<head><foreign>Passus sextus decimus & primus de</foreign> dobet</head>
<l> Now faire falle ȝow quod I þo · for ȝowre faire shewynge<note>Bx.16.1: F prefaces the passus with two lines in which the dreamer falls asleep again. Lines 1-27 are quite different in <hi>C</hi>.</note></l>
<l> For haukynnes loue þe actyf man [·] euere I shal ȝow louye</l>
<l> Ac ȝet I am in a were · what charite is to mene</l>
<l> ¶ It is a ful trye tree quod he · trewly<note>Bx.16.4: <hi>trewly</hi>: Alpha has <hi>treuthe</hi>. There is no close parallel elsewhere for either.</note> to telle</l>
<l> Mercy is þe more þer-of · þe myddel stokke is reuthe</l>
<l> Þe leues ben lele wordes · þe lawe of holycherche</l>
<l> Þe blosmes beth boxome speche · and benygne lokynge</l>
<l> Pacience hatte þe pure tre · and pore<note>Bx.16.8: <hi>pore</hi>: Beta1 repeats <hi>pure</hi>.</note> symple of herte</l>
<l> And so þorw god and þorw<note>Bx.16.9: <hi>þorw</hi> (2): So LMW, and presumably therefore beta (note Hm misreads as <hi>pure</hi>), but other beta texts and alpha are without it, perhaps rightly.</note> good men · groweth þe frute charite</l>
<l> ¶ I wolde trauaille quod I þis tree to se · twenty hundreth myle</l>
<l> And forto<note>Bx.16.11: <hi>forto</hi>: Alpha and beta4 have <hi>to</hi>, which could equally be right.</note> haue my fylle of þat frute · forsake al other saulee<note>Bx.16.11: <hi>saulee</hi>: "food". L first wrote <hi>soule</hi>, as R, then added the gloss "id est edulium".</note></l>
<l> Lorde quod I if any wiȝte wyte · whider oute it<note>Bx.16.12: <hi>it</hi>: R has <hi>þat it</hi>.</note> groweth</l>
<l> ¶ It groweth in [a]<note>Bx.16.13: <hi>a</hi>: Omitted by L.</note> gardyne quod he · þat god made hym-seluen</l>
<l> Amyddes mannes body · þe more is of þat stokke</l>
<l> Herte hatte þe erber · þat it in groweth</l>
<l> And <foreign>liberum arbitrium</foreign> · hath þe londe to ferme</l>
<l> Vnder<note>Bx.16.17: <hi>Vnder</hi>: Alpha begins <hi>And vnder</hi>, perhaps as <hi>Bx</hi>.</note> Piers þe plowman · to pyken it and to<note>Bx.16.17: <hi>to</hi> (2): Omitted by beta4 and F.</note> weden it</l>
<l> Piers þe plowman quod I þo · and al for pure ioye</l>
<l> Þat I herde nempne his name · anone I swouned after</l>
<l> And laye longe in a loue-dreme · and atte laste me þouȝte</l>
<l> Þat Pieres þe plowman · al þe place me shewed</l>
<l> And bad me toten<note>Bx.16.22: <hi>toten</hi>: Beta2 and C have <hi>to toten</hi>.</note> on þe tree · on toppe and on rote</l>
<l> With þre pyles was it vnder-piȝte · I perceyued it sone</l>
<l> Pieres quod I · I<note>Bx.16.24: <hi>I</hi> (2): Dropped by MR. The punctuation separating the repeated pronoun is established as <hi>Bx</hi> by LWHmOF, with a comma in Cr.</note> preye þe · whi stonde þise piles here</l>
<l> ¶ For wyndes wiltow wyte quod he · to witen<note>Bx.16.25: <hi>witen</hi>: "guard", punning on <hi>wyte</hi>. Alpha substitutes non-alliterating <hi>kepen</hi>.</note> it fram fallyng</l>
<l> <foreign>Cum ceciderit iustus non collidetur · quia dominus supponit manum suam</foreign></l>
<l> And in blowyng tyme abite þe floures · but if þis piles helpe</l>
<l> Þe worlde is a wykked wynde<note>Bx.16.28: <hi>wynde</hi>: Alpha skips to <hi>wynde</hi> in the next line, dropping l. 28b and l. 29a. The lines are both in <hi>Cx</hi> in a revised form.</note> · to hem þat wolden<note>Bx.16.28: <hi>wolden</hi>: All beta mss. except L have <hi>willen</hi>, but <hi>Cx</hi> has <hi>wolde</hi> (RK.18.31).</note> treuthe</l>
<l> Coueityse cometh of þat wynde · and crepeth amonge þe leues</l>
<l> And forfret neigh þe frute · þorw many faire siȝtes</l>
<l> Þanne<note>Bx.16.31: <hi>Þanne</hi>: So beta. R has <hi>And</hi> while F rewrites the line. <hi>Cx</hi> also begins this line <hi>And</hi>, but begins the next line <hi>Thenne</hi>. Since this section of the passus is so heavily revised in <hi>C</hi>, it must be used with caution as evidence for <hi>Bx</hi>.</note> with þe firste pyle<note>Bx.16.31: <hi>pyle</hi>: In this long line LR have double punctuation, after <hi>pyle</hi> and <hi>down</hi> (Cr has commas). F abbreviates radically.</note> I palle<note>Bx.16.31: <hi>palle</hi>: "strike". Hm and beta4 have <hi>pulle</hi>, and F has <hi>call</hi> in its rewritten line.</note> hym down · þat is <foreign>potencia dei patris</foreign></l>
<l> <note>Bx.16.32: WHmC and alpha here have a paraph marking the transition from World to Flesh.</note>Þe flesshe is a fel wynde · and in flourynge tyme</l>
<l> Þorw lykyng and lustes · so loude he gynneth blowe</l>
<l> Þat it norissheth nice siȝtes · and some-tyme wordes</l>
<l> And wikked werkes þer-of · wormes of synne</l>
