<head><foreign>Passus vndevicesimus & explicit dobet & incipit dobest</foreign></head>
<l> <note>Bx.19.1: See Introduction <xref>V.3.2</xref> for discussion of the relationship between <hi>Bx</hi> and <hi>Cx</hi>, and F and <hi>Cx</hi>, in this passus.</note> Thus I awaked & wrote · what I had dremed</l>
<l> And diȝte me derely · & dede me to [kirke]<note>Bx.19.2: <hi>kirke</hi>: Doubtfully adopting the CrF reading as the minority form. On the distribution of <hi>kirke / cherche</hi> see Introduction <xref>IV.1</xref>. RK's text has <hi>kyrke</hi>, recording no variants, though in fact P (as printed by Skeat) has <hi>churche</hi>. </note></l>
<l> To here holy þe masse · & to be houseled after<note>Bx.19.3: Beta4 drops ll. 3b-4a.</note></l>
<l> In myddes of þe masse · þo men ȝede<note>Bx.19.4: <hi>ȝede</hi>: MCr and F have <hi>wente</hi>, but this is not supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> to offrynge</l>
<l> I fel eftsones a-slepe · & sodeynly me mette<note>Bx.19.5: <hi>me mette</hi>: Supported by <hi>Cx</hi> against F's <hi>y drempte</hi>. We shall not regularly note such instances of F's unique variants.</note></l>
<l> That Pieres þe plowman · was paynted al blody</l>
<l> And come in with a crosse · bifor þe comune peple</l>
<l> And riȝte lyke in alle lymes · to owre lorde ihesu</l>
<l> And<note>Bx.19.9: <hi>And</hi>: LWHm are supported by <hi>Cx</hi>. Other beta mss. drop it; F has <hi>A-non</hi>.</note> þanne called I conscience · to kenne me þe sothe</l>
<l> Is þis ihesus þe iuster quod I · þat iuwes did to deth</l>
<l> Or it is<note>Bx.19.11: <hi>it is</hi>: Supported by the X family of <hi>C</hi>. The reverse order as in G and F (<hi>ys he</hi>) is supported by the P family.</note> Pieres þe<note>Bx.19.11: <hi>þe</hi>: Omitted by F and the P family of <hi>C</hi>.</note> plowman · who paynted hym so rede</l>
<l> <note>Bx.19.12: MWHmC here have a paraph.</note>Quod conscience & kneled þo · þise aren Pieres<note>Bx.19.12: <hi>Pieres</hi>: The beta reading, and clearly preferable on grounds of sense: "These are Piers' arms, but (<hi>ac</hi>) he who comes is Christ". This is confirmed by <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.18.23-7</ref>. Perhaps <hi>quod</hi> contributes to aaa/xx alliteration, as again in l. <ref>15</ref> (aaa/bb). However, F's <hi>cristis</hi> is also the reading of <hi>Cx</hi>. RK, p. 123, suggest it is an error prompted by the alliteration; if so, F's reading is by coincidence or contamination. The alternative is that <hi>cristis</hi> is archetypal (if not original), corrected by beta.</note> armes</l>
<l> His coloures & his cotearmure · ac<note>Bx.19.13: <hi>ac</hi>: Dropped in F to remove an illogicality created by the reading <hi>cristis</hi> in the line above. CrC have <hi>and</hi>, as does the P family of <hi>C</hi>.</note> he þat cometh so blody</l>
<l> Is cryst with his crosse · conqueroure of crystene</l>
<l> ¶ Why calle ȝe hym cryst quod I · sithenes iuwes calle[d]<note>Bx.19.15: <hi>called</hi>: With the past tense this refers to <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.18.40-3</ref>. Hm and beta4 have past tense, as does <hi>Cx</hi>. Note also the past tense of F's <hi>named</hi>. The best beta mss. have the present tense as in the a-verse, and this might be a <hi>Bx</hi> error.</note> hym ihesus</l>
<l> Patriarkes & prophetes · prophecyed bifore</l>
<l> Þat alkyn creatures · shulden knelen & bowen</l>
<l> Anon as men nempned · þe name of god<note>Bx.19.18: <hi>name of god</hi>: As <hi>Cx</hi>. MCr read <hi>heiȝe name of</hi>, and F has <hi>name of þat Ientyl</hi>.</note> Ihesu<note>Bx.19.18: The Latin line that follows in F only is a variant of l. <ref>82</ref> and is not in <hi>Cx</hi>.</note></l>
