ac it is ferre<note>Bx.15.240: <hi>ferre</hi>: Though beta2 and F have <hi>fern</hi>, which might be considered difficilior (it occurs nowhere else in any version), <hi>Cx</hi> has <hi>fer</hi> in a revised a-verse.</note> agoo · in seynt Fraunceys tyme</l>
<l> In þat secte sitthe · to selde hath he be knowen<note>Bx.15.247: <hi>knowen</hi>: Clearly the <hi>Bx</hi> reading. Unusually, W's <hi>founde</hi> is shared with <hi>Cx</hi>, presumably by coincidence.</note></l>
<l> ¶ Riche men he recomendeth · and of her robes taketh</l>
<l> Þat with-outen wyles · leden her lyues</l>
<l> <foreign>Beatus est diues · qui &c</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ In kynges courte he cometh ofte · þere þe conseille is trewe</l>
<l> Ac if coueityse be of þe conseille · he wil nouȝt come þer-Inne</l>
<l> In courte amonge iaperes · he cometh but<note>Bx.15.247: <hi>but</hi>: LMGR are supported by <hi>Cx</hi> against <hi>noȝt but</hi>.</note> selde</l>
<l> For braulyng and bakbytyng · and beryng of fals witnesse</l>
<l> ¶ In þe constorie bifor þe comissarie · he cometh nouȝt ful ofte</l>
<l> For her lawe dureth ouer-longe · but if þei lacchen syluer</l>
<l> And matrimoigne for monye · maken & vnmaken</l>
<l> And þat conscience and cryst · hath yknitte faste</l>
<l> Þei vndon it vnworthily · þo doctours of lawe</l>
<l> [¶ Amonges erchebisshopes and oþer bisshopes · and prelates of holy cherche<note>Bx.15.254-8: These five lines are lost by beta, skipping from one paraph to the next. Lines 254 and 257 are distantly related to RK.16.366-7. We follow R, with spellings altered to those of L. Comparison with <hi>Cx</hi> begins again with l. <ref>290</ref> and then l. <ref>297</ref>.</note></l>
<l> Forto wonye with hem · his wone was sum-tyme</l>
<l> And cristes patrimoigne to þe pore · parcel-mele dele</l>
<l> Ac auarice hath þe keyes now · and kepeth for his kynnesmen</l>
<l> And for his sectoures & his seruantz · & somme for here<note>Bx.15.258: <hi>here</hi>: The kinsmen's. F's <hi>hise</hi> weakens the point.</note> children]</l>
<l><note>Bx.15.259: <hi></hi>: The paraph is in beta, following its loss of text. See note to ll. <ref>254-8</ref>.</note> Ac I ne lakke no lyf · but lorde amende vs alle</l>
<l> And gyue vs grace good god · charite to folwe</l>
<l> For who-so myȝte mete with hym · such maneres hym eyleth</l>
<l> Noyther he blameth ne banneth · bosteth ne prayseth</l>
<l> Lakketh ne loseth · ne loketh vp sterne<note>Bx.15.263: This is transposed with the following line in beta4.</note></l>
<l> Craueth ne coueiteth · ne crieth after more</l>
<l> <foreign>In pace in idipsum dormiam &c ·</foreign><note>Bx.15.265: The Latin line is lost in alpha. CrHmG extend the verse. It is repeated at <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.18.191-2</ref>.</note></l>
<l> Þe moste lyflode þat<note>Bx.15.266: <hi>þat</hi>: Supported by LWHmR.</note> he lyueth by · is loue in goddis passioun</l>
<l> Noyther he biddeth ne beggeth · ne borweth to ȝelde</l>
<l> Misdoth he no man · ne with his mouth greueth</l>
<l> ¶ Amonges cristene men · þis myldnesse shulde laste</l>
<l> In alle manere angres · haue þis at herte</l>
<l> Þat þough þei suffred al þis · god suffred for vs more</l>
<l> In ensample we shulde do so · and take no veniaunce</l>
<l> Of owre foes þat doth vs falsenesse · þat is owre fadres wille</l>
<l> For wel may euery man<note>Bx.15.274: <hi>wel may euery man</hi>: Beta's word-order gives a better alliterative pattern than alpha's.</note> wite [·] if god hadde<note>Bx.15.274: <hi>hadde</hi>: Dropped by G and alpha. The b-verse means "if God had followed his own wishes".</note> wolde hym-selue</l>
<l> Sholde neuere Iudas ne<note>Bx.15.275: <hi>ne</hi>: Alpha, reading <hi>þe</hi> (R) or <hi>þat</hi> (F), takes no account of the following line.</note> iuwe · haue Ihesu don on Rode</l>
<l> Ne han martired peter ne Poule · ne in prisoun holden</l>
<l> Ac he suffred in ensample · þat we shulde suffre also</l>
<l> And seide to suche þat suffre wolde · þat <foreign>pacientes vincunt</foreign></l>
<l><foreign>Verbi gratia</foreign> quod he · and verrey ensamples manye</l>
<l> In <foreign>legenda sanctorum</foreign> · þe lyf of holy seyntes</l>
<l> What penaunce and pouerte · and passioun þei suffred</l>
<l> In hunger in hete · in al manere angres</l>
<l> Antony and Egidie · and other holi fadres</l>
<l> Woneden in wildernesse · amonge wilde bestes</l>
<l> Monkes and mendynauntz · men bi hem-selue</l>
<l> In spekes an<note>Bx.15.286: <hi>an</hi>: "and". The attestation of MCr and R (as well as beta4) favours omitting LWHmF <hi>in</hi>.</note> spelonkes · selden speken togideres</l>
<l> Ac noyther antony ne Egidy · ne hermite þat tyme</l>
<l> Of liouns ne of leoperdes · no lyflode ne toke</l>
<l> But of foules<note>Bx.15.289: <hi>foules</hi>: Alpha includes the definite article, perhaps rightly. We follow copy-text.</note> þat fleeth · þus fynt men in bokes</l>