<l> And forbiteth þe blosmes · riȝt to þe bare leues</l>
<l> ¶ Þanne sette I to þe secounde pile · <foreign>sapiencia dei patris</foreign></l>
<l> Þat is þe passioun and þe power · of owre prynce Ihesu</l>
<l> Þorw<note>Bx.16.39: <hi>Þorw</hi> (1): Alpha has <hi>With</hi>.</note> preyeres and þorw<note>Bx.16.39: <hi>þorw</hi> (2): Omitted by beta4 and F.</note> penaunces<note>Bx.16.39: <hi>penaunces</hi>: For variation with and without <hi>-s</hi>, see note to <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.14.211</ref>.</note> · and goddes passioun in mynde</l>
<l> I saue it til I se it rypen · & somdel yfruited</l>
<l> And þanne fondeth þe fende · my fruit to destruye</l>
<l> With alle þe wyles þat he can · and waggeth þe rote</l>
<l> And casteth vp to þe croppe · vnkynde neighbores</l>
<l> Bakbiteres breke-cheste<note>Bx.16.44: <hi>breke-cheste</hi>: "fomenters of quarrel". Beta2 misunderstands and writes <hi>breke þe cheste</hi>. R may represent alpha with the more transparent (though equally unique) compound <hi>brewe-cheste</hi>. F smooths to <hi>& boosteris</hi>. For the sense of the verb, cf. <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.18.374</ref>, <hi>þe bitternesse þat þow hast browe</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> drops the compound altogether.</note> · brawleres and chideres</l>
<l> And leith a laddre þere-to · of lesynges aren þe ronges<note>Bx.16.45: After this F adds a rather good line about false executors.</note></l>
<l> And feccheth away my floures sumtyme · afor<note>Bx.16.46: <hi>afor</hi>: So beta. The reading <hi>byfore</hi> in CG and alpha is also that of <hi>Cx</hi> which always has <hi>byfore</hi> in place of <hi>afore</hi> (e.g. <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.17.311</ref>, <ref>20.130</ref>). See note to <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.5.12</ref> for support of beta's reading.</note> bothe myn eyhen</l>
<l> Ac <foreign>liberum arbitrium</foreign> · letteth hym<note>Bx.16.47: <hi>hym</hi>: HmR have <hi>hem</hi>, but the antecedent is <hi>þe fende</hi>.</note> some-tyme</l>
<l> Þat is lieutenant to loken it wel · by leue of my-selue</l>
<l> <foreign>Videatis qui peccat in spiritum sanctum numquam remittetur &c</foreign></l>
<l> <foreign>Hoc est idem qui peccat per liberum arbitrium non repugnat ·</foreign></l>
<l> Ac whan<note>Bx.16.51: <hi>whan</hi>: Alpha's <hi>what</hi> is a misunderstanding of the syntax.</note> þe fende and þe flesshe · forth with þe worlde</l>
<l> Manasen byhynde me · my fruit for to fecche</l>
<l> Þanne <foreign>liberum arbitrium</foreign> [·] laccheth þe thridde<note>Bx.16.53: <hi>thridde</hi>: So L and alpha. All beta mss. except L read <hi>firste</hi>, though <hi>thridde</hi> is obviously correct (cf. ll. <ref>31</ref>, <ref>37</ref>) and supported by <hi>Cx</hi> (RK.18.50). This provides a clear example of agreement of M with beta1 in this part of the poem.</note> plan[k]e<note>Bx.16.53: <hi>planke</hi>: So alpha. Beta reads <hi>plante</hi>, prompted, so KD (p. 146) suggest, by the flowers and fruit of ll. <ref>46</ref> and <ref>52</ref>. <hi>Cx</hi> has the synonym <hi>shoriere</hi>.</note></l>
<l> And palleth adown þe pouke · purelich<note>Bx.16.54: <hi>purelich</hi>: "entirely". Alpha has <hi>priueliche</hi>.</note> þorw grace</l>
<l> And helpe of þe holy goste · and þus haue I þe maystrie</l>
<l> ¶ Now faire falle ȝow Pieres quod I · so faire ȝe discryuen</l>
<l> Þe powere of þis postes · and her propre myȝte<note>Bx.16.57: <hi>myȝte</hi>: WHmF have the plural.</note></l>
<l> Ac I haue þouȝtes a threve<note>Bx.16.58: <hi>threve</hi>: "multitude". Only here in the poem. HmF corrupt to <hi>þrowe</hi>.</note> · of þis þre piles</l>
<l> In what wode þei woxen · and where þat þei growed</l>
<l> For alle ar þei aliche longe · none lasse þan other</l>
<l> And to my mynde as me þinketh · on o More þei growed</l>
<l> And of o gretnesse ·<note>Bx.16.62: Only O places the punctus after <hi>grene</hi> where it would be expected.</note> and grene of greyne þei semen</l>
<l> ¶ Þat is soth seide<note>Bx.16.63: <hi>seide</hi>: All beta mss. apart from L alter to non-alliterating <hi>quod</hi>.</note> Pieres [·] so it<note>Bx.16.63: <hi>it</hi>: GR omit.</note> may bifalle</l>
<l> I shal telle þe as tite · what þis tree hatte</l>
<l> Þe grounde þere it groweth · goodnesse it hiȝte</l>
<l> And I haue tolde þe what hiȝte þe tree · þe trinite it meneth</l>
<l> And egrelich he loked on me · & þer-fore I spared</l>
<l> To asken hym any more ther-of · and badde hym ful fayre</l>
<l> To discreue þe fruit · þat so faire hangeth</l>