<l> <foreign>Ergo</foreign> is no name · to þe name of ihesus</l>
<l> Ne none so nedeful to nempne · by nyȝte ne by daye</l>
<l> For alle derke deuelles · aren adradde to heren it</l>
<l> And synful aren solaced · & saued bi þat name</l>
<l> And ȝe callen hym cryst · for what cause telleth me</l>
<l> Is cryst more of myȝte · & more worth[ier]<note>Bx.19.24: <hi>worthier</hi>: F's multiple comparative is supported by <hi>Cx</hi> (where a few scribes correct it) against beta's <hi>worthy</hi>. Cf. <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.7.76</ref>.</note> name</l>
<l> Þan ihesu or ihesus · þat al owre ioye come of</l>
<l> ¶ Thow knowest wel quod conscience · and þow konne resoun</l>
<l> That knyȝte kynge conqueroure · may be o persone</l>
<l> To be called a kniȝte is faire · for men shal knele to hym</l>
<l> To be called a Kynge is fairer · for he may knyȝtes make</l>
<l> Ac to be conquerour called · þat cometh of special grace</l>
<l> And of hardynesse of herte · & of hendenesse<note>Bx.19.31: <hi>hendenesse</hi>: CO add <hi>bothe</hi> (Cf. F's <hi>also</hi>). Neither is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note></l>
<l> To make lordes of laddes<note>Bx.19.32: <hi>of laddes</hi>: Supported by <hi>Cx</hi>, against Cr <hi>or ladyes</hi> and HmGF <hi>and ladys</hi>.</note> · of londe þat he wynneth</l>
<l> And fre men foule thralles · þat folweth nouȝt his lawes</l>
<l> ¶ The iuwes þat were gentil men · ihesu þei dispised</l>
<l> Bothe his lore & his lawe · now ar þei lowe cherlis</l>
<l> As wyde as þe<note>Bx.19.36: <hi>þe</hi>: Supported by <hi>Cx</hi> against HmGF.</note> worlde is [·] wonyeth þere none<note>Bx.19.36: <hi>þere none</hi>: As in <hi>Cx</hi>. Cr adds <hi>therin</hi>, supplied in turn by the M reviser. W reverses the order. L misplaces the punctuation to follow <hi>wonyeth</hi>.</note></l>
<l> But vnder tribut & taillage · as tykes & cherles</l>
<l> And þo þat bicome crysten · by conseille of þe baptis[m]e<note>Bx.19.38: <hi>þe baptisme</hi>: An obvious error in <hi>Bx</hi>, corrected in L to <hi>baptiste</hi> as in <hi>Cx</hi>. F smooths by dropping <hi>þe</hi>. Hm omits 38b-39a.</note></l>
<l> Aren frankeleynes fre<note>Bx.19.39: <hi>fre</hi>: OF as well as <hi>Cx</hi> have <hi>& fre</hi>.</note> men · þorw fullyng þat þei toke</l>
<l> And gentel men with ihesu · for Ihesus was yfolled</l>
<l> And vppon caluarye on crosse · ycrouned kynge of iewes</l>
<l> ¶ It bicometh to a Kynge · to kepe and to defende</l>
<l> And conquerour of conquest · his lawes & his large<note>Bx.19.43: KD, p. 133, scan this line aaa/bb, with two staves on <hi>conquerour</hi>; but its sense is also questionable. Schmidt (1995), taking the line to be dependent on l. 42, translates: "And (it befits) a conqueror to maintain and guard his laws and his munificence by virtue of his act of conquest" (p. 327). Yet it is only kings who, in the following ll. 46-7 "keep and defend" these people, as at <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.20.258</ref>. The verbs are not applicable to a conqueror such as Christ here in ll. 50-62, for he carries "his laws and his munificence" into his newly conquered territory, binding some and freeing others at the Harrowing of Hell. It may be that something was lost at an early stage between 43a and 43b, leaving the line as it stands in <hi>Bx</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> differs only by having <hi>his</hi> before <hi>conquest</hi> and the synonym <hi>layes</hi> for <hi>lawes</hi>.</note></l>
<l> And so ded Ihesus þe iewes · he iustified & tauȝte hem</l>
<l> Þe lawe of lyf · that last shal euere</l>