<l> Excepte þat Egydie · after an hynde cryede</l>
<l> And þorw þe mylke of þat mylde<note>Bx.15.291: <hi>mylde</hi>: F omits, while R has <hi>meke</hi>, perhaps prompted by its spelling <hi>melke</hi> for "milk".</note> best · þe man was susteyned</l>
<l> A[c]<note>Bx.15.292: <hi>Ac</hi>: The sense seems to call for R's reading, against beta's <hi>And</hi>. F omits.</note> day by day had he hir nouȝt · his hunger forto slake</l>
<l> But selden and sondrie tymes<note>Bx.15.293: <hi>tymes</hi>: See <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.12.36</ref>. Alpha's form is possible. Discussed by KD, p. 143.</note> · as seith þe boke and techeth</l>
<l> ¶ Antony adayes<note>Bx.15.294: <hi>adayes</hi>: The form does not occur elsewhere in the poem. Alpha has <hi>on a day</hi>. We follow copy-text.</note> · aboute none-tyme</l>
<l> Had a bridde þat brouȝte hym bred<note>Bx.15.295: <hi>bred</hi>: R probably represents alpha, with punctuation after <hi>hym</hi> and the addition of <hi>his</hi> before <hi>bred</hi> (F has <hi>his</hi> later in the line). Either could be right, though b-verse alliteration on <hi>by</hi> is perfectly good.</note> · þat he by lyued</l>
<l> And þough þe gome hadde a geste · god fonde<note>Bx.15.296: <hi>fonde</hi>: "provided for". Alpha's <hi>fedde</hi> is likely to be scribal. Cf. l. <ref>299</ref>.</note> hem bothe</l>
<l> ¶ Poule <foreign>primus heremita</foreign> · had parroked<note>Bx.15.297: <hi>parroked</hi>: <hi>Cx</hi> (RK.17.13) does not support alpha's addition of <hi>in</hi>.</note> hym-selue</l>
<l> Þat no man miȝte hym se · for mosse and for leues</l>
<l> Foules hym fedde · fele wynteres with-alle</l>
<l> Til he founded freres · of austines<note>Bx.15.300: <hi>of austines</hi>: There is liaison alliteration on /f/ which F improves by altering to <hi>of fraunces</hi>.</note> ordre</l>
<l> Poule after his prechyng · panyers he made</l>
<l> And wan with his hondes · þat his wombe neded</l>
<l> Peter fisched for his fode · and his felawe andrewe</l>
<l> Some þei solde and some þei sothe<note>Bx.15.304: <hi>sothe</hi>: Past tense, from <title>MED</title> <hi>sethen</hi> v. (1). W <hi>sode</hi> is merely a variant spelling. Alpha has the easier <hi>eeten</hi>, but beta is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> · and so þei lyued bothe</l>
<l> And also Marie Magdeleyne · by mores lyued and<note>Bx.15.305: <hi>lyued and</hi>: Alpha's omission of the verb is attractive following <hi>lyued</hi> in l. <ref>304</ref>, but beta has support from <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> dewes</l>
<l> Ac moste þorw deuocioun · and mynde of god almiȝty</l>
<l> I shulde nouȝt þis seuene dayes · seggen hem alle</l>
<l> Þat lyueden þus for owre lordes loue · manye longe ȝeres<note>Bx.15.308: <hi>manye longe ȝeres</hi>: Beta and <hi>Cx</hi>. Alpha's b-verse is repeated from l. <ref>284</ref>.</note></l>
<l> Ac þere ne was lyoun ne leopart · þat on laundes wenten</l>
<l> Noyther bere ne bor · ne other best wilde</l>
<l> Þat ne fel to her feet · and fauned with þe tailles<note>Bx.15.311: <hi>tailles</hi>: R's singular has no support from <hi>Cx</hi>.</note></l>
<l> And if þei couth han ycarped · by cryst as I trowe</l>
<l> Þei wolde haue fedde þat folke · bifor wilde foules</l>
<l> <note>Bx.15.314-15: Two lines lost by beta. The whole passage is heavily revised in <hi>C</hi>, and there is no trace of these lines. We follow R, with spellings altered to those of L.</note> [For alle þe curteisye þat bestes kunne · þei kidde þat folke ofte</l>
<l> In likkyng and in lowynge · þere þei on laundes ȝede]</l>
<l> Ac god sent hem fode bi foules · and by no fierse bestes</l>
<l> In menynge þat meke þinge · mylde þinge shulde fede</l>
<l> As who seith religious · ryȝtful men shulde fynde<note>Bx.15.318: <hi>fynde</hi>: WF pick up <hi>fede</hi> from the previous line.</note></l>
<l> And lawful men to lyfholy men · lyflode brynge<note>Bx.15.319: <hi>brynge</hi>: WF have <hi>sholde brynge</hi>, repeating the construction of the previous two lines.</note></l>
<l> And þanne wolde lordes and ladyes be · loth to agulte</l>
<l> And to take of her tenauntz · more þan treuth wolde</l>
<l> Fonde þei þat Freres · wolde forsake her almesses<note>Bx.15.322: <hi>almesses</hi>: LWHm mark the plural form. The form of the other scribes can also be understood as plural. There is similar variation in the parallel line in <hi>C</hi> (RK.17.47), though most scribes have the unmarked form.</note></l>
<l> And bidden hem bere it · þere it was yborwed</l>
<l> For we ben goddes foules · and abiden alwey</l>
<l> Tyl briddes brynge vs · þat we shulde lyue by</l>
<l> For had ȝe potage and payn ynough · and peny-ale to drynke</l>
<l> And a<note>Bx.15.327: <hi>a</hi>: i.e. "one", as is clearer in alpha. "And one main dish of just one kind".</note> messe þere-mydde · of o manere kynde</l>
<l> Ȝe had riȝt ynough ȝe Religious · and so ȝowre reule<note>Bx.15.328: <hi>reule</hi>: Alpha substitutes non-alliterating <hi>ordre</hi>.</note> me tolde</l>