<l> ¶ Here now bineth quod he þo · if I nede hadde</l>
<l> Matrymonye I may nyme · a moiste fruit with-alle</l>
<l> Þanne contenence is nerre<note>Bx.16.72: <hi>nerre</hi>: The forms <hi>neer</hi> and <hi>nere</hi> in other mss. may also be comparative; so Kane (2005), s.v. <hi>neer</hi>, <hi>ner</hi> prep.</note> þe croppe · as calwey bastarde</l>
<l> Þanne bereth þe croppe kynde fruite · and clenneste of alle</l>
<l> Maydenhode angeles peres · and rathest wole be ripe</l>
<l> And swete with-oute swellyng · soure worth it neuere</l>
<l> ¶ I prayed pieres to pulle adown · an apple and he wolde</l>
<l> And suffre me to assaye · what sauoure it hadde</l>
<l><note>Bx.16.78: <hi></hi>: The paraph is in beta only.</note> And pieres caste to þe croppe · and þanne comsed it to crye</l>
<l> [A]<note>Bx.16.79: <hi>A</hi>: "He". Beta and F have <hi>And</hi>, but R is supported by <hi>Cx</hi> (RK.18.108) where the antecedent is Elde rather than Piers.</note> wagged wydwehode · and it wepte after</l>
<l> And whan [he]<note>Bx.16.80: <hi>he</hi>: Alpha is supported against beta's <hi>it</hi> by <hi>Cx</hi>, which again begins the line <hi>A</hi>, "He". See previous note.</note> meued Matrimoigne · it made a foule noyse</l>
<l> Þat<note>Bx.16.81: <hi>Þat</hi>: Support from LMOGR. Cr omits, WHm have <hi>And</hi>, and F has <hi>Þan</hi>. The line is omitted in <hi>C</hi>.</note> I had reuth whan Piers rogged<note>Bx.16.81: <hi>rogged</hi>: "tugged, shook". R (= alpha?) oddly has <hi>rused</hi>, "drove", which F alters to the equally inappropriate <hi>rusched</hi>.</note> · it gradde so reufulliche</l>
<l> For euere as þei dropped adown · þe deuel was redy</l>
<l> And gadred hem alle togideres · bothe grete and smale</l>
<l> Adam & abraham · and ysay þe prophete</l>
<l> Sampson and samuel · and seynt Iohan þe baptiste</l>
<l> Bar hem forth boldely · no-body hym<note>Bx.16.86: <hi>hym</hi>: GOR and original M have <hi>hem</hi>, repeated from the a-verse. The sg. is supported by <hi>Cx</hi> (RK.18.114).</note> letted</l>
<l> And made of holy men his horde · in <foreign>lymbo inferni</foreign></l>
<l> There is derkenesse and drede · and þe deuel Maister</l>
<l><note>Bx.16.89: <hi></hi>: The paraph is in beta and F.</note> And Pieres for pure tene · þat o pile<note>Bx.16.89: <hi>o pile</hi>: Beta2 evidently had <hi>a pil</hi> as in W, misunderstood by CrHm as "apple".</note> he lauȝte</l>
<l> And<note>Bx.16.90: <hi>And</hi>: LMGO and alpha, supported by <hi>Cx</hi>. Beta2 begins <hi>He</hi>.</note> hitte after hym · happe how it myȝte</l>
<l> <foreign>Filius</foreign> bi þe fader wille · and frenesse of <foreign>spiritus sancti</foreign></l>
<l> To go robbe þat raggeman · and reue þe fruit fro hym</l>
<l> ¶ And þanne spakke <foreign>spiritus sanctus</foreign> · in Gabrieles mouthe</l>
<l> To a mayde þat hiȝte Marye · a meke þinge with-alle</l>
<l> Þat one Ihesus a iustice sone · moste iouke in her chambre</l>
<l> Tyl <foreign>plenitudo temporis</foreign> · [tyme]<note>Bx.16.96: <hi>tyme</hi>: So alpha and <hi>Cx</hi>. Beta alters to non-alliterating <hi>fully</hi>.</note> comen were</l>
<l> Þat Pieres fruit floured · and fel to be ripe</l>
<l> And þanne shulde Ihesus iuste þere-fore · [&]<note>Bx.16.98: <hi>&</hi>: With R's reading, supported by <hi>Cx</hi>, <hi>iuste þere-fore</hi> applies to both clauses: "Then Jesus would joust for it, and by judgement of arms [joust for] whether the devil or he himself should taste the fruit." Beta and F drop <hi>&</hi> which is simpler.</note> bi iuggement of armes</l>
<l> Whether shulde fonde<note>Bx.16.99: <hi>fonde</hi>: "test", i.e. "taste" (<title>MED</title> <hi>fonden</hi> 3). Established for <hi>Bx</hi> by L, original M and CR. Scribes were puzzled and altered (as M does visibly) to <hi>fonge</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> has <hi>fecche</hi>.</note> þe fruit · þe fende or hym-selue</l>
<l> ¶ Þe mayde myldeliche þo · þe messager graunted</l>
<l> And seyde hendelich to hym · lo me his hande-mayden</l>
<l> For to worchen his wille · with-outen any synne</l>
<l> <foreign>Ecce ancilla domini fiat michi &c<note>Bx.16.103: <hi><foreign>&c</foreign></hi>: HmGF complete the quotation from Luke. <hi>Cx</hi> has just the first three words.</note></foreign></l>
<l> And in þe wombe of þat wenche · was he fourty wokes</l>
<l> Tyl he wex a faunt þorw her flessh · and of fiȝtyng couthe</l>
<l> To haue yfouȝte with þe fende · ar ful tyme come</l>
<l> And Pieres þe plowman · parceyued plenere<note>Bx.16.107: <hi>parceyued plenere</hi>: So beta. R (and alpha?) has <hi>parseyued þe plener</hi>; F has <hi>y parseuede in þat plener</hi>. Lines 107-17 are not in <hi>C</hi>.</note> tyme</l>
