<head><foreign>Passus duodevicesimus & tercius de dobet</foreign></head>
<l> Wolleward and wete-shoed · went I forth after</l>
<l> As a reccheles renke · þat of no wo reccheth<note>Bx.18.2: <hi>reccheth</hi>: WG's past tense is not supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note></l>
<l> And ȝede forth lyke a lorel · al my lyf-tyme</l>
<l> Tyl I wex wery of þe worlde · and wylned eft to<note>Bx.18.4: <hi>to</hi>: Possibly not in <hi>Bx</hi>. It is added by the main scribe in L, omitted by R and by eight <hi>C</hi> mss.</note> slepe</l>
<l> And lened me to a lenten · and longe tyme I slepte</l>
<l> And of crystes passioun and penaunce · þe peple þat of-rauȝte<note>Bx.18.6: <hi>þat of-rauȝte</hi>: As KD p. 176 argue, the line lacks sense in this position. They move it to follow l. <ref>9</ref>, so that it depends upon <hi>dremed</hi>. Beta4 and F revise to make sense. It is not in <hi>Cx</hi>.</note></l>
<l> Rested me þere and rutte faste · tyl <foreign>ramis palmarum</foreign></l>
<l> Of gerlis & of <foreign>gloria laus</foreign> · gretly me dremed</l>
<l> And how osanna by orgonye · olde folke songen</l>
<l> ¶ One semblable to þe samaritan · & some-del to Piers þe<note>Bx.18.10: <hi>þe</hi> (2): Dropped by HmCGOF and the P family of <hi>C</hi>.</note> plowman</l>
<l> Barfote on an asse bakke · botelees cam pryke<note>Bx.18.11: <hi>pryke</hi>: Cr and R (= alpha?) have the present participle as do many <hi>C</hi> mss. The infinitive after <hi>comen</hi> was becoming rarer; see Mustanoja (1960), 536-7.</note></l>
<l> Wyth-oute spores other spere · sp[r]akliche<note>Bx.18.12: <hi>sprakliche</hi>: As at <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.17.83</ref>, beta reads <hi>spakliche</hi>. Here <hi>Cx</hi> supports alpha.</note> he loked</l>
<l> As is þe kynde of a knyȝte · þat cometh to be dubbed</l>
<l> To geten h[y]m<note>Bx.18.14: <hi>hym</hi>: Only L has <hi>hem</hi>.</note> gylte spores · or<note>Bx.18.14: <hi>or</hi>: This is confirmed as <hi>Bx</hi> by LMWHmR. Alerted by the unsatisfactory sense, F alters to <hi>on</hi> and beta4 to <hi>and</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> also reads <hi>and</hi>.</note> galoches ycouped</l>
<l> ¶ Þanne was faith in a fenestre · and cryde a <foreign>fili dauid</foreign></l>
<l> As doth an Heraude of armes · whan aunturos cometh to iustes</l>
<l> Olde iuwes of ierusalem · for ioye þei songen</l>
<l> <foreign>Benedictus qui venit in nomine domini</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ Þanne I frayned at faith · what al þat fare be-ment</l>
<l> And who sholde<note>Bx.18.20: <hi>sholde</hi>: Dropped by R, but supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> iouste in Iherusalem · Ihesus he seyde</l>
<l> And fecche<note>Bx.18.21: <hi>fecche</hi>: R's third person is not supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> þat þe fende claymeth · Piers fruit þe plowman</l>
<l> <note>Bx.18.22: A paraph, as in WHmC with a line-space in M, would be appropriate, but is not indicated in L or alpha.</note>Is Piers in þis place quod I · & he preynte on me</l>
<l> Þis ihesus of his gentrice<note>Bx.18.23: <hi>gentrice</hi>: (<title>MED</title> <hi>gentrise</hi>), as in <hi>Cx</hi>. CrHm and alpha substitute <hi>gentrie</hi>.</note> · wole iuste in piers armes</l>
<l> In his helme & in his haberioun · <foreign>humana natura</foreign></l>
<l> Þat cryst be nouȝt biknowe<note>Bx.18.25: <hi>biknowe</hi>: LW and alpha, against <hi>knowen</hi> or <hi>yknowe</hi> in others. However <hi>Cx</hi> has <hi>yknowe</hi>.</note> here · for <foreign>consumatus deus</foreign></l>
<l> In Piers paltok þe plowman · þis priker shal ryde</l>
<l> For no dynte shal hym dere · as <foreign>in deitate patris</foreign></l>
<l> [¶]<note>Bx.18.28: <hi></hi>: The paraph marking Will's question is omitted in L but supported by WHmC and alpha and the line-space in M.</note> Who shal iuste with ihesus quod I [·] iuwes or scribes</l>
<l> ¶ Nay quod [faith but þe]<note>Bx.18.29: <hi>faith but þe</hi>: So alpha supported by <hi>Cx</hi>. Beta has <hi>he þe foule</hi>.</note> fende · and fals dome [to deye]<note>Bx.18.29: <hi>to deye</hi>: So alpha supported by <hi>Cx</hi>. Beta has <hi>& deth</hi>.</note></l>
<l> Deth seith he shal fordo · and adown brynge</l>
<l> Al þat lyueth or<note>Bx.18.31: <hi>or</hi> (1): W and alpha read <hi>and</hi>, but this is not supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> loketh · in londe or in watere</l>
<l> Lyf seyth þat he likthe<note>Bx.18.32: <hi>likthe</hi>: "is lying". Since this is the spelling in L and alpha, it was probably <hi>Bx</hi>'s form of <title>MED</title> <hi>lien</hi> v.(2). Cf. <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.5.165</ref> <hi>lixte</hi>. See Adams (2000), 186.</note> · and leyth his lif to wedde</l>
<l> Þat for al þat deth can do · with-in þre dayes</l>
<l> To walke and fecche fro þe fende · piers fruite þe plowman</l>
<l> And legge it þere hym lyketh · and lucifer bynde</l>
<l> And forb[i]te<note>Bx.18.36: <hi>forbite</hi>: "bite through". R's rather odd reading was rejected by other <hi>B</hi> scribes, who read <hi>forbete</hi> or <hi>for to bete</hi>, but it is supported by the P family and three of the X family of <hi>C</hi>. It reflects <hi><foreign>morsus tuus ero</foreign></hi> in Osee 13.14, quoted by F and many <hi>C</hi> mss. in the next line. See Barney (2006), 25, citing Schmidt (1995), 402.</note> and adown<note>Bx.18.36: <hi>adown</hi>: Supported by <hi>Cx</hi> against <hi>doun</hi> in MCrHmG and alpha.</note> brynge [·] bale deth for euere</l>
<l> <foreign>O mors ero mors tua</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ Þanne cam pilatus with moche peple · <foreign>sedens pro tribunali</foreign></l>
<l> To se how doughtilich deth sholde do · & deme her botheres riȝte</l>
<l> Þe iuwes and þe iustice · aȝeine ihesu þei were</l>
<l> And al [þe]<note>Bx.18.41: <hi>þe</hi>: LR have <hi>her</hi>, which is probably coincident error, since <hi>Cx</hi> has <hi>þe</hi> and there is no apparent reason for the other <hi>B</hi> scribes to corrupt.</note> courte on hym cryde · <foreign>crucifige</foreign> sharpe</l>
<l> [¶]<note>Bx.18.42: <hi></hi>: A paraph is appropriate, although it is only in Hm and alpha. In L the line is at the top of the page where a paraph is sometimes missed.</note> Tho put hym forth a piloure · bifor pilat & seyde</l>
<l> This ihesus of owre iewes<note>Bx.18.43: <hi>iewes</hi>: Dropped by alpha, but wanted for the alliteration and supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> temple · iaped & dispised</l>
<l> To fordone it on<note>Bx.18.44: <hi>on</hi>: MG and alpha have <hi>in</hi> anticipating <hi>in thre dayes</hi>, but this is not supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> o day · and in thre dayes after</l>
<l> Edefye it eft newe · here he stant þat seyde it</l>
<l> And ȝit maken it as moche · in al manere poyntes</l>
<l> Bothe as longe and as large · [a-]loft<note>Bx.18.47: <hi>a-loft</hi>: R (= alpha) and <hi>Cx</hi>; F has <hi>on lofte</hi>. Beta's <hi>bi lofte</hi> anticipates <hi>by grounde</hi>.</note> & by grounde</l>
<l><foreign>Cru[ci]fige</foreign> quod a cacchepolle · I warante hym a wicche</l>
<l> <foreign>Tolle tolle</foreign> quod an other · and toke o[f]<note>Bx.18.49: <hi>of</hi>: L's spelling <hi>o</hi> is probably a slip since the scribe does not use the form elsewhere.</note> kene þornes</l>