<l> <foreign>Nunquam<note>Bx.15.329: <hi><foreign>Nunquam</foreign></hi>: Supported by <hi>Cx</hi>. F's <hi>Numquid</hi>, which makes much better sense, is a correction in line with the Vulgate (Job 6.5).</note> dicit Iob rugi[e]t<note>Bx.15.329: <hi><foreign>rugiet</foreign></hi>: The Vulgate's future tense is supported by alpha and <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> on[a]ger cum [habuerit herbam]<note>Bx.15.329: <hi><foreign>habuerit herbam</foreign></hi>: Beta reverses the word-order, but alpha's order, which is that of the Vulgate, is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> · aut mugiet boscum ante plenum presepe steterit · brutorum animalium natura te condempnat ·quia cum eis pabulum comune sufficiat<note>Bx.15.329: <hi><foreign>brutorum ... sufficiat</foreign></hi>: Alpha omits but it is in <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> · ex adipe prodijt iniquitas tua</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ If lewed men knewe þis latyn · þei wolde loke whom þei ȝeue</l>
<l> And auyse hem bifore · a<note>Bx.15.331: <hi>a</hi>: "a period of". Alpha and GO omit. Lines 331-71 offer few parallels with <hi>C</hi>.</note> fyue dayes or sexe</l>
<l> Or þei amortesed to monkes · or chanouns her rentes</l>
<l> Allas lordes and ladyes · lewed conseille haue ȝe</l>
<l> To ȝyue fram ȝowre eyres · þat ȝowre ayeles ȝow lefte</l>
<l> And ȝiueth<note>Bx.15.335: <hi>ȝiueth</hi>: CrWF supply the object <hi>it</hi>.</note> to bidde for ȝow · to such þat<note>Bx.15.335: <hi>such þat</hi>: MCr and alpha have (slightly easier?) <hi>such as</hi>.</note> ben riche</l>
<l> And ben founded and feffed eke · to bidde for other</l>
<l> ¶ Who perfourneth þis prophecye · of þe peple þat now lybbeth</l>
<l> <foreign>Dispersit dedit pauperibus &c</foreign></l>
<l> If any peple perfourme þat texte · it ar þis pore freres</l>
<l> For þat þei beggen abouten · in buildynge þei spene<note>Bx.15.340: <hi>spene</hi>: The form in LMO, but alpha and others have <hi>spende</hi>. See notes to ll. <ref>81</ref>, <ref>148</ref>. Beta2 and CF add <hi>it</hi>.</note></l>
<l> And on hem-self sum · and such as ben her laboreres</l>
<l> And of hem þat habbeth þei taken · and ȝyue hem þat ne<note>Bx.15.342: <hi>ne</hi>: Beta2 omits, puzzled by the irony.</note> habbeth</l>
<l> ¶ Ac clerkes & knyȝtes · and comuneres þat ben riche</l>
<l> Fele of ȝow fareth · as if I a forest hadde</l>
<l> Þat were ful of faire trees · and I fonded and caste</l>
<l> How I myȝte mo þer-inne · amonges hem sette</l>
<l> Riȝt so ȝe riche · ȝe robeth<note>Bx.15.347: <hi>robeth</hi>: "provide robes for" (as in L, corrected M, WC) but with a pun on the phrase "rob the rich". Already puzzled by the ironic tone earlier in the passage, other scribes write <hi>robbeth</hi>, leading F to alter <hi>ryche</hi> to <hi>not ryche</hi>. See l. <ref>351</ref>.</note> þat ben riche</l>
<l> And helpeth hem þat helpeth ȝow · and ȝiueth þere no nede is</l>
<l> As who-so filled a tonne [ful]<note>Bx.15.349: <hi>ful</hi>: Called for by the alliteration, though preserved only in R. Alpha also has <hi>ful</hi> in the b-verse, replacing <hi>fressh</hi> in beta.</note> · of a fressh ryuer</l>
<l> And went forth with þat water · to woke with themese</l>
<l> Riȝt so ȝe riche · ȝe robeth<note>Bx.15.351: <hi>robeth</hi>: See note to l. <ref>347</ref>.</note> and fedeth</l>
<l> Hem þat han as ȝe han · hem ȝe make at ese</l>
<l><note>Bx.15.353: <hi></hi>: The paraph is in beta only.</note> Ac Religious þat riche ben · shulde rather feste<note>Bx.15.353: <hi>feste</hi>: Alpha picks up the weaker <hi>fede</hi> from l. <ref>351</ref>.</note> beggeres</l>
<l> Þan burgeys þat riche ben · as þe boke techeth</l>
<l> <foreign>Quia sacrilegium est res pauperum non pauperibus dare</foreign></l>
<l> <foreign>Item [idem]<note>Bx.15.356: <hi><foreign>idem</foreign></hi>: i.e. "from the same source again" (viz. Peter Cantor; see Alford (1992), 96). It is omitted by beta.</note> peccatoribus dare · est demonibus immolare</foreign></l>
<l> <foreign>Item monache si indiges et accipis pocius das quam accipis</foreign><note>Bx.15.357-8: These lines are omitted in alpha.</note></l>
<l> <foreign>Si autem non eges & accipis · rapis</foreign></l>
<l> <foreign>Porro non indiget Monachus · si habeat quod nature sufficit</foreign></l>
<l> For-þi I conseille alle cristene · to confourmen hem to charite</l>
<l> For charite with-oute chalengynge · vnchargeth þe soule<note>Bx.15.361: <hi>þe soule</hi>: R omits.</note></l>
<l> And many a prisone<note>Bx.15.362: <hi>prisone</hi>: For the variation with <hi>prisoner</hi> see note to l. <ref>190</ref>.</note> fram purgatorie · þorw his preyeres he delyureth<note>Bx.15.362: <hi>he delyureth</hi>: Alpha has instead <hi>is deliuered</hi>, which could be right.</note></l>