<l> And lered hym lechecrafte · his lyf for to saue</l>
<l> Þat þowgh he were wounded with his enemye · to warisshe hym-self</l>
<l> And did hym assaye his surgerye · on hem þat syke were</l>
<l> Til he was parfit practisoure · [i]f<note>Bx.16.111: <hi>if</hi>: L's <hi>of</hi> is an obvious mistake.</note> any peril fulle<note>Bx.16.111: <hi>fulle</hi>: The western spelling of "fell" in LHmR, and so probably in <hi>Bx</hi>.</note></l>
Bx.16.112KD.16.108, 110
<l> And souȝte oute þe syke · and synful<note>Bx.16.112: <hi>synful</hi>: MOF have <hi>þe synful</hi>.</note> bothe</l>
<l> And salued syke and synful · bothe blynde & crokede</l>
<l> And comune wommen conuerted · and to good torned</l>
<l> <foreign>Non est sanis opus medicus<note>Bx.16.115: <hi><foreign>medicus</foreign></hi>: The word must have been abbreviated in <hi>Bx</hi>, hence the variety of endings, including G's <hi>medicine</hi>. See next note for further uncertainties.</note> set [male habentibus]<note>Bx.16.115: <hi><foreign>male habentibus</foreign></hi>: Alpha's quotation is from Matt. 9.12 (see Alford (1992), 103). Beta was probably damaged, with the quotation ending in three minims (representing the first letter of <hi>male</hi>?) which LWHmCG transcribe as <hi>in</hi>. O reasonably guesses that <hi>in</hi> is for <hi>infirmis</hi>, while MCr solve the problem by dropping <hi>in</hi>.</note></foreign></l>
<l> Bothe meseles & mute · and in þe menysoun blody</l>
<l> Ofte he heled suche · he ne helde [it]<note>Bx.16.117: <hi>it</hi>: The alpha reading. The omission in LMC suggests <hi>it</hi> was lost in beta but supplied by beta2 and GO.</note> for no maistrye</l>
<l> Saue þo he leched lazar [·] þat hadde yleye in graue</l>
<l> <foreign>Quatriduanus</foreign> quelt · quykke did hym walke</l>
<l> Ac as he made þ[at]<note>Bx.16.120: <hi>þat</hi>: Alpha is supported by <hi>Cx</hi> <hi>þat miracle</hi> (RK.18.145) against beta's <hi>þe</hi>.</note> maistrye · <foreign>mestus cepit esse</foreign></l>
<l> And wepte water with his eyghen · þere seyen it manye</l>
<l> Some þat þe siȝte seyne · saide þat tyme</l>
<l> Þat he was leche of lyf · and lorde of heigh heuene</l>
<l> Iewes iangeled þere-aȝeyne · [þat]<note>Bx.16.124: <hi>þat</hi>: R (F has <hi>þo þat</hi>) makes much better sense than beta's <hi>and</hi>. Lines 123-58 are thoroughly revised in <hi>C</hi>.</note> iugged lawes</l>
<l> And seide he wrouȝte þorw wicchecrafte · & with þe deueles miȝte</l>
<l> <foreign>Demonium habes &c</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ Þanne ar ȝe cherles quod [ihesus]<note>Bx.16.127: <hi>ihesus</hi>: Beta's obviously erroneous <hi>ich</hi> is likely to derive from the abbreviation <hi>ihc</hi>, as in R. F reads <hi>crist</hi>.</note> · and ȝowre children bothe</l>
<l> And sathan ȝowre saueoure · ȝow-selue now ȝe witnessen</l>
<l> For I haue saued ȝow-self<note>Bx.16.129: <hi>self</hi>: Beta follows this with <hi>seith cryst</hi> in order to clarify the speaker after the error in l. <ref>127</ref>.</note> · and ȝowre sones after</l>
<l> Ȝowre bodyes ȝowre bestes · and blynde men holpen</l>
<l> And fedde ȝow with fisshes<note>Bx.16.131: <hi>fisshes</hi>: Recalling Matt. 14, beta2 and F read <hi>two fisshes</hi>, and M is altered to that reading.</note> · and with fyue loues</l>
<l> And left baskettes ful of broke mete · bere awey who-so wolde</l>
<l> And mysseide þe iewes manliche [·] and manaced hem to bete</l>
<l> And knokked on hem with a corde · and caste adown her stalles</l>
<l> Þat in cherche chaffareden · or chaungeden any moneye</l>
<l> And seyde it in siȝte of hem alle · so þat alle herden</l>
<l> I shal ouertourne þis temple · and adown throwe</l>
<l> And in thre dayes after · edifye it newe</l>
<l> And make it as moche other more · in alle manere poyntes</l>
<l> As euere it was and as wyde · wher-fore I hote ȝow</l>
<l> Of preyeres and of parfitnesse · þis place þat ȝe callen</l>
<l> <foreign>Domus mea domus oracionis vocabitur</foreign></l>
<l> Enuye and yuel wille · [aren]<note>Bx.16.143: <hi>aren</hi>: The reading of the <hi>B</hi>-text seems to have been alliterating <hi>arne</hi>, "ran", south-western past tense of <hi>rennen</hi>, as in <hi>Cx</hi> (RK.18.163). R's <hi>aren</hi>, "are", reproduces the corrupt <hi>Bx</hi>, altered to <hi>was</hi> by both beta and F, realising that a past tense is called for. See KD, p. 186.</note> in þe iewes</l>
<l> Thei casten & contreueden · to kulle hym whan þei miȝte</l>
<l> Vche daye after other · þeire tyme þei awaited</l>
<l> Til it bifel on a fryday · a litel bifor Paske</l>