<l> And bigan of kene thorne · a gerelande to make</l>
<l> And sette it sore on his hed · and seyde in envye</l>
<l> <foreign>Aue rabby</foreign> quod þat Ribaude<note>Bx.18.52: <hi>þat Ribaude</hi>: <hi>Cx</hi> supports beta against R's <hi>þe ribaudes</hi> and F's <hi>þo rybawdis</hi>. Alpha's plural represents the two catchpoles.</note> · and þrew redes at hym</l>
<l> Nailled hym with þre<note>Bx.18.53: <hi>þre</hi>: F has <hi>fowre</hi>, which the R corrector writes in the margin without deleting <hi>thre</hi> in the text. <hi>Cx</hi> has <hi>thre</hi>. For the opposing views of whether Christ's feet were nailed together or separately, see Geoffrey Shepherd (ed.), <title>Ancrene Wisse</title> (London, 1959), p. 57.</note> nailles · naked on<note>Bx.18.53: <hi>on</hi>: Supported by the P family of <hi>C</hi>, though the X family support R's <hi>vp-on</hi>.</note> þe Rode</l>
<l> And poysoun on a pole · þei put vp<note>Bx.18.54: <hi>vp</hi>: Not in R, nor in F in a recast line. Again <hi>C</hi> mss. are split, the X family supporting beta (RK.20.52).</note> to his lippes</l>
<l> And bede hym drynke his deth yuel · his dayes were ydone</l>
<l> And ȝif þat þow sotil be · help now þi-seluen</l>
<l> If þow be cryst & kynges sone · come downe of þe Rode</l>
<l> Þanne shul we leue þat lyf þe loueth · and wil nouȝt lete þe deye</l>
<l><foreign>Consummatum est</foreign> quod cryst · & comsed forto swowe</l>
<l> Pitousliche and pale · as a prisoun þat deyeth</l>
<l> Þe<note>Bx.18.61: <hi>Þe</hi>: Supported by <hi>Cx</hi> against <hi>Til</hi> (R), <hi>Tyl þe</hi> (F).</note> lorde of lyf & of liȝte · þo leyed his eyen togideres</l>
<l> Þe daye for drede with-drowe · and derke bicam þe sonne</l>
<l> Þe wal wagged and clef [·] and al þe worlde quaued</l>
<l> Ded men for that dyne · come out of depe<note>Bx.18.64: <hi>depe</hi>: Required for the alliteration and supported by <hi>Cx</hi> against alpha's <hi>here</hi>.</note> graues</l>
<l> And tolde whi þat tempest · so longe tyme dured</l>
<l> For a bitter bataille · þe ded bodye sayde</l>
<l> Lyf and deth in þis derknesse · her one fordoth her other</l>
<l> Shal no wiȝte wite witterly [·] who shal haue þe maystrye</l>
<l> Er sondey aboute sonne rysynge · & sank with þat til erthe</l>
<l> Some seyde þat he was goddes sone · þat so faire deyde</l>
<l> <foreign>Vere filius dei erat iste · &c</foreign></l>
<l> And somme saide he was a wicche · good is þat we<note>Bx.18.72: <hi>þat we</hi>: R omits both words, and F omits <hi>þat</hi>. Beta is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> assaye</l>
<l> Where he be ded or nouȝte ded · doun er he be taken</l>
<l> ¶ Two theues also · tholed deth þat tyme</l>
<l> Vppon a crosse bisydes cryst · so was þe comune lawe</l>
<l> A<note>Bx.18.76: <hi>A</hi>: R (= alpha?) begins <hi>Ac a</hi> and F <hi>But a</hi>; there is no support from <hi>Cx</hi>, and it anticipates l. <ref>78</ref>.</note> cacchepole cam forth · and craked bothe her legges</l>
<l> And her armes after · of eyther of þo theues</l>
<l> Ac was no boy so bolde · goddes body to touche</l>
<l> For he was knyȝte & kynges sone · kynde forȝaf þat tyme<note>Bx.18.79: <hi>tyme</hi>: Beta is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>. Alpha's synonym <hi>throwe</hi>, though not an uncommon word, is used nowhere else in the poem. Both KD and Schmidt adopt it.</note></l>
<l> Þat non harlot were so hardy · to leyne hande<note>Bx.18.80: <hi>hande</hi>: R has <hi>an hand</hi> and F has plural <hi>hondys</hi>. The line is not in <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> vppon hym</l>
<l> ¶ Ac þere cam forth a knyȝte · with a kene spere ygrounde</l>
<l> Hiȝte longeus as þe lettre telleth · and longe had lore his siȝte</l>
<l> Bifor pilat & other peple · in þe place he houed</l>
<l> Maugre his many tethe · he was made þat tyme</l>
<l> To take þe spere in his honde · & iusten with ihesus</l>
<l> For alle þei were vnhardy · þat houed on hors or stode<note>Bx.18.86: <hi>stode</hi>: Alpha replaces with <hi>stede</hi>, not supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note></l>
<l> To touche hym<note>Bx.18.87: <hi>hym</hi> (1): Dropped by Cr and alpha but supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> or to taste hym · or take hym<note>Bx.18.87: <hi>hym</hi> (3): Dropped by M and beta2, but supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> down of Rode</l>
<l> But þis blynde bacheler [·] þa[t]<note>Bx.18.88: <hi>þat</hi>: MCrW omit, LHm and beta4 have <hi>þanne</hi> (all except C before the punctuation). Beta has missed the construction <hi>alle</hi> (l. <ref>86</ref>) ... <hi>But</hi>. Alpha is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> bar hym þorugh þe herte</l>
<l> Þe blode spronge down by þe spere · & vnspered<note>Bx.18.89: <hi>vnspered</hi>: Alpha substitutes the non-alliterating and easier synonym <hi>opned</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> reads as beta.</note> þe kniȝtes eyen</l>
<l> Þanne fel þe knyȝte vpon knees · and cryed [ihesu]<note>Bx.18.90: <hi>ihesu</hi>: R (= alpha?) is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>. F has <hi>crist</hi> and beta <hi>hym</hi>.</note> mercy</l>
<l> Aȝeyne my wille it was lorde · to wownde ȝow so sore</l>
<l> He seighed & sayde · sore it me athynketh</l>
<l> For þe dede þat I haue done · I do me in ȝowre grace</l>
<l> Haue on me reuth riȝtful ihesu · & riȝt with þat he wept</l>
<l> ¶ Thanne gan faith felly · þe fals iuwes dispise</l>
<l> Called hem caytyues · acursed<note>Bx.18.96: <hi>acursed</hi>: Alpha adds <hi>hem</hi>, making the verb past tense. <hi>Cx</hi> supports beta.</note> for euere</l>
<l> For þis foule vyleynye · veniaunce to ȝow alle<note>Bx.18.97: <hi>alle</hi>: WHmG read <hi>falle</hi>, perhaps prompted by the alliteration, or perhaps resisting the notion that all Jews were condemned; see Schmidt (1995), 402. The reading <hi>alle</hi> seems securely <hi>Bx</hi>, even though <hi>Cx</hi> (RK.20.97) also reads <hi>falle</hi> (P family) or <hi>bifalle</hi> (X family). WHmG may possibly be contaminated from a <hi>C</hi> text; see note to l. <ref>394</ref>.</note></l>
<l> To do þe blynde bete hym ybounde · it was a boyes conseille</l>
<l> Cursed caytyue[s]<note>Bx.18.99: <hi>caytyues</hi>: So alpha and <hi>Cx</hi>. Beta probably had the sg., presumably referring (obviously wrongly) to Longeus. M hesitates, first adding <hi>-s</hi> and then erasing; CrHmO make the obvious correction.</note> · kniȝthod was it neuere</l>
<l> To mysdo a ded body · by day or by nyȝte</l>
<l> Þe gree ȝit hath he geten · for al his grete wounde</l>
<l> ¶ For ȝowre champioun chiualer [·] chief knyȝt of ȝow alle</l>
<l> Ȝelt hym recreaunt rennyng · riȝt at ihesus wille</l>
<l> For be þis derkenesse ydo · deth worth [yvenkeshed]<note>Bx.18.104: <hi>deth worth yvenkeshed</hi>: The alpha reading is supported by <hi>Cx</hi> against beta's <hi>his deth worth avenged</hi>.</note></l>
<l> And ȝe lordeynes han ylost · for lyf shal haue þe maistrye</l>
<l> And ȝowre Fraunchise þat fre was · fallen is in thraldome</l>
<l> And ȝe cherles & ȝowre children · chieue shal ȝe neure</l>
<l> Ne haue lordship in londe · ne no londe tylye</l>
<l> But al bareyne be · & vsurye vsen</l>
<l> Which is lyf þat owre lorde · in alle lawes acurseth</l>