<l> <note>Bx.15.363: A paraph as in Hm and alpha would be appropriate.</note>Ac þere is a defaute in þe folke · þat þe faith kepeth</l>
<l> Wherfore folke is þe feblere · and nouȝt ferme of bilieue</l>
<l> As in lussheborwes is a lyther alay · and ȝet loketh he lyke a sterlynge</l>
<l> Þe merke of þat mone is good · ac þe metal is fieble</l>
<l> And so it fareth by some folke now · þei han a faire speche</l>
<l> Croune and crystendome · þe kynges merke of heuene</l>
<l> Ac þe metal þat is mannes soule · with synne is foule alayed</l>
<l> Bothe lettred and lewede · beth allayed now with synne<note>Bx.15.370: The line is dropped by CGF.</note></l>
<l> That no lyf loueth other · ne owre lorde as it semeth</l>
<l> For [what]<note>Bx.15.372: <hi>what</hi>: Omitted by beta, but alpha is supported by <hi>Cx</hi> (RK.17.86).</note> þorw werre and wykked werkes · and wederes vnresonable</l>
<l> Wederwise shipmen · and witti clerkes also</l>
<l> Han no bilieue to þe lifte · ne to þe lore of philosofres</l>
<l> ¶ Astrymyanes<note>Bx.15.375: <hi>Astrymyanes</hi>: L has the same spelling in l. <ref>386</ref>, but in <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.19.250</ref> has <hi>astronomyenes</hi>. The forms probably reflect <hi>Bx</hi>; cf. R's spellings. <hi>C</hi> mss. have similar variation.</note> alday · in her arte faillen</l>
<l> Þat whilum warned bifore · what shulde [bi]falle<note>Bx.15.376: <hi>bifalle</hi>: R's unique reading is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>. All other <hi>B</hi> mss omit the prefix, but it should be noted that F shows a tendency to alter <hi>bifalle</hi> to <hi>falle</hi>: <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.7.179</ref>, <ref>8.8</ref>, <ref>11.309</ref>.</note> after</l>
<l> Shipmen and sheperdes · þat with shipp & shepe wenten</l>
<l> Wisten by þe walkene · what shulde bityde</l>
<l> As of wederes and<note>Bx.15.379: <hi>and</hi>: Alpha has <hi>and of</hi>. The line is not in <hi>C</hi>.</note> wyndes · þei warned men ofte</l>
<l> <note>Bx.15.380: A paraph as in WHm and alpha would be appropriate.</note>Tilieres þat tiled þe erthe · tolden her maistres</l>
<l> By þe sede þat þei sewe · what þei selle miȝte</l>
<l> And what to leue and to<note>Bx.15.382: <hi>to</hi> (2): The reading of LM and alpha supported by <hi>Cx</hi>. Beta1 has <hi>what to</hi>.</note> lyue by · þe londe was so trewe</l>
<l> Now failleth þe folke of þe flode · and of þe londe bothe</l>
<l> Sheperdes and shipmen · and so do þis tilieres</l>
<l> Noither þei kunneth ne knoweth · one cours bi-for an other</l>
<l> Astrymyanes also · aren at her wittes ende</l>
<l> Of þat was calculed of þe [c]lement<note>Bx.15.387: <hi>þe clement</hi>: Alpha drops the article; beta reads <hi>þe element</hi>. The right reading is certainly that of <hi>Cx</hi> (RK.17.107), <hi>þe clymat</hi> (<title>MED</title> <hi>climat</hi>, "a region of the earth"). Beta replaced the corrupt <hi>Bx</hi> with much easier and non-alliterating <hi>þe element</hi>, "the weather". Alpha drops the definite article to make some sense: "calculated by [Pope?] Clement". At this date <hi>clement</hi> can only be a proper name; cf. <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.5.344</ref>, <ref>365</ref> (in both cases R has small <c> but F a capital). It is possible, too, that <hi>Bx</hi> itself read <hi>þe clemet</hi> correctly and was differently misinterpreted by alpha and beta.</note> · þe contrarie þei fynde</l>
<l> Gramer þe grounde of al · bigyleth now children</l>
<l> For is none of þis newe clerkes · who-so nymeth hede</l>
<l> Þat can versifye faire · ne formalich enditen<note>Bx.15.390: The line is omitted by beta2. <hi>Cx</hi> has it.</note></l>
<l> Ne nouȝt on amonge an hundreth · þat an auctour can construe</l>
<l> Ne rede a lettre in any langage · but in latyn or in englissh</l>
<l> Go now to any degre · and but if gyle be mayster</l>
<l> And flaterere his felawe · vnder hym to fourmen</l>
<l> Moche<note>Bx.15.395: <hi>Moche</hi>: Alpha adds <hi>And</hi>, but the sense is better without it: "It will surprise me greatly if Guile isn't in command and Flatterer working under him amongst everyone".</note> wonder me thynketh · amonges vs alle</l>
<l> Doctoures of decres · and of diuinite Maistres</l>
<l> Þat shulde konne and knowe · alkynnes clergye</l>
<l> And answere to argumentz · and also to a <foreign>quodlibet</foreign></l>
<l> I dar nouȝt seggen it for shame · if suche weren apposed</l>
<l> Þei shulde faillen in<note>Bx.15.400: <hi>faillen in</hi>: LMG and alpha, supported by <hi>Cx</hi> against <hi>faillen of</hi> in beta2 and CO.</note> her philosofye · and in phisyk bothe</l>
<l> Wher-fore I am afered · of folke of holikirke</l>
<l> Lest þei ouerhuppen as other don · in offices<note>Bx.15.402: <hi>offices</hi>: The form without ending in MWGF may also be plural. Cf. note to <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.3.101</ref>.</note> & in houres</l>