<l> Þe þorsday byfore [·] þere he made his [cene]<note>Bx.16.147: <hi>cene</hi>: So alpha, where beta has <hi>maundee</hi>. Either could be a substitution of the other, but it is more likely that to increase the alliteration of an ax/ax line beta substituted the fairly common phrase <hi>made his maundee</hi>, "celebrated the Last Supper" (<title>MED</title> <hi>maunde</hi> n. (2) (b)). Langland uses neither word elsewhere.</note></l>
<l> Sittyng atte<note>Bx.16.148: <hi>atte</hi>: "at the"; see note to <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.P.107</ref>.</note> sopere · he seide þise wordes</l>
<l> I am solde þorw [sum]<note>Bx.16.149: <hi>sum</hi>: "a certain one"; cf. Mark 14.18: "unus ex vobis me tradet". Beta alters to the unambiguous <hi>one</hi>, losing the alliteration.</note> of ȝow · he shal þe tyme rewe</l>
<l> Þat euere he his saueoure solde · for syluer or elles</l>
<l> ¶ Iudas iangeled þere-aȝein · ac Ihesus hym tolde</l>
<l> It was hym[-self]<note>Bx.16.152: <hi>hym-self</hi>: Perhaps the beta reading was <hi>hym</hi> as in L and original M, with other scribes making the obvious correction.</note> sothely · and seide <foreign>tu dicis</foreign></l>
<l> Þanne went forth þat wikked man · and with þe iewes mette</l>
<l> And tolde hem a tokne [·] how to knowe with ihesus</l>
<l> [Þe]<note>Bx.16.155: <hi>Þe</hi>: Beta's <hi>And</hi> is repeated from the previous line.</note> which tokne to þis day · to moche is yvsed</l>
<l> Þat is kissyng and faire contenaunce · & vnkynde wille</l>
<l> And so was with iudas þo · þat Ihesus bytrayed</l>
<l> <foreign>Aue raby</foreign> quod þat ribaude · and riȝt to hym he ȝede</l>
<l> And kiste hym to be cauȝt þere-by · and kulled of<note>Bx.16.159: <hi>of</hi>: Beta has some support from <hi>Cx</hi> which has <hi>cauȝt of</hi> (RK.18.169). Alpha reads <hi>þoruȝ</hi>.</note> þe iewes</l>
<l> ¶ Þanne Ihesus to Iudas · and to þe iewes seyde</l>
<l> Falsenesse I fynde · in þi faire speche</l>
<l> And gyle in þi gladde chere · and galle is in þi lawghyng</l>
<l> Þow shalt be myroure to manye [·] men<note>Bx.16.163: <hi>manye · men</hi>: Only in R does the punctuation separate the adj. from the noun, though this must be right. L's omission of punctuation may indicate uncertainty. In other beta mss. it follows <hi>myroure</hi>; in F it follows <hi>merour after</hi>.</note> to deceyue</l>
<l> Ac þe wors and þi<note>Bx.16.164: <hi>þi</hi>: So LCrWCG. Repetition of <hi>þe</hi> as in alpha and other beta mss. is the easier error and makes rather poorer sense. In a revised line <hi>Cx</hi> has <hi>thy wyles</hi> (RK.18.174).</note> wikkednesse · shal worth vpon þi-selue</l>
<l> <foreign>Necesse est vt veniant scandala · ve homini illi per quem scandalum venit</foreign></l>
<l> Þow I bi tresoun be ytake · at<note>Bx.16.166: <hi>at</hi>: This, the beta reading, may refer back to <hi>ytake</hi>, "captured at your wish", or forward "freely allow my apostles". Perhaps there is elision alliteration on <hi>at ȝowre</hi>. R has <hi>and</hi> instead; F has <hi>and þorgh</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> has <hi>and to ȝoure will</hi>, which can only refer back.</note> ȝowre owne wille</l>
<l> Suffreth my postles<note>Bx.16.167: <hi>my postles</hi>: Though other mss. have <hi>myn apostles</hi>, LR are supported by the X family of <hi>C</hi>.</note> in pays · & in pees<note>Bx.16.167: <hi>in pays & in pees</hi>: These may be variant spellings of "peace" but with different senses, as Schmidt (2008), 437, suggests. Kane (2005) derives <hi>pays</hi> from OFr <hi>pais</hi>, "country", though <title>MED</title> does not record it. <hi>C</hi> mss. show similar confusion.</note> gange</l>
<l> On<note>Bx.16.168: <hi>On</hi>: Alpha has <hi>In</hi>.</note> a thoresday in thesternesse · þus was he taken</l>
<l> Þorw iudas and iewes · ihesus was his name<note>Bx.16.169: <hi>his name</hi>: The reading of all mss. except F, which has <hi>þan taken</hi>. KD, p. 185, conjecture an original (and archetypal) reading <hi>ynome</hi>, misread as a "pointless homoeograph", but Schmidt (2008), 437, argues for "the importance of the <hi>name</hi> of Jesus", and sees F's reading as induced by <hi>taken</hi> in the previous line. <hi>C</hi> is revised in this passage.</note></l>
<l> Þat on þe fryday folwynge · for mankynde sake</l>
<l> Iusted in ierusalem · a ioye to vs alle</l>
<l> On crosse vpon caluarye · cryst toke þe bataille</l>
<l> Aȝeines deth and þe deuel · destruyed her botheres myȝtes</l>
<l> Deyde and deth fordid · and daye of nyȝte made</l>
<l> ¶ And I awaked þere-with · & wyped myne eyghen<note>Bx.16.175: Following this line F invents two lines to end its Passus 12 and another to begin Passus 13.</note></l>