<l> Now ȝowre good dayes ar done · as Danyel prophecyed</l>
<l> Whan cryst cam her<note>Bx.18.112: <hi>her</hi>: So L and beta4. Beta2 reads <hi>of hire</hi>, and M is corrected to that reading. The alpha reading is uncertain, with R <hi>þe</hi> and F <hi>to his</hi>. See next note.</note> kyngdom · þe croune shulde [lese]<note>Bx.18.112: <hi>lese</hi>: The beta reading is <hi>cesse</hi>, but since <hi>cesse</hi> is not a transitive verb, beta2 adds <hi>of</hi>, and M is corrected to that reading: "the crown (i.e. authority) of their kingdom should come to an end". L realises something is wrong, and leaves out the last word while waiting for further guidance. But <hi>cese</hi> is probably a beta error picked up from <hi>cessabit</hi> in the next line (only cited in beta), and alpha is right with <hi>lese</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> rewrites the line.</note></l>
<l> <foreign>Cum veniat sanctus sanctorum<note>Bx.18.113: <hi><foreign>sanctorum</foreign></hi>: Beta completes the quotation with <hi>cessabit vnxio vestra</hi>. Cf. <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.15.631</ref> for the same variation. <hi>Cx</hi> also varies: the P family has the full quotation (RK.20.112a).</note></foreign></l>
<l> ¶ What for fere of þis ferly · & of þe<note>Bx.18.114: <hi>þe</hi>: R's <hi>þo</hi> is not supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> fals iuwes</l>
<l> I drowe me in þat derkenesse · to <foreign>de[s]cendit ad inferna</foreign></l>
<l> And þere I sawe sothely · <foreign>secundum scripturas</foreign></l>
<l> Out of þe west coste · a wenche as me thouȝte</l>
<l> Cam walkynge in þe<note>Bx.18.118: <hi>þe</hi>: R's <hi>þat</hi> is not supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> wey · to helle-ward she loked</l>
<l> Mercy hiȝt þat mayde · a meke þynge with-alle</l>
<l> A ful benygne buirde · and boxome of speche</l>
<l><note>Bx.18.121: <hi></hi>: The paraph is in beta only.</note> Her suster as it semed · cam softly<note>Bx.18.121: <hi>softly</hi>: Supported by <hi>Cx</hi>. MW <hi>soþly</hi> is an odd misreading, with Cr <hi>worthely</hi> probably an attempt to make sense of that.</note> walkyng</l>
<l> Euene out of þe est · and westward she loked</l>
<l> A ful comely creature · treuth she hiȝte</l>
<l> For þe vertue þat hir folwed · aferd was she neuere</l>
<l><note>Bx.18.125: <hi></hi>: The paraph is in beta only.</note> Whan<note>Bx.18.125: <hi>Whan</hi>: Alpha's <hi>And whan</hi> is not supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> þis maydenes mette · mercy and treuth</l>
<l> Eyther axed other · of þis grete wonder</l>
<l> Of þe dyne & of þe derknesse · and how þe daye rowed</l>
<l> And which<note>Bx.18.128: <hi>which</hi>: Alpha's <hi>swich</hi> is not supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> a liȝte and a leme · lay befor helle</l>
<l> Ich haue ferly of þis fare · in feith seyde treuth</l>
<l> And am wendyng to wyte · what þis wonder meneth</l>
<l> ¶ Haue no merueille quod mercy · myrthe it bytokneth</l>
<l> A mayd[e]<note>Bx.18.132: <hi>mayde</hi>: CrG and alpha are supported by <hi>Cx</hi> against beta's <hi>mayden</hi>.</note> þat hatte marye · and moder with-out felyng</l>
<l> Of any kyn[de]<note>Bx.18.133: <hi>kynde</hi>: "natural"; so alpha against beta's <hi>kynnes</hi>. The X family of <hi>C</hi> has <hi>kynde</hi>, the P family <hi>kynde of</hi>.</note> creature · conceyued þorw speche</l>
<l> And grace of þe holygoste · wex grete with childe</l>
<l> With-outen wem · in-to þis worlde she brouȝt hym</l>
<l> And þat my tale be trewe · I take god to witnesse</l>
<l> Sith þis barn was bore · ben thretty wynter passed</l>
<l> Which deyde & deth þoled · þis day aboute mydday</l>
<l> And þat is cause of þis clips · þat closeth now þe sonne</l>
<l> In menynge þat man shal · fro merkenesse be drawe</l>
<l> Þe while<note>Bx.18.141: <hi>while</hi>: MCrHmF read <hi>which</hi>, but <hi>Cx</hi> supports the others.</note> þis liȝte & þis leme · shal Lucyfer ablende</l>
<l> For patriarkes & prophetes · han preched her-of often</l>
<l> Þat man shal man saue · þorw a maydenes helpe</l>
<l> And þat was tynt þorw tre · tree shal it wynne</l>
<l> And þat deth doun brouȝte · deth shal releue</l>
<l> ¶ Þat þow tellest quod treuth · is but a tale of waltrot</l>
<l> For Adam & Eue · & abraham with<note>Bx.18.147: <hi>with</hi>: GF read <hi>and</hi>. MCr drop <hi>and</hi> (2) and have it here. <hi>Cx</hi> supports <hi>with</hi>.</note> other</l>
<l> Patriarkes & prophetes · þat in peyne liggen</l>
<l> Leue þow neuere þat ȝone liȝte · hem alofte brynge</l>
<l> Ne haue hem out of helle · h[o]lde<note>Bx.18.150: <hi>holde</hi>: L reads <hi>helde</hi>.</note> þi tonge mercy</l>
<l> It is but trufle<note>Bx.18.151: <hi>trufle</hi>: Beta has <hi>a trufle</hi>, but <hi>Cx</hi> supports R. F has the plural.</note> þat þow tellest · I<note>Bx.18.151: <hi>I</hi>: Dropped by alpha, but supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> treuth wote þe sothe</l>
<l> For þat<note>Bx.18.152: <hi>þat</hi>: WHmF add <hi>he</hi>, and the same mss. have <hi>he</hi> for <hi>it</hi> in the b-verse. <hi>Cx</hi> begins <hi>That thyng</hi>.</note> is ones in helle · out cometh it neuere</l>
<l> Iob þe prophete patriarke · reproueth þi sawes</l>
<l> <foreign>Quia in inferno nulla est redempcio</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ Þanne mercy ful myldly · mouthed þise wordes</l>
<l> Thorw experience quod [he]<note>Bx.18.156: <hi>he</hi>: "she". The form in Cr and alpha; supported by <hi>Cx</hi> and required for the alliteration. See Introduction <xref>IV.1</xref> and <xref>V.3.1</xref>.</note> · I hope þei shal be saued</l>
<l> For venym fordoth venym · & þat I proue by resoun</l>
<l> For of alle venymes · foulest is þe scorpioun</l>
<l> May no medcyne helpe · þe place þere he styngeth</l>
<l> Tyl he be ded & do þer-to · þe yuel he destroyeth</l>
<l> Þe fyrst venymouste · þorw ve[rtue]<note>Bx.18.161: <hi>vertue</hi>: Alpha is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>. Beta repeats <hi>venym</hi>, not implausibly.</note> of hym-self</l>
<l> So shal þis deth fordo<note>Bx.18.162: <hi>fordo</hi>: Beta supported by <hi>Cx</hi> against alpha's <hi>do</hi>.</note> · I dar my lyf legge</l>
<l> Al þat deth dyd<note>Bx.18.163: <hi>dyd</hi>: WHm take <hi>fordide</hi> from the previous line. In KD's listing of WHm agreements (pp. 38-9), over half occur in passus 17-19, indicating a different genetic relationship (beta3, so not including Cr) in the last part of the poem (see KD, p. 49). In passus 18 WHm agree in error at ll. <ref>108</ref>, <ref>209</ref>, <ref>214</ref>, <ref>222</ref>, <ref>230</ref>, <ref>256</ref>, <ref>278</ref>, <ref>338</ref>, <ref>339</ref>, <ref>441</ref>.</note> furste · þorw þe deuelles entysynge</l>
<l> And riȝt as þorw gyle · man was bigyled</l>
<l> So shal grace þat bigan · make a good sleighte<note>Bx.18.165: <hi>sleighte</hi>: The sense is poor, and comparison with <hi>Cx</hi> suggests that <hi>Bx</hi> has lost a line after <hi>good</hi>, skipping to <hi>good</hi> in the line that follows (RK.20.164-5). KD supply "[end / And bigile þe gilour, and þat is good]". See Schmidt (1995), 402-03. G's <hi>end</hi> (shared with Y) is by conjecture or contamination.</note></l>