<l> Ac<note>Bx.15.403: <hi>Ac</hi>: Good support from LMR, with the usual variants <hi>And</hi> and <hi>But</hi>.</note> if<note>Bx.15.403: <hi>if</hi>: R has <hi>þouȝ</hi>, which may be alpha and may be right. It probably lies behind F's <hi>þey oon hippe</hi> ... (<hi>þey</hi> is F's usual form of "though") and is included in <hi>C</hi> which reworks as two lines (RK.17.118-19).</note> þei ouerhuppe as I hope nouȝte · owre byleue suffiseth<note>Bx.15.403: <hi>suffiseth</hi>: Either beta englishes the Latin or alpha supplies the Latin equivalent in anticipation of l. <ref>405</ref>. <hi>Cx</hi> in a reworked line has the English form, altered by one scribe to <hi>sufficit</hi>.</note></l>
<l> As clerkes in <foreign>corpus cristi</foreign> feste · singen & reden</l>
<l> Þat <foreign>sola fides sufficit</foreign> · to saue with lewed peple</l>
<l> ¶ And so may sarasenes be saued · scribes and iewes</l>
<l> Allas þanne but owre loresmen · lyuen as þei leren vs</l>
<l> And for her lyuynge þat lewed men be<note>Bx.15.408: <hi>be</hi>: L and alpha punctuate after <hi>be</hi>, the others after <hi>men</hi>.</note> · þe lother god agulten</l>
<l> For sarasenes han somwhat · semynge to owre bileue</l>
<l> For þei loue and bileue · in o parsone almiȝty</l>
<l> And we lered and lewede · in on god bileueth</l>
<l> <note>Bx.15.412: The line is omitted by beta as a result of eyeskip from the identical b-verse of l. 411. We follow R as usual. F begins the line <hi>And so</hi>, which is perhaps scribal emphasis. For R's <hi>on</hi>, F has <hi>in</hi>, as in the previous b-verse. The repetition might be an argument for or against. Lines 406-15 have no parallel in <hi>C</hi>.</note> [Cristene and vncristene . on one god bileueth]</l>
<l> Ac<note>Bx.15.413: <hi>Ac</hi>: LR only. Cf. note to l. <ref>403</ref>.</note> one Makometh · a man in mysbileue</l>
<l> Brouȝte sarasenes of surre · and se in what manere</l>
<l> Þis Makometh was a crystene man<note>Bx.15.415: <hi>a crystene man</hi>: The alliterating noun is supported by L and alpha, but alpha is without the article, perhaps rightly. Beta1 seems to have read <hi>a cristene</hi>, as MWHm, though CrGO drop the article and C has pa. ppl. <hi>cristend</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi>, in a different line, has <hi>a man ycristened</hi> (RK.17.165).</note> · and for he moste nouȝte be a<note>Bx.15.415: <hi>a</hi> (2): The variation is unpatterned: LWCOR have the article, but the others are without it.</note> pope</l>
<l> In-to surre he souȝte · and þorw his sotil wittes</l>
<l> Daunted a dowue · and day and nyȝte hir fedde</l>
<l> Þe corne þat she cropped · he caste it in his ere</l>
<l> <note>Bx.15.419-20: Two lines omitted by alpha, through eyeskip on <hi>ere</hi>. The lines form the basis of RK.17.174-5.</note> And if he amonge þe poeple preched · or in places come</l>
<l> Þanne wolde þe coluer come · to þe clerkes ere</l>
<l> Menynge as after meet · þus Makometh hir enchaunted<note>Bx.15.421: <hi>enchaunted</hi>: Beta is supported by <hi>Cx</hi> against alpha's <hi>chaunted</hi>.</note></l>
<l> A<note>Bx.15.422: <hi>A</hi>: "And". See note to <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.P.227</ref>.</note> dide folke þanne falle on knees · for he swore in his prechynge</l>
<l> Þat þe coluer þat come so · come fram god of heuene</l>
<l> As<note>Bx.15.424: <hi>As</hi>: Supported by the syntax over alpha's <hi>And</hi>.</note> messager to Makometh · men forto teche</l>
<l> And þus þorw wyles of his witte [·] and a whyte dowue</l>
<l> Makometh in mysbileue · men and wommen brouȝte</l>
<l> Þat lered þere and lewed<note>Bx.15.427: <hi>lered þere and lewed</hi>: The reading of LR, and possibly M's original version. F revises <hi>lered þere</hi> to <hi>leernede men</hi>; Hm (corrected) reverses the adjectives; beta4 drops <hi>þere</hi>, and CrW have <hi>lyued þo þere and lyue</hi>, with M altered to that reading. A further difference is that alpha punctuates after <hi>lewed</hi>. In <hi>Cx</hi> the line reads: <hi>And on his lore thei lyuen</hi> [or <hi>leuen</hi>] <hi>ȝut, as wel lered as lewed</hi> (RK.17.182).</note> ȝit · l[e]uen<note>Bx.15.427: <hi>leuen</hi>: Only L has <hi>lyuen</hi>. There is some evidence that beta used the form <hi>leuen</hi> also for "live", causing some scribes to hypercorrect; cf. notes to ll. <ref>571</ref> and <ref>615</ref>.</note> on his lawes</l>
<l> ¶ And sitth owre saueoure suffred · þe sarasenes so bigiled</l>
<l> Þorw a crystene clerke · acursed in his soule</l>
<l> Ac<note>Bx.15.430: <hi>Ac</hi>: LR (F has <hi>but</hi> as usual). See note to l. <ref>413</ref>. Lines 429-513 are not paralleled in <hi>C</hi>.</note> for drede of þe deth · I dar nouȝt telle treuthe</l>
<l> How englissh clerkes a coluer feden · þat coueityse hatte</l>
<l> And ben manered after Makometh · þat no man vseth treuth</l>
<l> ¶ Ancres and hermytes · and monkes and freres</l>
<l> Peren<note>Bx.15.434: <hi>Peren</hi>: "become equals with". Alpha takes this as a noun, upsetting the syntax.</note> to apostles · þorw her parfit lyuynge</l>