<l> And after piers þe plowman · pryed and stared</l>
<l> Estwarde and westwarde · I [w]ayted<note>Bx.16.177: <hi>wayted</hi>: L alone has <hi>awayted</hi>. There is variation in the parallel line in <hi>Cx</hi> (RK.18.180).</note> after faste</l>
<l> And ȝede forth as an ydiote · in contre to aspye</l>
<l> After Pieres þe plowman · many a place I souȝte</l>
<l> And þanne mette I with a man · a mydlenten sondaye</l>
<l> As hore as an hawethorne · and Abraham he hiȝte</l>
<l> I frayned hym first · fram whennes he come</l>
<l> And of whennes he were · and whider þat he þouȝte</l>
<l> ¶ I am feith quod þat freke · it falleth nouȝte [me]<note>Bx.16.184: <hi>me</hi>: Omitted by beta. R's order is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> to lye</l>
<l> And of Abrahames hous · an heraud of armes</l>
<l> I seke after a segge · þat I seigh ones</l>
<l> A ful bolde bacheler · I knewe hym by his blasen</l>
<l> [¶]<note>Bx.16.188: <hi></hi>: At this and the next line a paraph is marked by WHm and alpha to begin two speeches. L has a paraph at l. <ref>189</ref> only.</note> What bereth þat buirn quod I þo · so blisse þe bityde</l>
<l> ¶ Þre leodes in o lith · non lenger þan other</l>
<l> Of one mochel & myȝte · in mesure and in lengthe</l>
<l> Þat one doth alle doth · & eche doth by his one</l>
<l> Þe firste hath miȝte and maiestee · maker of alle þinges</l>
<l> <foreign>Pater</foreign> is his propre name · a persone by hym-selue</l>
<l> <note>Bx.16.194-6: These three lines are omitted in F by eyeskip from <hi>hym-selue</hi> to <hi>hym-selue</hi>.</note> Þe secounde of þat sire is · sothfastnesse <foreign>filius</foreign></l>
<l> Wardeyne of þat witte hath · was euere with-oute gynnyng</l>
<l> Þe þridde hatte þe holygoost · a persone by hym-selue</l>
<l> Þe liȝte of alle þat lyf hath<note>Bx.16.197: <hi>hath</hi>: Alpha loses the verb and muddles the a-verse.</note> · a londe & a watre</l>
<l> Confortoure of creatures · of hym cometh al blisse</l>
<l> So þre bilongeth for a lorde · þat lordeship claymeth</l>
<l> Myȝte and a<note>Bx.16.200: <hi>a</hi>: Omitted by WHmCO, but supported by <hi>Cx</hi> (RK.18.201).</note> mene · to knowe<note>Bx.16.200: <hi>knowe</hi>: Omitted by alpha. <hi>Cx</hi> has <hi>se</hi>.</note> his owne myȝte</l>
<l> Of hym[-selue]<note>Bx.16.201: <hi>hym-selue</hi>: The alpha reading carries alliteration and is supported by <hi>Cx</hi> against beta's <hi>hym</hi>.</note> & of his seruaunt · and what suffre[th hem]<note>Bx.16.201: <hi>suffreth hem</hi>: Whatever the b-verse means in alpha, it is supported by <hi>Cx</hi> against <hi>þei suffre</hi> in beta. See Schmidt (2008), 437.</note> bothe</l>
<l> So god þat gynnyng hadde neure · but þo hym good þouȝte</l>
<l> Sent forth his sone [·] as for seruaunt þat tyme</l>
<l> To occupien hym here · til issue were spronge</l>
<l> Þat is children of charite · & holicherche þe moder</l>
<l> Patriarkes & prophetes · and aposteles were þe chyldren<note>Bx.16.206: <hi>chyldren</hi>: Alpha's <hi>barnes</hi> is an attractive reading, and it is easy to suppose that beta is repeating <hi>children</hi> in the previous line. But <hi>Cx</hi> also reads <hi>childrene</hi>.</note></l>
<l> And cryst and crystenedome · and [alle]<note>Bx.16.207: <hi>alle</hi>: Easily lost in beta. Alpha is supported by the X family of <hi>C</hi>, though the P family supports beta.</note> crystene holycherche</l>
<l> In menynge þat man moste · on<note>Bx.16.208: <hi>on</hi>: Cr and Alpha read <hi>in</hi>. Lines 208-27 are not in <hi>C</hi>.</note> o god bileue</l>
<l> And þere hym lyked & loued · in þre persones hym shewed</l>
<l> And þat it may be so & soth · manhode it sheweth</l>
<l> Wedloke and widwehode · with virgynyte ynempned</l>
<l> In toknynge of þe Trinite · was taken oute of o<note>Bx.16.212: <hi>o</hi>: "one". In LHmCOR, but dropped by MCrWG and F (which reads <hi>mankynde</hi>). CrW reverse the word-order of the b-verse.</note> man</l>
<l> Adam owre aller<note>Bx.16.213: <hi>aller</hi>: "of us all", of which <hi>alþer</hi> in O is another form. The variants are interesting: Hm's <hi>aldre</hi> is ambiguous, though <hi>aldre-fader</hi> suggests "ancestor" (see <title>MED</title> <hi>eldre</hi> and <hi>eldre-fader</hi>). This is modernised by Cr as <hi>olde father</hi>. F reads <hi>forme fader</hi>.</note> fader · Eue was of hym-selue</l>
<l> And þe issue þat þei hadde · it was of hem bothe</l>
<l> And either is otheres ioye · in thre sondry persones</l>
<l> And in heuene & here · one syngulere name</l>