<l> <foreign>Ars vt artem falleret</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ Now suffre we seyde treuth · I se as me þinketh</l>
<l> Out of þe nippe of þe north · nouȝt ful fer hennes</l>
<l> Riȝtwisnesse come rennynge · reste we þe while</l>
<l> For he wote more þan we · he was er we bothe</l>
<l><note>Bx.18.171: <hi></hi>: The paraph marking the start of speech is in beta and F.</note> That is soth seyde mercy · and I se here bi southe</l>
<l> Where [cometh pees]<note>Bx.18.172: <hi>cometh pees</hi>: R's order is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>. Beta and F reverse to prose order.</note> playinge · in pacience yclothed</l>
<l> Loue hath coueyted hir longe · leue I none other</l>
<l> But he sent hir some lettre [·] what þis liȝte bymeneth</l>
<l> Þat ouer-houeth helle þus · [he]<note>Bx.18.175: <hi>he</hi>: The L scribe added an initial <s>, to agree with all other beta mss., but alliteration and <hi>Cx</hi> support alpha's form. See Introduction <xref>IV.1</xref>.</note> vs shal telle</l>
<l> ¶ Whan pees in pacience yclothed · approched nere hem tweyne</l>
<l> Riȝtwisnesse hir reuerenced · for her riche clothyng</l>
<l> And preyed pees to telle hir · to what place she<note>Bx.18.178: <hi>she</hi>: In this case neither alliteration nor <hi>Cx</hi> supports alpha's <hi>he</hi>. Cf. notes to ll. <ref>156</ref> and <ref>175</ref>.</note> wolde</l>
<l> And in her gay garnementz · whom she<note>Bx.18.179: <hi>she</hi>: In this case neither alliteration nor <hi>Cx</hi> supports alpha's <hi>he</hi>. Cf. notes to ll. <ref>156</ref>, <ref>175</ref> and <ref>178</ref>.</note> grete þouȝte</l>
<l> ¶ My wille is to wende quod she<note>Bx.18.180: <hi>she</hi>: Alpha has <hi>he</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> rewrites. Cf. notes to ll. <ref>156</ref>, <ref>175</ref>, <ref>178</ref> and <ref>179</ref>.</note> · and welcome hem alle</l>
<l> Þat many day myȝte I nouȝte se · for merkenesse of synne</l>
<l> Adam & Eue [·] & other moo in helle</l>
<l> Moyses & many mo · mercy shal haue</l>
<l> <note>Bx.18.184: The line is preserved in beta only; it is in <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> And I shal daunce þer-to · do þow so sustre</l>
<l> For ihesus iusted wel · ioye bygynneth dawe</l>
<l> <foreign>Ad vesperum demorabitur fletus · & ad matutinum leticia ·</foreign></l>
<l> Loue þat is my lemman · suche lettres me<note>Bx.18.187: <hi>me</hi>: R's <hi>he me</hi> has support from the X family of <hi>C</hi>, but the P family is without <hi>he</hi>.</note> sente</l>
<l> That mercy my sustre<note>Bx.18.188: <hi>my sustre</hi>: Dropped by alpha, but supported by <hi>Cx</hi> and by alliteration.</note> & I · mankynde shulde saue</l>
<l> And þat god hath forgyuen · & graunted me pees & mercy</l>
<l> To be mannes meynpernoure · for euere-more after</l>
<l> Lo here þe patent quod pees · <foreign>in pace in idipsum</foreign></l>
<l> And þat þis dede shal dure · <foreign>dormiam & requiescam</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ What rauestow quod riȝtwisnesse [·] or þow art riȝt dronke</l>
<l> Leuestow þat ȝonde liȝte · vnlouke myȝte helle</l>
<l> And saue mannes soule · sustre wene<note>Bx.18.195: <hi>wene</hi>: Alpha's <hi>wene þow</hi> is not supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> it neure</l>
<l> At þe bygynnynge god · gaf þe dome hym-selue</l>
<l> Þat Adam & Eue · and alle þat hem suwed</l>
<l> Shulde deye doune-riȝte · and dwelle in p[e]yne<note>Bx.18.198: <hi>peyne</hi>: Alpha is supported by <hi>Cx</hi> and ll. <ref>205</ref>, <ref>208</ref>. Beta has <hi>pyne</hi>, "torment" (see <title>MED</title> <hi>pein(e</hi> and <hi>pine</hi> n.(1)).</note> after</l>
<l> If þat þei touched a tre · and þe fruite<note>Bx.18.199: <hi>þe fruite</hi>: This seems undoubtedly the <hi>Bx</hi> reading, despite the lack of alliteration. Hm <hi>þe trees fruyt</hi> corrects the alliteration. F <hi>of þe frut</hi> is the <hi>Cx</hi> reading, presumably by coincidence, influenced by l. <ref>201</ref>.</note> eten</l>
<l> Adam afterward · aȝeines his defence</l>
<l> Frette of þat fruit · & forsoke as it were</l>
<l> Þe loue of owre lorde · and his lore bothe</l>
<l> And folwed þat þe fende tauȝte · & his felawes wille</l>
<l> Aȝeines resoun I<note>Bx.18.204: <hi>I</hi>: The line is omitted by alpha, and beta mss. apart from L read <hi>and</hi>. The three best <hi>C</hi> mss. of the X family agree with L; other <hi>C</hi> mss. have <hi>and</hi> (RK.20.204). Schmidt (1995), 403, ascribes the error to "variation to the stock phrase, and misconstruction of the mood of <hi>recorde</hi> as imperative". Omission of <hi>I</hi> might be a <hi>Bx</hi> error, as at l. <ref>208</ref>, with the correction conjectured by L, but such activity is untypical of the L scribe.</note> riȝtwisnesse · recorde þus with treuth</l>
<l> Þat her peyne be perpetuel · & no preyere hem helpe</l>
<l> For-þi late hem chewe as þei chose · & chyde we nouȝt sustres</l>
<l> For it is botelees bale · þe bite þat þei eten</l>
<l> ¶ And [I]<note>Bx.18.208: <hi>I</hi>: Easily lost (see l. <ref>204</ref>), but the agreement of LR suggests it might be a <hi>Bx</hi> error with the obvious correction made by other scribes (note F has <hi>I</hi> for <hi>And I</hi>).</note> shal pre[i]e<note>Bx.18.208: <hi>preie</hi>: Alpha is supported by <hi>Cx</hi> against beta's <hi>preue</hi>.</note> quod pees · her peyne mote haue ende</l>
<l> And wo in-to wel · mowe wende atte laste</l>
<l> For had<note>Bx.18.210: <hi>had</hi> (1): Omitted by alpha (added in F). <hi>Cx</hi> supports beta.</note> þei wist of no wo · wel had þei nouȝte knowen</l>
<l> For no wiȝte wote what wel is · þat neuere wo suffred</l>
<l> Ne what is hote hunger · þat had neuere defaute</l>
<l> If no nyȝte ne were · no man as I leue</l>
<l> Shulde wite witterly · what day is to mene</l>
<l> <note>Bx.18.215: L has an unrubricated paraph marker but no blank line. It is inappropriate and not supported by other mss. Possibly it was intended for l. <ref>213</ref>, where WHmR have a paraph.</note>Shulde neuere riȝte riche man · þat lyueth in reste & ese</l>
<l> Wyte what wo is · ne were þe deth of kynde</l>
<l> So god þat bygan al · of his good wille</l>
<l> Bycam man of a mayde · mankynde to saue</l>
<l> And suffred to be solde · to<note>Bx.18.219: <hi>to</hi> (2): Alpha reads <hi>and</hi>, but beta is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> see þe sorwe of deyinge</l>
<l> The which vnknitteth al kare · & comsynge is of reste</l>
<l> For til <foreign>modicum</foreign> mete<note>Bx.18.221: <hi>mete</hi>: CrHmCGO and alpha have pa.t., as do a good many <hi>C</hi> mss.</note> with vs · I may it wel avowe</l>
<l> Wote no wiȝte as I wene · what is ynough<note>Bx.18.222: <hi>is ynough</hi>: R's <hi>is nouȝte</hi> probably reproduces alpha, with F altering to make sense. <hi>Cx</hi> supports beta.</note> to mene</l>
<l><note>Bx.18.223: <hi></hi>: The paraph is in beta only.</note> For-þi god of his goodnesse · þe fyrste gome Adam</l>
<l> Sette hym in solace · & in souereigne myrthe<note>Bx.18.224: <hi>myrthe</hi>: <hi>Cx</hi> supports beta against alpha's <hi>ioye</hi>, picked up from l. <ref>230</ref>.</note></l>
<l> And sith he suffred hym synne · sorwe to fele</l>
<l> To wite what wel was<note>Bx.18.226: <hi>was</hi>: <hi>Cx</hi> supports beta against alpha's <hi>is</hi>, which is perhaps again picked up from l. <ref>230</ref>.</note> · kyndelich to knowe it</l>