<l> Wolde neuere þe faithful fader · þat his ministres sholde</l>
<l> Of tyrauntz þat teneth trewe men · taken any almesse</l>
<l> But done as Antony did · dominik and<note>Bx.15.437: <hi>and</hi>: Alpha has <hi>or</hi>.</note> Fraunceys</l>
<l> Benet &<note>Bx.15.438: <hi>&</hi>: Alpha again has <hi>or</hi>.</note> Bernarde · þe which hem firste tauȝte</l>
<l> To lyue bi litel & in lowe houses · by lele mennes almesse<note>Bx.15.439: <hi>almesse</hi>: Beta's reading may be prompted by the same word at the end of l. <ref>436</ref>. On the other hand, alpha's synonym <hi>fyndynge</hi> may have its origin in visual similarity with <hi>lyuynge</hi> at the end of l. <ref>440</ref>, together with <hi>fynde</hi> in l. <ref>441</ref> (so KD, p. 143). KD opts for beta's reading, Schmidt (1995) for alpha's.</note></l>
<l> Grace sholde growe & be grene · þorw her good<note>Bx.15.440: <hi>good</hi>: Alpha picks up <hi>lele</hi> from the previous line, thus losing alliteration.</note> lyuynge</l>
<l> And folkes<note>Bx.15.441: <hi>folkes</hi>: HmC and alpha have the sg.</note> sholde fynde · þat ben in dyuerse sykenesse</l>
<l> Þe better for her byddynges · in body and in soule</l>
<l> Her preyeres and her penaunces · to pees shulde brynge<note>Bx.15.443: <hi>brynge</hi>: Alpha has <hi>hem brynge</hi>, anticipating the object of l. <ref>444</ref>.</note></l>
<l> Alle þat ben at debate · and bedemen were trewe</l>
<l> <foreign>Petite & accipietis &c</foreign></l>
<l> <note>Bx.15.446: Hm and alpha record a paraph.</note>Salt saueth catel<note>Bx.15.446: <hi>catel</hi>: Beta2 and F add the definite article or personal pronoun.</note> · seggen þis wyues</l>
<l> <note>Bx.15.447-514: These lines are omitted by F.</note> <foreign>Vos estis sal terre &c ·</foreign></l>
<l> Þe heuedes of holicherche · and þei holy were</l>
<l> Cryst calleth<note>Bx.15.449: <hi>calleth</hi>: R's past tense is both easier and less appropriate.</note> hem salt · for crystene soules</l>
<l> <foreign>Et si sal euanuerit · in quo salietur</foreign></l>
<l> Ac<note>Bx.15.451: <hi>Ac</hi>: So LMHmOR. See note to l. <ref>413</ref>.</note> fressh flessh other fissh · whan it salt failleth</l>
<l> It is vnsauory for soth · ysothe or ybake</l>
<l> So is mannes soule sothly · þat seeth no good ensaumple<note>Bx.15.453: <hi>ensaumple</hi>: R has the aphetic form <hi>saumple</hi>.</note></l>
<l> Of hem of holycherche · þat þe heigh weye shulde teche</l>
<l> And be gyde and go bifore · as a<note>Bx.15.455: <hi>a</hi>: Omitted by R.</note> good baneoure</l>
<l> And hardy hem þat bihynde ben · and ȝiue hem good euydence</l>
<l> ¶ Elleuene holy men · al þe worlde torned</l>
<l> In-to lele byleue · þe liȝtloker me thynketh</l>
<l> Shulde al maner men · we han so manye Maistres</l>
<l> Prestes and prechoures · and a pope aboue</l>
<l> Þat goddes salt shulde be · to saue mannes soule</l>
<l> ¶ Al was hethenesse some-tyme · Ingelond and wales</l>
<l> Til Gregory gerte<note>Bx.15.463: <hi>gerte</hi>: R's <hi>and grete</hi> is much inferior.</note> clerkes · to go here and<note>Bx.15.463: <hi>here and</hi>: Beta4 and R have <hi>and to</hi>, losing the emphasis on England and Wales.</note> preche</l>
<l> Austyn at Caunterbury · crystened þe kynge<note>Bx.15.464: <hi>kynge</hi>: R's addition of <hi>þere</hi> may be a consequence of the loss of <hi>here</hi> in the previous line.</note></l>
<l> And þorw myracles as men may rede · al þat marche he torned</l>
<l> To cryst and to crystendome · and crosse to honoure</l>
<l> And fulled folke faste<note>Bx.15.467: <hi>faste</hi>: Possibly a beta addition, since R omits it.</note> · and þe faith tauȝte</l>
<l> More þorw miracles · þan þorw moche prechynge</l>
<l> As wel þorw his werkes · as with<note>Bx.15.469: <hi>with</hi>: MCrHm repeat <hi>þoruȝ</hi> from the a-verse.</note> his holy wordes</l>
<l> And seyde hem what fullynge · and faith was to mene</l>
<l> ¶ Cloth þat cometh fro þe weuyng · is nouȝt comly to were</l>
<l> Tyl it is<note>Bx.15.472: <hi>is</hi>: So LMR. Others have the subjunctive as all copies have at l. <ref>476</ref>.</note> fulled vnder fote · or in fullyng stokkes</l>
<l> Wasshen wel with water · and with taseles cracched</l>
<l> Ytouked and ytented · & vnder tailloures hande<note>Bx.15.474: <hi>hande</hi>: R and corrected Hm have the plural, less appropriately.</note></l>
<l> And so it fareth by a barne · þat borne is of<note>Bx.15.475: <hi>of</hi>: M and beta2 have <hi>of a</hi>.</note> wombe</l>
<l> Til it be crystened in crystes name · and confermed of þe bisshop</l>
<l> It is hethene as to heueneward · and helpelees to þe soule</l>
<l> ¶ Hethene is to mene after heth · and vntiled erthe</l>
<l> As in wilde wildernesse · wexeth wilde bestes</l>