<l> And þ[u]s<note>Bx.16.217: <hi>þus</hi>: The reading of all beta mss. except L <hi>þis</hi>. But possibly L preserves the beta reading since alpha has <hi>þat</hi>. </note> is mankynde or manhede · of matrimoigne yspronge</l>
<l> And bitokneth þe Trinite · and trewe bileue<note>Bx.16.218: Beta4 omits the line.</note></l>
<l> ¶ Miȝte is [in]<note>Bx.16.219: <hi>in</hi>: Beta's omission leads CrW to alter the noun <hi>Miȝte</hi> to the adjective <hi>Mighty</hi>.</note> matrimoigne · þat multiplieth þe erthe</l>
<l> And bitokneth trewly · telle if I dorste</l>
<l> He<note>Bx.16.221: <hi>He</hi>: Altered to the more "correct" form in beta2 and F.</note> þat firste fourmed al · þe fader of heuene</l>
<l> Þe sone if I it<note>Bx.16.222: <hi>it</hi>: As in LW and alpha, but unsurprisingly lost in the others. For <hi>if I it</hi>, CGO read <hi>is if I</hi>, and alter the b-verse accordingly.</note> durst seye · resembleth wel þe wydwe</l>
<l> <foreign>Deus meus deus meus vt quid dereliquisti me</foreign></l>
<l> Þat is creatour wex creature · to knowe what was bothe</l>
<l> As widwe with-oute wedloke · was neure ȝete yseye</l>
<l> Na-more myȝte god be man · but if he moder hadde</l>
<l> So wydwe with-oute wedloke · may nouȝte wel stande</l>
<l> Ne matrimoigne withoute moillerye · is nouȝt moche to preyse</l>
<l> <foreign>Maledictus homo qui non reliquit semen in israel &c</foreign></l>
<l> Þus in þre persones · is perfitliche [pure]<note>Bx.16.230: <hi>pure</hi>: So R (=alpha?); F rewrites as <hi>þorghȝ</hi>. R has support from <hi>Cx</hi> (<hi>is puyrlich bote o mankynde</hi>, RK.18.233), and improves the alliteration. Having dropped the third stave, beta misplaces the punctus, although since alpha does so as well it is probable that the misplacement was in <hi>Bx</hi>, thus encouraging the omission of <hi>pure</hi> in beta.</note> manhede</l>
<l> Þat is man & his make · & moillere her<note>Bx.16.231: <hi>her</hi>: Support from <hi>Cx</hi> shows as usual that agreement of L and alpha is sufficient to establish <hi>Bx</hi>.</note> children</l>
<l> And is nouȝt but gendre of o<note>Bx.16.232: <hi>o</hi>: Supported by LWCR as well as sense, although lost by MCrHmGOF.</note> generacioun · bifor Ihesu cryst<note>Bx.16.232: <hi>cryst</hi>: To shorten a long line, GF drop <hi>cryst</hi> and Cr drops <hi>in heuene</hi>.</note> in heuene</l>
<l> So is þe fader forth with þe sone · and fre wille of bothe</l>
<l> <foreign>Spiritus procedens a patre & filio</foreign></l>
<l> Which is þe holygoste of alle · and alle is but o god</l>
<l> Þus in a somer I hym seigh · as I satte in my porche</l>
<l> I ros vp and reuerenced hym · & riȝt faire hym grette</l>
<l> Thre men to my syȝte · I made wel at ese</l>
<l> Wesche her feet & wyped hem · and afterward þei eten</l>
<l> Calues flesshe & cakebrede · and knewe what I thouȝte</l>
<l> Ful trewe tokenes bitwene vs is · to telle whan me lyketh</l>
<l> Firste he fonded me · if I loued bettere</l>
<l> Hym or ysaak myn ayre · þe which he hiȝte me kulle</l>
<l> He wiste my wille by hym · he wil me it allowe</l>
<l> I am ful syker in soule þer-of · and my sone bothe</l>
<l> I circumcised my sone · sitthen for his sake</l>
<l> My-self and my meyne · and alle þat male were</l>
<l> Bledden blode for þat lordes loue · and hope to blisse þe tyme</l>
<l> Myn affiaunce & my faith · is ferme in þis bilieue</l>
<l> For hym-self bihiȝte to me · and to myne issue bothe</l>
<l> Londe and lordship · and lyf with-outen ende</l>
<l> To me and to myn issue · more ȝete he me graunted</l>
<l> Mercy for owre mysdedes · as many tyme as we asken</l>
<l> <foreign>Quam olim abrahe promisisti & semini eius</foreign></l>
<l> And sith he sent me to seye · I sholde do sacrifise</l>
<l> And done hym worshipe with bred · and with wyn bothe</l>
<l> And called me þe<note>Bx.16.257: <hi>þe</hi>: Dropped by all except L, beta2 and R.</note> fote of his faith · his folke forto saue</l>
<l> And defende hem fro þe fende · folke þat on me leneden<note>Bx.16.258: <hi>leneden</hi>: "leaned". Cr unambiguously has <hi>leueden</hi>, and F has <hi>beleveþ</hi> (G is altered to <hi>leved</hi>). These three scribes regularly read "leave" for <hi>lenen</hi> in the sense "grant". The others may be read as <-u-> or <-n->, but "leaned" is fitting where Abraham is <hi>þe fote</hi>. See Schmidt (1995), 400.</note></l>
<l> Þus haue I ben his heraude · here and in helle<note>Bx.16.259: F omits the next two lines.</note></l>
<l> And conforted many a careful · þat after his comynge wayten</l>
<l> And þus I seke hym he seide · for I [herde]<note>Bx.16.261: <hi>herde</hi>: L omits; the corrector notes the omission.</note> seyne late</l>