<l> And after god auntred hym-self · and toke Adames kynde</l>
<l> To wyte what he hath suffred · in þre sondri places</l>
<l> Bothe in heuene & in erthe · & now til helle he þynketh</l>
<l> To wite what al wo is · þat wote of al ioye</l>
<l> ¶ So it shal fare bi þis folke · her foly & her synne</l>
<l> Shal lere hem what langour is · & lisse<note>Bx.18.232: <hi>lisse</hi>: Supported by <hi>Cx</hi> (RK.20.243) and alliteration over GR's <hi>blisse</hi>. F loses l. 232b and l. 233a.</note> with-outen ende</l>
<l> Wote no wighte what werre is · þere þat pees regneth</l>
<l> Ne what is witterly wel · til weyllowey hym teche</l>
<l> ¶ Thanne was þere a wiȝte · with two brode eyen</l>
<l> Boke hiȝte þat beupere · a bolde man of speche</l>
<l> By godes body quod þis boke · I wil bere witnesse</l>
<l> Þat þo þis barne was ybore · þere blased a sterre</l>
<l> That alle þe wyse<note>Bx.18.239: <hi>wyse</hi>: Supported by <hi>Cx</hi> and alliteration over alpha's <hi>men</hi>. Did alpha understand it as <hi>wyes</hi> as in a few <hi>C</hi> mss.?</note> of<note>Bx.18.239: <hi>of</hi>: Beta is supported by <hi>Cx</hi> against alpha's <hi>in</hi>.</note> þis worlde · in o witte acordeden<note>Bx.18.239: <hi>acordeden</hi>: <hi>Cx</hi> supports the past tense as in LHmOR.</note></l>
<l> That such a barne was borne · in bethleem [þe]<note>Bx.18.240: <hi>þe</hi>: WR are supported by <hi>Cx</hi>. Without it the b-verse would have the metrical form x / x / x usually avoided. Possibly beta had dropped it and W restored it on metrical grounds. R presumably represents alpha, with F dropping the article.</note> Citee</l>
<l> Þat mannes soule sholde saue · & synne destroye</l>
<l> And alle þe elementz quod þe boke · her-of bereth witnesse</l>
<l> Þat he was god þat al wrouȝte · þe walkene firste shewed</l>
<l> Þo that weren in heuene · token <foreign>stella comata</foreign></l>
<l> And tendeden hir as a torche · to reuerence his birthe</l>
<l> Þe lyȝte folwed þe lorde · in-to þe lowe erthe</l>
<l> Þ[e]<note>Bx.18.247: <hi>Þe</hi>: <hi>Cx</hi> supports CrWO and alpha against <hi>Þat</hi> in LMHmC (G has <hi>Þat þe</hi>).</note> water witnesse[th]<note>Bx.18.247: <hi>witnesseth</hi>: Most <hi>C</hi> mss. support the present tense as in GO and alpha against the past tense in others.</note> þat he was god · for he went on it</l>
<l> Peter þe apostel · parceyued his gate</l>
<l> And as he went on þe water · wel hym knewe & seyde</l>
<l> <foreign>Iube me venire ad te super aquas</foreign></l>
<l> And lo how þe sonne gan louke<note>Bx.18.251: <hi>louke</hi>: "lock". Alpha's spellings represent "look". <hi>Cx</hi> supports beta.</note> · her liȝte in her-self</l>
<l> Whan she seye hym suffre · þat sonne & se<note>Bx.18.252: <hi>se</hi>: Beta is supported by <hi>Cx</hi> against alpha's <hi>mone</hi>.</note> made</l>
<l> The erthe for heuynesse · that he wolde suffre</l>
<l> Quaked as quykke þinge · and al biquash[e]<note>Bx.18.254: <hi>biquashe</hi>: Probably Langland wrote <hi>al biquashe þe roches</hi> (plural: "all the rocks shatter"; cf. "petrae scissae sunt", Matt. 27.51), as in the X family of <hi>C</hi>, <hi>al toquasch þe roches</hi> (RK.20.257), but <hi>Bx</hi> obviously read <hi>roche</hi>. Alpha reproduces the verb, presumably taking it as the third-person present sg. with assimilated <hi>-s</hi> ending, though the ending is nearly always -<hi>eth</hi> in the <hi>B</hi> tradition. Beta "corrects" the verb form by making it past, <hi>biquasht</hi>, influenced by the context of past-tense verbs (though G has <hi>byquassethe</hi>). The P family of <hi>C</hi> also has the past tense, <hi>toquasched</hi>, but retains the plural noun.</note> þe roche</l>
<l> Lo helle miȝte nouȝte holde · but opened þo god þoled</l>
<l> And lete oute symondes sones · to seen hym hange on Rode</l>
<l> And now shal lucifer leue<note>Bx.18.257: <hi>leue</hi>: Beta is supported by <hi>Cx</hi> against F's <hi>leese</hi>. R omits the word.</note> it [·] thowgh hym loth þinke</l>
<l> <note>Bx.18.258-9: These two lines preserved only in beta are supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> For <foreign>gygas</foreign> þe geaunt · with a gynne engyned</l>
<l> To breke & to bete [adown]<note>Bx.18.259: <hi>adown</hi>: <hi>Cx</hi> supports MWHmCO. The line is lost in alpha.</note> · þat ben aȝeines ihesus</l>
<l> And I boke wil be brent · but ihesus rise to lyue</l>
<l> In alle myȝtes of man<note>Bx.18.261: <hi>man</hi>: Alpha has <hi>a man</hi>. The line is not in <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> · & his moder gladye</l>
<l> And conforte al his kynne · & out of care brynge</l>
<l> And al þe iuwen ioye · vnioignen & vnlouken</l>
<l> And but<note>Bx.18.264: <hi>but</hi>: MCrF have <hi>but if</hi>, but the others are supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> þei reuerencen his Rode · & his resurexioun</l>
<l> And bileue on a newe lawe · be lost lyf & soule<note>Bx.18.265: Beta4 has an additional line following this. It is patently scribal and is not in <hi>Cx</hi>.</note></l>
<l> ¶ Suffre we seide treuth · I here & se bothe</l>
<l> [A]<note>Bx.18.267: <hi>A</hi>: So alpha, supported by <hi>Cx</hi>. Beta begins <hi>How a</hi>.</note> spirit speketh to helle · & bit vnspere þe ȝatis</l>
<l> <foreign>Attollite portas &c</foreign><note>Bx.18.268: Alpha treats the two Latin words as the beginning of l. <ref>269</ref>. In <hi>C</hi> four of the X group do the same, while four of the P group place them at the end of the previous line.</note></l>
<l> A voice loude in þat liȝte [·] to lucifer cryeth<note>Bx.18.269: <hi>cryeth</hi>: Beta4 has the past tense; <hi>Cx</hi> has <hi>saide</hi>.</note></l>
<l> Prynces of þis place · vnpynneth & vnlouketh</l>
<l> For here cometh with croune · þat kynge is of glorie</l>
<l> [¶]<note>Bx.18.272: <hi></hi>: The paraph is not in L, but is appropriate and supported by WHmC and alpha, and the line-space in M.</note> Thanne syked sathan · & seyde to he[lle]<note>Bx.18.272: <hi>helle</hi>: Alpha is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>. Probably beta was puzzled by the unusual personal use, which derives from the <title>Gospel of Nicodemus</title>, in which a devil is named "Inferus", generally translated as Hell (e.g. <title>MED</title> <hi>helle</hi> 1 (c)).</note></l>
<l> Suche a lyȝte aȝeines owre leue · Lazar it fette</l>
<l> Care & combraunce · is comen to vs alle</l>
<l> If þis kynge come in · mankynde wil he fecche</l>
<l> And lede it<note>Bx.18.276: <hi>it</hi>: that is, <hi>mankynde</hi>. Beta is supported by <hi>Cx</hi> against alpha's <hi>hem</hi>.</note> þer [Lazar is]<note>Bx.18.276: <hi>Lazar is</hi>: Alpha is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>. Beta's <hi>hym lyketh</hi> is probably sheer inattention rather than objection to the implication that Lazarus is in heaven. Cf. l. <ref>421</ref>.</note> · & lyȝtlych me bynde</l>
<l> Patriarkes & prophetes · han parled her-of longe</l>
<l> Þat such a lorde & a lyȝte · sh[al]<note>Bx.18.278: <hi>shal</hi>: Alpha is supported by <hi>Cx</hi> against beta's <hi>shulde</hi>.</note> lede hem alle hennes</l>
<l> ¶ Lysteneth quod Lucifer · for I þis lorde knowe</l>
<l> Bothe þis lorde & þis liȝte · is longe ago I knewe hym</l>