<l> Rude and vnresonable · rennenge with-out [k]eperes<note>Bx.15.480: <hi>keperes</hi>: The reading of R. Beta probably read <hi>creperes</hi>, as LGO, altered to <hi>cropers</hi> in M, beta2 and C, in order to make some sort of sense. Of course animals are not restrained by "cruppers". It is difficult to see how beta's reading could have derived from the commonplace "keeper". It may be that <hi>crepere</hi> has some technical sense not recorded; for example, in <title>Morte Arthure</title> 3667 it seems to refer to a grapnel. KD p. 146 rather implausibly suggest that "the <hi>r</hi> was induced by the alliteration".</note></l>
<l> ¶ Ȝe [mynnen]<note>Bx.15.481: <hi>mynnen</hi>: Only MW preserve the <hi>Bx</hi> reading, with other scribes avoiding or misreading a word that was mainly northern by this time. It never occurs in L nor elsewhere in <hi>Bx</hi>, though KD conjecture it four times. It is used twice in <hi>C</hi> (RK.17.210, 19.233) with similar variants.</note> wel how<note>Bx.15.481: <hi>how</hi> (1): GR have <hi>whate</hi>, avoiding the repetition.</note> matheu seith · how a man made a feste</l>
<l> He fedde hem with no venysoun · ne fesauntes ybake</l>
<l> But with foules þat fram hym nolde · but folwed his whistellynge</l>
<l> <foreign>Ecce altilia mea & omnia parata sunt &c</foreign></l>
<l> And wyth calues flesshe he fedde · þe folke þat he loued</l>
<l> Þe calfe bytokeneth clennesse · in hem þat kepeth lawes</l>
<l><note>Bx.15.487: <hi></hi>: The paraph is in LC, with a new line-group in M.</note> For as þe cow þorw kynde mylke · þe calf norissheth til an oxe</l>
<l> So loue and lewte · lele<note>Bx.15.488: <hi>loue ... lele</hi>: R's version of the line, <hi>doth loue & lewte and lele</hi>, is equally probable.</note> men susteyneth</l>
<l> And maydenes and mylde men mercy desiren</l>
<l> Riȝt as þe cow calf · coueyteth swete mylke</l>
<l> So don riȝtful men · mercy & treuthe</l>
<l> <note>Bx.15.492-505: These 14 lines are omitted by beta, jumping to the next paraph. Since F omits ll. 447-514, and furthermore there is no parallel in <hi>Cx</hi>, we are here entirely dependent upon R.</note> [And by þe hande-fedde foules · [i]s<note>Bx.15.492: <hi>is</hi>: R has <hi>his</hi>, probably as a spelling for <hi>is</hi> rather than an error.</note> folk vnderstonde</l>
<l> Þat loth ben to louye · with-outen lernynge of ensaumples</l>
<l> Riȝt as capones in a court · cometh to mennes whistlynge</l>
<l> In menynge after mete · folweth men þat whistlen</l>
<l> Riȝt so rude men · þat litel reson conneth</l>
<l> Louen and byleuen · by lettred mennes doynges</l>
<l> And by here wordes and werkes · wenen and trowen</l>
<l> And as tho foules to fynde · fode after whistlynge</l>
<l> So hope þei to haue · heuene þoruȝ her whistlynge</l>
<l> And by þe man þat made þe feste · þe maieste bymeneth</l>
<l> Þat is god of his grace · gyueth al men blisse</l>
<l> With wederes and with wondres · he warneth vs with a whistlere</l>
<l> Where þat his wille is · to worschipen vs alle</l>
<l> And feden vs and festen vs · for euere-more at ones]</l>
<l> ¶ Ac who beth þat excuseth hem · aren<note>Bx.15.506: <hi>aren</hi>: Beta has <hi>þat aren</hi>, but the syntax is much better without, as in R: "those who excuse themselves are parsons".</note> persounes and prestes</l>
<l> Þat heuedes of holycherche<note>Bx.15.507: <hi>holycherche</hi>: R's plural is less appropriate.</note> ben · þat han her wille here</l>
<l> With-oute trauaille þe tithe del · þat trewe men biswynkyn</l>
<l> Þei wil be wroth for I write þus · ac to witnesse I take</l>
<l> Bothe Mathew and Marke · and <foreign>Memento domine dauid</foreign></l>
<l> [<foreign>Ecce audiuimus e[a]m<note>Bx.15.511: <hi><foreign>eam</foreign></hi>: The line is lost in beta, so R, reading <hi>eum</hi>, is the sole authority for citing the Psalm "Memento Domini" (131.6). It was previously cited at <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.10.72</ref>, where alpha again has <hi>eum</hi> for beta's <hi>eam</hi> as in the Vulgate. See note there, and for explanation of the reference in that line see Schmidt (1995), 443.</note> in effrata &c</foreign> ·]</l>
<l> What Pope or prelate now · perfourneth þat cryst hiȝte</l>
<l> <foreign>Ite in vniuersum mundum & predicate & c </foreign> ·</l>
<l> ¶ Allas þat men so longe · on Makometh shulde byleue</l>
<l> So many prelates to preche · as þe Pope maketh</l>
<l> Of Nazareth of Nynyue · of Neptalim and damaske</l>
<l> Þat þei ne went as cryst wisseth · sithen þei wil a<note>Bx.15.517: <hi>a</hi>: A good example of the superiority of LR. The other beta scribes took this to be a reduced form of "have". F realised it was the article, clarifying the sense by altering to <hi>þe</hi>. In <hi>Cx</hi> (RK.17.191) it is also revised to <hi>þe</hi>, perhaps again for the sake of clarity.</note> name</l>
<l> <note>Bx.15.518: L, starting a new leaf, begins with an inappropriate paraph.</note>To be pastours and preche · þe passioun of Ihesus</l>
<l> And as hym-self seyde · so<note>Bx.15.519: <hi>so</hi>: Omitted by WGF preceding <hi>to</hi>. Hm omits the line.</note> to lyue and deye</l>