<l> Of a b[ui]rn<note>Bx.16.262: <hi>buirn</hi>: So alpha for beta's inappropriate <hi>barne</hi>.</note> þat baptised hym · Iohan Baptiste was his name</l>
<l> Þat to patriarkes and to<note>Bx.16.263: <hi>to</hi> (2): Lost in beta4 and F.</note> prophetes · and to<note>Bx.16.263: <hi>to</hi> (3): Lost in beta4.</note> other peple in derknesse</l>
<l> Seyde þat he seigh<note>Bx.16.264: <hi>seigh</hi>: Beta is supported by <hi>Cx</hi> (and sense) against alpha's <hi>seyde</hi>.</note> here · þat sholde saue vs<note>Bx.16.264: <hi>sholde saue vs</hi>: Beta is supported by <hi>Cx</hi> against alpha's <hi>schal sauen hem</hi>.</note> alle</l>
<l> <foreign>Ecce agnus dei &c ·</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ I hadde wonder of his wordes · and of his wyde clothes</l>
<l> For<note>Bx.16.267: <hi>For</hi>: Beta is supported by <hi>Cx</hi> (RK.18.270) against alpha's <hi>And</hi>.</note> in his bosome he bar a thyng · [and]<note>Bx.16.267: <hi>and</hi>: Alpha is supported by <hi>Cx</hi> against beta's omission.</note> þat he blissed euere</l>
<l> And I loked on<note>Bx.16.268: <hi>on</hi>: Support from LMCGOR confirms this as the <hi>Bx</hi> reading, even though beta2 and F have <hi>in</hi>, as in <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> his lappe · a lazar lay þere-Inne</l>
<l> Amonges patriarkes and profetes · pleyande<note>Bx.16.269: <hi>pleyande</hi>: The present participle ending varies suggestively. Alpha, and perhaps <hi>Bx</hi>, may have had -<hi>ende</hi>, as in F, miscopied by R as -<hi>ede</hi>. <title>LALME</title> records this in Gloucs as well as East Anglia. HmG have -<hi>eng(e)</hi>, which is scattered but mainly south eastern. L's -<hi>ande</hi>, though often regarded as northern, is also found in London. See <title>LALME</title>, dot maps 345-8, and vol. 4, 105-7.</note> togyderes</l>
<l> [¶]<note>Bx.16.270: <hi></hi>: The paraph marking direct speech is supported by WHmC and alpha.</note> What awaytestow quod he · and what woldestow haue</l>
<l> [¶]<note>Bx.16.271: <hi></hi>: The paraph marking the change of speaker is supported by WC and alpha.</note> I wolde wyte quod I þo [·] what is in ȝowre lappe</l>
<l> ¶ Loo quod he and lete me se · lorde mercy I seide</l>
<l> Þis is [a]<note>Bx.16.273: <hi>a</hi>: Omitted in L.</note> present of moche prys · what Prynce shal it haue</l>
<l> [¶]<note>Bx.16.274: <hi></hi>: The paraph marking the change of speaker is supported by WHmC and alpha.</note> It is a preciouse present quod he · ac þe pouke it hath attached</l>
<l> And me þere-[with]<note>Bx.16.275: <hi>with</hi>: So alpha and <hi>Cx</hi>, and needed for the alliteration. Beta presumably had <hi>myde</hi>, altered as elsewhere to the commoner <hi>wyþ</hi> in HmCG (see <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.6.69</ref> and <ref>15.324</ref>).</note> quod þat [wy]<note>Bx.16.275: <hi>wy</hi>: So alpha and <hi>Cx</hi>, and needed for the alliteration. Beta alters to <hi>man</hi>.</note> · may no wedde vs quite</l>
<l> Ne no buyrn be owre borwgh · ne bryng vs fram his daungere</l>
<l> <note>Bx.16.277: The line is omitted by alpha. It is in <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> Oute of þe poukes pondfolde<note>Bx.16.277: <hi>pondfolde</hi>: The form as in LWC is influenced by <title>MED</title> <hi>pound(e</hi> n. (2). </note> · no meynprise may vs fecche</l>
<l> Tyl he come þat I carpe of · cryst is his name</l>
<l> Þat shal delyure vs some daye · out of þe deueles powere</l>
<l> And bettere wedde for vs legge · þan we ben alle worthy</l>
<l> Þat is lyf for lyf · or ligge þus euere</l>
<l> Lollynge in my lappe · tyl such a lorde vs fecche</l>
<l> <note>Bx.16.283-6: These four lines are only in beta; alpha has three quite different lines, though beginning <hi>Allas</hi>, suggesting eyeskip following the word. Beta is supported throughout by <hi>Cx</hi>. KD explain it as "homoeoarchy" (<hi>Allas I ... I</hi>) with the spurious lines added to bridge the gap in sense (p. 68).</note> ¶ Allas I seyde þat synne · so longe shal lette</l>
<l> Þe myȝte of goddes mercy · þat myȝt vs alle amende</l>
<l> I wepte for his wordes · with þat sawe I an other</l>
<l> Rapelich renne forth · þe riȝte waye he went</l>
<l> I affrayned<note>Bx.16.287: <hi>affrayned</hi>: The form is supported for <hi>Bx</hi> by LWCR.</note> hym fyrste · fram whennes he come</l>
<l> [W]hat<note>Bx.16.288: <hi>What</hi>: Beta begins the line <hi>And what</hi>. Alpha is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>, though notice that there the previous line begins <hi>And</hi>.</note> he hiȝte & whider he wolde · and wightlich he tolde</l>