<l> May no deth [þis lorde]<note>Bx.18.281: <hi>þis lorde</hi>: Alpha is supported by <hi>Cx</hi> against beta's <hi>hym</hi>.</note> dere · ne no deueles queyntise</l>
<l> And where he wil is his waye · ac war hym of þe periles</l>
<l> If he reue me [of]<note>Bx.18.283: <hi>of</hi>: Alpha is supported by <hi>Cx</hi> against beta's omission.</note> my riȝte · he robbeth<note>Bx.18.283: <hi>he robbeth</hi>: Beta is supported by <hi>Cx</hi> against alpha's <hi>& robbe</hi>, though the subjunctive, parallel to <hi>reue</hi> makes excellent sense, making the whole line conditional, explaining the <hi>periles</hi> (sc. of lawlessness) of l. <ref>282</ref>.</note> me by maistrye</l>
<l> For by riȝt & bi resoun · þ[e]<note>Bx.18.284: <hi>þe</hi>: Beta2, C and alpha are supported by <hi>Cx</hi> against <hi>þo</hi> in LMGO.</note> renkes þat ben here</l>
<l> Bodye & soule ben myne · bothe gode & ille</l>
<l> For hym-self seyde [·] þat sire is of heuene</l>
<l> Ȝif<note>Bx.18.287: <hi>Ȝif</hi>: Alpha begins <hi>Þat ȝif</hi>. The equivalent line in <hi>Cx</hi> has a different construction, beginning "That Adam and Eve" (RK.20.303).</note> Adam ete þe apple · alle shulde deye</l>
<l> And dwelle with vs deueles · þis þretynge he made</l>
<l> And he þat sothenesse is [·] seyde þise wordes</l>
<l> And [I] sitthen I-seised<note>Bx.18.290: <hi>I sitthen I-seised</hi>: "I being then in possession", an absolute construction. This is R's reading, with F simplifying the presumed alpha reading. Beta has dropped <hi>I</hi>, probably taking ppl. <hi>I-seised</hi> as pronoun + past tense. <hi>Cx</hi> has instead <hi>we haen ben sesed</hi> (RK.20.309).</note> · seuene<note>Bx.18.290: <hi>seuene</hi>: Alpha adds <hi>þise</hi>, but it has no support from <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> hundreth wyntre</l>
<l> I leue þat lawe nil nauȝte · lete hym þe leest</l>
<l> ¶ That is sothe seyde Sathan · but I me sore drede</l>
<l> For þow gete hem with gyle · & his gardyne breke</l>
<l> And in semblaunce of a serpent · sat on þe appeltre</l>
<l> And eggedest hem to ete · Eue by hir-selue</l>
<l> And toldest hir a tale · of tresoun were þe wordes</l>
<l> And so<note>Bx.18.297: <hi>so</hi>: Alpha's <hi>al-so</hi> is without support from <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> þow haddest hem oute [·] & hider atte laste</l>
<l> It is nouȝte graythely geten · þere gyle is þe Rote</l>
<l> For god wil nouȝt be bigiled · quod Gobelyn ne bi-iaped</l>
<l> We haue no trewe title to hem · for þorwgh tresoun were þei dampned</l>
<l> Certes I drede me quod þe deuel · leste treuth wil hem fecche<note>Bx.18.301: The line that follows in beta4 is evidently scribal. It is added in the Crowley revisions, Cr<hi>2</hi> and Cr<hi>3</hi>.</note></l>
<l> ¶ Þis<note>Bx.18.302: <hi>Þis</hi>: For numeral + <hi>wynter</hi> treated as sg. cf. <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.3.39</ref>, <ref>5.561</ref>, <ref>18.305</ref>. Here CrWC "correct" it to pl. with <hi>Thise</hi>.</note> þretty wynter as I wene · [he wente aboute]<note>Bx.18.302: <hi>he wente aboute</hi>: Alpha is supported by <hi>Cx</hi> and alliteration against beta's <hi>hath he gone</hi>.</note> & preched</l>
<l> I haue assailled hym with synne · & some-tyme<note>Bx.18.303: <hi>some-tyme</hi>: Beta is supported by <hi>Cx</hi> against alpha's <hi>some</hi>.</note> [I] asked<note>Bx.18.303: <hi>I asked</hi>: Beta has the ppl. <hi>yasked</hi>, but alpha's pronoun + past tense is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>. Cf. l. <ref>290</ref>.</note></l>
<l> Where he were god or goddes sone · he gaf me shorte answere</l>
<l> And þus hath he<note>Bx.18.305: <hi>hath he</hi>: Beta's word-order is supported by <hi>Cx</hi> against alpha's reversal.</note> trolled forth · þis two & thretty wynter</l>
<l> And whan I seighe it was so · slepyng<note>Bx.18.306: <hi>slepyng</hi>: Beta2 reads non-alliterative <hi>lepynge</hi>, and M is altered to that reading. Perhaps the scribe didn't know the story.</note> I went</l>
<l> To warne pilates wyf · what dones<note>Bx.18.307: <hi>dones</hi>: "sort of". For the form, see <title>OED</title> <hi>done</hi> ppl. a. (n.); Mustanoja (1960), 86.</note> man was ihesus</l>
<l> For iuwes hateden hym · and han done hym to deth</l>
<l> I<note>Bx.18.309: <hi>I</hi>: Alpha begins <hi>And I</hi>, but beta is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> wolde haue lengthed his lyf · for I leued<note>Bx.18.309: <hi>leued</hi>: Alpha's present tense is not supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> ȝif he deyede</l>
<l> That his soule wolde<note>Bx.18.310: <hi>wolde</hi>: Alpha has <hi>walde nauȝt</hi>, and Hm <hi>nolde</hi>. There is no equivalent line in <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> suffre · no synne in his syȝte</l>
<l> For þe body whil it on bones ȝede · aboute was euere</l>
<l> To saue men fram synne · ȝif hem-self wolde</l>
<l> And now I se where a soule · cometh hiderward seyllynge</l>
<l> With glorie & with<note>Bx.18.310: <hi>with</hi> (2): Omitted by O and alpha, but <hi>Cx</hi> has it.</note> grete liȝte · god it is I wote wel</l>
<l> I rede we flee quod he · faste alle hennes</l>
<l> For vs were better nouȝte be · þan biden his syȝte</l>
<l> For þi lesynges Lucifer · loste is al owre praye</l>
<l> <note>Bx.18.318: W and alpha have a paraph, perhaps prompted by <hi>Firste</hi>.</note>Firste þorw þe we fellen · fro heuene so heigh</l>
<l> <note>Bx.18.319-20: Beta loses 319b and 320a through eyeskip (<hi>lesynges</hi> ... <hi>lesynge</hi>). The X family of <hi>C</hi> does the same.</note> For we leued þi lesynges · [we loupen oute alle<note>Bx.18.319: <hi>we loupen oute alle</hi>: Alpha only. R adds <hi>with þe</hi>, perhaps rightly, but it is unnecessary to the sense and metrically clumsy. <hi>Cx</hi> is revised.</note></l>
<l> And now for thi last lesynge ·] ylore [haue we]<note>Bx.18.320: <hi>haue we</hi>: Beta reverses to prose order. <hi>Cx</hi> is rewritten: <hi>þere losten we</hi> (RK.20.347).</note> Adam</l>
<l> And al owre lordeship I leue · alonde & a water</l>
<l> <foreign>Nunc princeps huius mundi eicietur foras</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ Efte þe liȝte bad vnlouke · & Lucifer answered<note>Bx.18.323-6: It seems evident that the quotations from Psalm 23.10 have become disordered in <hi>Bx</hi>. This would most easily have happened if at some earlier stage they were to the right of each line:<lb/>
Efte þe liȝte bad vnlouke · & Lucifer answered · <foreign>quis est iste</foreign><lb/>
What lorde artow quod lucifer · þe liȝte sone seide · <foreign>Rex glorie</foreign><lb/>
The lorde of myȝte & of mayne · & al manere vertues · <foreign>dominus virtutum</foreign><lb/>
All <hi>B</hi> mss. agree on the arrangement of l. <ref>324</ref>, with <hi><foreign>quis est iste</foreign></hi> as the b-verse. Evidently, despite some rearrangement by F, <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.18.325</ref> began with <hi><foreign>Rex glorie</foreign></hi>. As the b-verse R (= alpha?) amalgamates and abbreviates 325b with 326; F abbreviates still further. LWC have <hi><foreign>dominus virtutum</foreign></hi> to the right of 326; MCrHmGO have it as a line on its own (with Hm expanding); R has it to begin 327, and F drops it altogether. <hi>Cx</hi> does not include the Latin phrases (RK.20.359-61).