<l> <foreign>Bonus pastor animam suam ponit & c</foreign></l>
<l> And seyde it in sauacioun · of sarasenes & other</l>
<l> For<note>Bx.15.522: <hi>For</hi>: As KD point out (p. 146), the alpha variant <hi>To cristene and to vncristene</hi> makes poor sense.</note> crystene & vncristene · cryst seide to prechoures</l>
<l> <foreign>Ite vos in vineam meam ·</foreign></l>
<l> And sith þat þis sarasenes · scribes & Iuwes</l>
<l> Han a lippe of owre byleue · þe liȝtloker me thynketh<note>Bx.15.525: <hi>me thynketh</hi>: Supported by <hi>Cx</hi> (RK.17.253) against alpha's <hi>it semeth</hi>.</note></l>
<l> Þei shulde torne who-so trauaille wolde<note>Bx.15.526: <hi>trauaille wolde</hi>: Beta2 have <hi>trauailed</hi>, and M is altered to that reading, but <hi>Cx</hi> agrees with LCGO and alpha.</note> · to teche hem of þe Trinite</l>
<l> <foreign>Querite & inuenietis &c</foreign></l>
<l> <note>Bx.15.528-67: These forty lines are in beta only. Adams (2002), 118-22, discusses alpha's omission here and beta's loss of ll. <ref>575-92</ref>, positing that the passages were on opposite sides of an inserted leaf in <hi>Bx</hi>, and the alpha and beta scribes each failed to incorporate one side of the leaf. KD argue that distinct from this is a major dislocation of text that antedated the losses in alpha and beta, and they move <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.15.568-97</ref> to precede <ref>528</ref> (pp. 176-8).</note> ¶ It is reuth to rede · how riȝtwis men lyued</l>
<l> How þei defouled her flessh · forsoke her owne wille</l>
<l> Fer fro kitth and fro kynne · yuel yclothed ȝeden</l>
<l> Badly ybedded · no boke but conscience</l>
<l> Ne no richchesse but þe Rode · to reioyse hem Inne</l>
<l> <foreign>Absit nobis gloriari nisi in cruce domini nostri &c ·</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ And þo was plente & pees · amonges pore & riche</l>
<l> And<note>Bx.15.535: <hi>And</hi>: The reading <hi>Ac</hi> in Hm, though tempting, is in the hand of the reviser, who has erased one line to write in this line and the next. In any case, <hi>Cx</hi> has <hi>And</hi> (RK.17.200).</note> now is routhe to rede · how þe red noble</l>
<l> Is reuerenced or þe Rode · receyued for þe worthier</l>
<l> Þan crystes crosse þat ouer-cam · deþ and dedly synne</l>
<l> ¶ And now is werre and wo · and who-so why axeth</l>
<l> For coueityse after crosse · þe croune stant in golde</l>
<l> Bothe riche and religious · þat Rode þei honoure</l>
<l> Þat in grotes is ygraue · and in golde nobles</l>
<l> For coueityse of þat crosse · men of holykirke</l>
<l> Shul tourne as templeres did · þe tyme approcheth faste</l>
<l> ¶ Wyte ȝe nouȝt wyse<note>Bx.15.544: <hi>wyse</hi>: Beta2 and G have <hi>ye wise</hi>, but <hi>Cx</hi> is without the pronoun (RK.17.210), though in a revised a-verse.</note> men · how þo men honoured</l>
<l> More tresore þan treuthe · I dar nouȝt telle þe sothe</l>
<l> Resoun & riȝtful dome · þo<note>Bx.15.546: <hi>þo</hi>: Supported by most <hi>C</hi> mss. against <hi>þe</hi> in beta2.</note> Religious demed</l>
<l> Riȝt so ȝe clerkes · for ȝowre coueityse ar longe</l>
<l> Shal þei demen <foreign>dos ecclesie</foreign> · and ȝowre pryde depose</l>
<l> <foreign>Deposuit potentes de sede &c ·</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ Ȝif knyȝthod & kynde wytte · and comune conscience<note>Bx.15.550: <hi>comune conscience</hi>: This must be the beta reading; the line is not in alpha. Cr and W, understanding the knighthood / commons pairing, take <hi>comune</hi> as a noun, so following it with <hi>by conscience</hi>, and M is altered to that reading. Presumably beta is a corruption of the reading of <hi>Cx</hi>, <hi>Ȝif knyhthoed and kynde wit and þe comune and conscience</hi> (RK.17.216) which adds a kind-wit / conscience pairing.</note></l>
<l> Togideres loue lelly · leueth it wel ȝe bisshopes</l>
<l> Þe lordeship of londes<note>Bx.15.552: <hi>londes</hi>: W adds <hi>youre</hi> here and drops <hi>ȝow</hi> in the next line.</note> · for euere shal ȝe<note>Bx.15.552: <hi>shal ȝe</hi>: Reversed by beta4. <hi>Cx</hi> has <hi>lese ȝe shal for euer</hi> (RF.17.218).</note> lese</l>
<l> And lyuen as <foreign>leuitici</foreign> [·] as owre lorde ȝow techeth</l>
<l> <foreign>Per primicias & decimas</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ Whan costantyn of curteysye · holykirke dowed</l>
<l> With londes and ledes · lordeshipes and rentes</l>
<l> An Angel men herde · an heigh at Rome crye</l>
<l> <foreign>Dos ecclesie</foreign> þis day · hath ydronke venym</l>
<l> And þo þat han petres powere · arn apoysoned alle</l>
<l> ¶ A medecyne mote þer-to · þat may amende prelates</l>
<l> Þat sholden preye for þe pees · possessioun hem letteth</l>
<l> Take her landes ȝe lordes · and let hem lyue by dymes</l>
<l> If possessioun be poysoun · & inparfit hem make</l>
<l> Good were to dischargen hem · for holicherche sake</l>