Bx.18.324KD.18.317, 316α
<l> What lorde artow quod lucifer · <foreign>quis est iste</foreign></l>
<l> <foreign>Rex glorie</foreign> · þe liȝte sone seide</l>
<l> [Þe]<note>Bx.18.326: <hi>Þe</hi>: So alpha and <hi>Cx</hi>. Beta's <hi>And</hi> appears to be a consequence of the disordering; see previous note.</note> lorde of myȝte & of mayne<note>Bx.18.326: <hi>mayne</hi>: Supported by <hi>Cx</hi>. WR have <hi>man</hi>.</note> · & al manere vertues · <foreign>dominus virtutum</foreign></l>
<l> Dukes<note>Bx.18.327: <hi>Dukes</hi>: Alpha has the sg. The <hi>C</hi> mss. are also divided: the P group has the sg., the X group the plural. But l. <ref>270</ref> has <hi>Prynces</hi>, and this is supported by the source, the <title>Gospel of Nicodemus</title>, which has <hi><foreign>principes</foreign></hi>.</note> of þis dym place · anon vndo þis ȝates</l>
<l> That cryst may come in · þe kynges sone of heuene</l>
<l> And with þat breth helle brake<note>Bx.18.329: <hi>brake</hi>: Beta is supported by <hi>Cx</hi> against alpha's <hi>braste</hi>.</note> · with Beliales barres</l>
<l> For any wye or warde · wide opene<note>Bx.18.330: <hi>opene</hi>: Alpha has the past tense verb, as does W and corrected Hm. The P family of <hi>C</hi> has the same, while the X family has the adjective.</note> þe ȝatis</l>
<l> ¶ Patriarkes & prophetes · <foreign>populus in tenebris</foreign></l>
<l> Songen seynt Iohanes songe · <foreign>ecce agnus dei</foreign></l>
<l> Lucyfer loke ne myȝte · so lyȝte hym ableynte</l>
<l> And þo þat owre [lorde]<note>Bx.18.334: <hi>lorde</hi>: Omitted by L.</note> loued · in-to his liȝte he lauȝte</l>
<l> And seyde to sathan · lo here my soule to amendes</l>
<l> For alle synneful soules · to saue þo þat ben worthy</l>
<l> Myne þei be & of me · I may þe bette hem clayme</l>
<l> Al-þough resoun recorde [·] & riȝt of my-self</l>
<l> That if þei ete þe apple · alle shulde deye</l>
<l> I bihyȝte hem nouȝt here · helle for euere</l>
<l> For þe dede þat þei dede · þi deceyte it made</l>
<l> With gyle þow hem gete · agayne al resoun</l>
<l> For in my paleys paradys · in persone of an addre</l>
<l> Falseliche þow fettest þere · þynge þat I loued</l>
<l> ¶ Thus ylyke a lusarde · with a lady visage</l>
<l> Theuelich þow me robbedest · þe olde lawe graunteth</l>
<l> Þat gylours be bigiled · & þat is gode resoun</l>
<l> <foreign>Dentem pro dente & oculum pro oculo</foreign></l>
<l> <foreign>Ergo</foreign> soule shal soule quyte · & synne to synne wende</l>
<l> And al þat man hath mysdo · I man wyl amende [it]<note>Bx.18.350: <hi>it</hi>: Alpha has the pronoun, though F has it before the verb. R is supported by <hi>Cx</hi> in a slightly revised b-verse (RK.20.389). Note that in l. <ref>352</ref> beta has line-terminal <hi>it</hi> where alpha does not; see note there.</note></l>
<l> Membre for membre · bi þe olde lawe was amendes</l>
<l> And lyf for lyf also · & by þat lawe I clayme<note>Bx.18.352: <hi>clayme</hi>: Beta has <hi>clayme it</hi>, but the object is <hi>Adam</hi> in the next line. See note to l. <ref>350</ref>. The line is not in <hi>Cx</hi>.</note></l>
<l> Adam & al his issue · at my wille her-after</l>
<l> And þat deth in hem fordid · my deth shal releue</l>
<l> And bothe quykke<note>Bx.18.355: <hi>quykke</hi>: M and beta2 have <hi>quykene</hi>, <hi>quikne</hi> (<title>MED</title> <hi>quikenen</hi>), but <hi>Cx</hi> supports the others.</note> & quyte · þat queynte was þorw synne</l>
<l> And þat grace gyle destruye<note>Bx.18.356: <hi>destruye</hi>: "should destroy". Cr and alpha have the indicative. The line is rewritten in <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> · good feith it asketh</l>
<l> So leue it<note>Bx.18.357: <hi>it</hi>: L and alpha are obviously right and supported by <hi>Cx</hi>. Beta1 had <hi>I</hi>, which the M reviser corrects to <hi>thow</hi>, bringing it into line with G.</note> nouȝte<note>Bx.18.357: <hi>nouȝte</hi>: Beta is supported by <hi>Cx</hi> against alpha's <hi>neuere</hi>.</note> lucifer [·] aȝeine þe lawe I fecche hem</l>
<l> But bi riȝt & by<note>Bx.18.358: <hi>by</hi> (2): Not in beta4 or alpha. The X family of <hi>C</hi> has a second preposition (<hi>thorw</hi>) but the P family is without it, perhaps rightly.</note> resoun · raunceoun here my lyges</l>
<l> <foreign>Non veni soluere legem · sed adimplere</foreign></l>
<l> Þow fettest myne in my place · aȝeines al<note>Bx.18.360: <hi>al</hi>: Lost in R (= alpha), and F makes up for it by supplying <hi>ryght &</hi>.</note> resoun</l>
<l> Falseliche & felounelich · gode faith me it tauȝte</l>
<l> To recoure hem thorw raunceoun [·] & bi no resoun elles</l>
<l> So þat with<note>Bx.18.363: <hi>with</hi>: So L and alpha, supported by the X family of <hi>C</hi>. Beta1 anticipates <hi>þoruȝ</hi>, as does the P family of <hi>C</hi>.</note> gyle þow gete · þorw grace it is<note>Bx.18.363: <hi>is</hi>: Beta is supported by <hi>Cx</hi> against alpha's <hi>was</hi>.</note> ywone</l>
<l> Þow Lucyfer in lyknesse · of a luther addere</l>
<l> Getest by gyle · þo<note>Bx.18.365: <hi>þo</hi>: Perhaps alpha's <hi>þinge</hi> is a recollection of the similar b-verse of l. <ref>344</ref>, but the parallel might instead lead one to prefer it. There is no parallel in <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> that god loued</l>
<l> ¶ And I in lyknesse of a leode · þat lorde am of heuene</l>
<l> Graciouslich þi gyle haue quytte · go gyle aȝeine gyle</l>
<l> And as Adam & alle · þorw a tre deyden</l>
<l> Adam & alle þorwe a tree · shal torne<note>Bx.18.369: <hi>torne</hi>: Beta adds <hi>aȝeine</hi>, providing vowel alliteration, and perhaps influenced by l. <ref>372</ref>, but alpha is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> to lyue</l>
<l> And gyle is bigyled · & in his gyle fallen</l>
<l> <foreign>Et cecidit in foueam quam fecit</foreign></l>
<l> Now bygynneth þi gyle · ageyne þe to tourne</l>
<l> And my grace to growe · ay gretter & wyder<note>Bx.18.373: <hi>wyder</hi>: This must be the beta reading, though M originally repeated <hi>gretter</hi>, as in alpha. <hi>Cx</hi> has non-alliterating <hi>wyddore and wyddore</hi> (RK.20.400).</note></l>
<l> Þe bitternesse þat þow hast browe · [now]<note>Bx.18.374: <hi>now</hi>: Alpha is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>. The line is lost in W.</note> brouke it þi-seluen</l>
<l> Þat art doctour of deth · drynke þat þow madest</l>
<l> ¶ For I þat am lorde of lyf · loue is my drynke</l>
<l> And for þat drynke to-day · I deyde vpon erthe</l>
<l> I fauȝte so me þrestes<note>Bx.18.378: <hi>þrestes</hi>: L and alpha share the very unusual <hi>-s</hi> inflexion, which may be a relict form. <title>LALME</title>'s survey of the form covers the northern area only.</note> ȝet · for mannes soule sake</l>
<l> May no drynke me moiste · ne my thruste slake</l>
<l> Tyl þe vendage falle · in þe vale of iosephath</l>
<l> Þat I drynke riȝte ripe must · <foreign>resureccio mortuorum</foreign></l>
<l> And þanne shal I come as a kynge · crouned with angeles</l>
<l> And han out of helle · alle mennes soules</l>
<l> ¶ Fendes and fendekynes · bifore me shulle stande</l>
<l> And be at my biddynge · where-so-eure me lyketh</l>
<l> A[c]<note>Bx.18.386: <hi>Ac</hi>: So R (= alpha), supported by <hi>Cx</hi>, with F altering to <hi>But</hi> as usual.</note> to be<note>Bx.18.386: <hi>to be</hi>: Lost in alpha, with F repairing. Supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> merciable to man · þanne<note>Bx.18.386: <hi>þanne</hi>: R (= alpha?) postpones until after the noun (F has <hi>may not</hi> for <hi>þanne it</hi>). Beta is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> my kynde it<note>Bx.18.386: <hi>it</hi>: Clearly <hi>Bx</hi>, though dropped in WO (F rewrites). It is also dropped in <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> asketh</l>
<l> For we beth bretheren of blode · but nouȝte in baptesme alle</l>
<l> Ac alle þat beth myne hole bretheren · in blode & in baptesme</l>
<l> Shal nouȝte be dampned to þe deth · þat is with-outen ende</l>
<l> <foreign>Tibi soli peccaui &c ·</foreign></l>
<l> It is nouȝt vsed in<note>Bx.18.391: <hi>in</hi>: The phrase <hi>in erthe</hi>, "on earth", is found in <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.15.219</ref> (but see variants) and <ref>18.229</ref>. R alone has <hi>on</hi> and is probably a reversion to the usual phrase, but since <hi>Cx</hi> also has <hi>on</hi> it may be right.</note> erthe · to hangen a feloun</l>
<l> Ofter þan ones · þough he were a tretour</l>
<l> And ȝif þe Kynge of þat kyngedome · come in þat tyme</l>
<l> There þe feloun thole sholde · deth or otherwyse<note>Bx.18.394: <hi>otherwyse</hi>: Beta3 (i.e. WHm) and C<hi>2</hi> read <hi>ooþer Iuwise</hi>, "another judicial punishment", and G has a muddled and corrected <hi>Iovnesse</hi>. Beta3's reading is clearly superior and, crucially, it agrees with <hi>Cx</hi>, but it can hardly be <hi>Bx</hi>. It is too difficult to be coincidental, so it must be derived by contamination, as G's is likely to be. There is very little evidence of beta3 deriving readings from <hi>Cx</hi>, though see note to l. <ref>97</ref>, and see Schmidt (1995), 403. Cr, evidently puzzled, reads <hi>els</hi>, and M is corrected to that reading.</note></l>
<l> Lawe wolde he ȝeue hym lyf · [and]<note>Bx.18.395: <hi>and</hi>: Alpha is supported by <hi>Cx</hi> against beta's <hi>if</hi>.</note> he loked on hym</l>
<l><note>Bx.18.396: <hi></hi>: The paraph is in LHmF.</note> And I þat am kynge of kynges · shal come suche a tyme</l>
<l> There dome to þe deth · dampneth al wikked</l>
<l> And ȝif lawe wil I loke on hem · it lithe in my grace</l>
<l> Whether þei deye or deye nouȝte · for þat þei deden ille</l>
<l> Be it any þinge abouȝte · þe boldenesse of her synnes</l>
<l> I may<note>Bx.18.401: <hi>may</hi>: L and alpha are supported by <hi>Cx</hi> against omission in beta1.</note> do mercy þorw riȝtwisnesse · & alle my wordes trewe</l>
<l> And þough holiwrit wil þat<note>Bx.18.402: <hi>þat</hi> (1): Dropped by alpha and G, but supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> I be wroke · of hem þat deden ille</l>
<l> <foreign>Nullum malum inpunitum &c</foreign></l>
<l> Thei shul be clensed clereliche · & wasshen of her synnes</l>
<l> In my prisoun purgatorie · til <foreign>parce</foreign> it hote</l>
<l> And my mercy shal be shewed · to manye of my bretheren</l>
<l> For blode may suffre blode · bothe hungry & akale</l>
<l> Ac blode may nouȝt se blode<note>Bx.18.408: <hi>blode</hi> (2): Alpha's <hi>his blode</hi> is not supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> · blede but hym rewe</l>
<l> <foreign>Audiui archana verba que non licet homini loqui</foreign></l>
<l> Ac my riȝtwisnesse & riȝt [·] shal reulen al helle</l>
<l> And mercy al mankynde · bifor me in heuene</l>
<l> For I were an vnkynde Kynge · but I my ky[n]<note>Bx.18.412: <hi>kyn</hi>: Beta repeats <hi>kynde</hi> from the a-verse. Alpha is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> holpe<note>Bx.18.412: <hi>holpe</hi>: <hi>Cx</hi> supports the past subjunctive as in LG and alpha, against the present in others.</note></l>
<l> And namelich at such a nede · þer nedes helpe bihoueth</l>
<l> <foreign>Non intres in iudicium cum seruo tuo</foreign></l>
<l> <note>Bx.18.415: The paraph in WHmCF, with the line-space in M, is prompted by the Latin line above, but is not in LR.</note>Þus bi lawe quod owre<note>Bx.18.415: <hi>owre</hi>: MCr have <hi>þis</hi>, but the others are supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> lorde · lede I wil fro hennes</l>
<l> Þo þat [I]<note>Bx.18.416: <hi>I</hi>: Alpha supported by <hi>Cx</hi>. Beta with <hi>me</hi> harmonises the subjects of <hi>loued</hi> and <hi>leued</hi>. F goes about it in his inimitable way, with <hi>þei me be-leveden</hi>.</note> loued · & leued in my comynge</l>
<l> And for þi lesynge lucifer · þat þow lowe<note>Bx.18.417: <hi>lowe</hi>: "lied". This 2 sg. form is shared with alpha.</note> til<note>Bx.18.417: <hi>til</hi>: Beta supported by <hi>Cx</hi> against alpha's <hi>to</hi>.</note> Eue</l>
<l> Thow shalt abye it bittre · & bonde hym with cheynes</l>
<l> Astaroth and al þe route · hidden hem in hernes</l>
<l> They dorste nouȝte loke on owre lorde · þe boldest of hem alle</l>
<l> But leten hym lede forth what hym lyked · and lete what hym liste</l>
<l> ¶ Many hundreth of angeles · harpeden & songen</l>
<l> <foreign>Culpat caro purgat caro · regnat deus dei caro</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ Thanne piped pees · of poysye a note</l>
<l> <foreign>Clarior est solito post maxima nebula phebus · post inimicitias &c ·</foreign><note>Bx.18.425: The "proverbial" verses (Alford (1992), 113) are abbreviated by the more reliable beta mss. and set out as one line. Beta4 agrees with alpha in including <hi><foreign>clarior est et amor</foreign></hi> and setting over two lines. <hi>Cx</hi> does not offer clear guidance: the X family sets as one line and all but four <hi>C</hi> mss. abbreviate by dropping <hi><foreign>post maxima nebula phebus</foreign></hi> (RK.20.451a).</note></l>
<l> After sharpe[st]<note>Bx.18.426: <hi>sharpest</hi>: Alpha's superlative is supported by <hi>Cx</hi> and translates <hi><foreign>maxima</foreign></hi>.</note> shoures quod pees · moste shene is þe sonne</l>
<l> Is no weder warmer · þan after watery cloudes</l>
<l> Ne no loue leuere · ne leuer frendes<note>Bx.18.428: From this point R is defective until <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.20.27</ref>. We do not always comment on an F variant if it has no support from <hi>Cx</hi>.</note></l>
<l> Þan after werre & wo · whan loue & pees be maistres</l>
<l> Was neuere werre in þis worlde · ne wykkednesse so kene</l>
<l> Þat<note>Bx.18.431: <hi>Þat</hi>: Most beta mss. have <hi>Þat ne</hi>, though CrC omit <hi>ne</hi> and it is erased in M. In the absence of R the alpha reading is uncertain, though F omission has the support of <hi>Cx</hi> (RK.20.457). See Schmidt (2008), 453.</note> loue & hym luste [·] to laughynge ne<note>Bx.18.431: <hi>ne</hi>: F reads <hi>he</hi> and Hm has <hi>it</hi>, but perhaps these may be supplied to fill out a short b-verse since <hi>Cx</hi> omits. See previous note.</note> brouȝte</l>
<l> And pees þorw pacience · alle perilles stopped<note>Bx.18.432: <hi>stopped</hi>: M alters to the present, bringing it into agreement with WF. There is the same variation in <hi>C</hi> mss., but the majority have the past. F's addition of <hi>he</hi> has no support from <hi>Cx</hi>.</note></l>
<l> Trewes quod treuth · þow tellest vs soth bi ihesus</l>
<l> Clippe we in couenaunt [·] & vch of vs cusse other</l>
<l> And<note>Bx.18.435: <hi>And</hi>: Beta is supported by <hi>Cx</hi> against F's <hi>Ȝee</hi>.</note> lete no peple quod pees · perceyue þat we chydde<note>Bx.18.435: <hi>chydde</hi>: Only LCrW have the past tense. <hi>C</hi> mss. are divided: XYJ of the X family have the past, the others have the present.</note></l>
<l> For inpossible is no þyng · to hym þat is almyȝty</l>
<l> ¶ Thow seist soth seyde<note>Bx.18.437: <hi>seyde</hi>: LM against <hi>quod</hi> in the others. Choice is difficult. Is alliteration on /s/ (aaa/xx) or /r/ (xa/ax)? Most <hi>C</hi> mss. have <hi>quod</hi>, but XJ have <hi>saide</hi>. For other examples of such variation see <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.4.190</ref>, <ref>13.216</ref> (<hi>seyde</hi> LMCrHmR, <hi>quod</hi> WCGOF), <ref>16.63</ref> (<hi>seide</hi> LRF, <hi>quod</hi> others), etc. In a-verses <hi>seith sothe quod</hi> occurs at <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.11.107</ref> and <ref>11.453</ref>, <hi>seith soth seyde</hi> at <ref>17.21</ref>.</note> ryȝtwisnesse · & reuerentlich hir kyste</l>
<l> Pees & pees here · <foreign>per<note>Bx.18.438: <hi><foreign>per</foreign></hi>: CrG add <hi><foreign>omnia</foreign></hi> to the formula, as do a few <hi>C</hi> scribes. Since F is missing, the line is only in beta.</note> secula seculorum</foreign></l>
<l> <foreign>Misericordia & veritas obuiauerunt sibi iusticia & pax osculate sunt</foreign><note>Bx.18.439: F truncates the verse, but <hi>Cx</hi> has it in full.</note></l>
<l> Treuth tromped þo & songe<note>Bx.18.440: <hi>songe</hi>: F adds to the alliteration with <hi>treblide</hi>. It has no support from <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> · <foreign>te deum laudamus</foreign></l>
<l> And thanne luted loue · in a loude note</l>
<l> <foreign>Ecce quam bonum & quam iocundum · &c</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ Tyl þe daye dawed · þis damaiseles [carol]ed<note>Bx.18.443: <hi>caroled</hi>: F's <hi>carolden</hi> is the reading of the X family of <hi>C</hi>; the P family agrees with beta's <hi>daunced</hi>. The latter is easier, and perhaps motivated by the alliteration.</note></l>
<l> That men rongen to þe resurexioun · & riȝt with þat I waked</l>
<l> And called kitte my wyf · and kalote my douȝter</l>
<l> Ariseth & [go] reuerenceth<note>Bx.18.446: <hi>go reuerenceth</hi>: Beta drops <hi>go</hi>, but F is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>. Most <hi>C</hi> mss. have <hi>reuerence</hi>, the infinitive or uninflected imperative plural. Imperative <hi>go</hi> may be followed by either (Mustanoja (1960), 476, 535).</note> · goddes ressurrexioun</l>
<l> And crepeth to þe<note>Bx.18.447: <hi>þe</hi>: L has <hi>þe the</hi> in error.</note> crosse on knees<note>Bx.18.447: <hi>to þe crosse on knees</hi>: Beta is supported by the X family of <hi>C</hi>. F (= alpha?) and the P family reverse the order.</note> · & kisseth it for a iuwel</l>
<l> For goddes blissed body · it bar for owre bote</l>
<l> And it afereth þe fende · for suche is þe myȝte</l>
<l> May no grysly gost · glyde þere it shadweth</l>