<l> And fended<note>Bx.19.46: <hi>fended</hi>: Supported by <hi>Cx</hi> against beta2 <hi>defended</hi>.</note> fram<note>Bx.19.46: <hi>fram</hi>: HmO have <hi>hem fro(m)</hi>, G has <hi>ytt fro</hi> and F <hi>fram hem</hi>. This indicates that the pronoun was variously added to <hi>Bx</hi> by scribes who sensed an omission. <hi>Cx</hi> has <hi>hem fro</hi>.</note> foule yueles · feueres & fluxes</l>
<l> And fro fendes þat in hem was<note>Bx.19.47: <hi>was</hi>: LF are supported by <hi>Cx</hi>. As elsewhere, other scribes alter to <hi>were</hi>. See note to <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.17.11</ref>.</note> [·] & fals bileue</l>
<l> Þo was he ihesus of iewes called · gentel prophete</l>
<l> And kynge of her<note>Bx.19.49: <hi>her</hi>: MCrF omit, but <hi>Cx</hi> has it.</note> kyngdome · & croune bar of þornes</l>
<l> ¶ And þo conquered he on crosse · as conquerour noble</l>
<l> Myȝt no deth hym fordo · ne adown brynge</l>
<l> That he ne aros<note>Bx.19.52: <hi>ne aros</hi>: So L as in <hi>Cx</hi>; MCrW have <hi>naroos</hi>, HmG <hi>ne ros</hi>, O <hi>no roos</hi> and CF <hi>aros</hi>.</note> & regned · and rauysshed helle</l>
<l> And þo was he conquerour called · of quikke & of ded</l>
<l> For he ȝaf Adam & Eue · and other mo blisse</l>
<l> Þat longe hadde leyne bifore · as lucyferes cherles</l>
<l> <note>Bx.19.56-9: These four lines from F were omitted in beta, perhaps skipping from one paraph to the next. They are essential to the narrative and are confirmed by <hi>Cx</hi>, which offers corrections at several points.</note> [¶ And<note>Bx.19.56: <hi>And</hi>: F's <hi>& þanne</hi> is not supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> toke [Lucifer the lothelich]<note>Bx.19.56: <hi>Lucifer the lothelich</hi>: As in <hi>Cx</hi>. F has <hi>lotthly lucifer</hi>.</note> · þat lorde was of helle</l>
<l> And bonde [him] as [he is bounde]<note>Bx.19.57: <hi>him as he is bounde</hi>: This is the reading of <hi>Cx</hi> (a few mss. omit <hi>him</hi>). F has the nonsensical <hi>his as his bondeman</hi>, though <hi>his</hi> might be emended to <hi>him</hi>.</note> · with bondes of yren</l>
<l> Who was hardier þanne he · his<note>Bx.19.58: <hi>his</hi>: So <hi>Cx</hi>; F has <hi>þat his</hi>.</note> herte blode he shadde</l>
<l> To maken alle folke fre · þat folweth his lawe<note>Bx.19.59: <hi>lawe</hi>: F has the plural, but <hi>Cx</hi> has sg.</note>]</l>
<l> ¶ And sith he [ȝiueth]<note>Bx.19.60: <hi>ȝiueth</hi>: F's present is the reading of the X family of <hi>Cx</hi> and follows logically from <hi>folweth</hi> in the previous line. Beta's past tense, though supported by the P family, is perhaps prompted by its omission of lines 56-9, and <hi>he ȝaf</hi> in l. <ref>54</ref>. For the appropriateness of the present "as referring to Christ's continuing grant of heaven to the just", see Schmidt (2008), 454.</note> largely · alle his lele lyges</l>
<l> Places in paradys · at her partynge hennes</l>
<l> He may wel be called conquerour · & þat is cryst to mene</l>
<l> ¶ Ac þe cause þat he cometh þus · with crosse of his<note>Bx.19.63: <hi>crosse of his</hi>: So LWO. MCr have <hi>cros of þe</hi>, HmCG have <hi>cros of</hi>; F reads <hi>his cros of his</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> is no guide, since the X family reads <hi>his cros and his</hi> and the P family <hi>croys and hus</hi>.</note> passioun</l>
<l> Is to wissen vs þere-wyth · þat whan þat<note>Bx.19.64: <hi>þat whan þat</hi>: So beta. <hi>Cx</hi> has <hi>þat whan</hi>; F just has <hi>whan</hi>.</note> we ben tempted</l>
<l> Þer-with to fyȝte & fenden<note>Bx.19.65: <hi>fenden</hi>: WHmF have <hi>defenden</hi>, as do a few <hi>C</hi> mss. Cf. l. <ref>46</ref>.</note> vs · fro fallyng in-to synne</l>
<l> And se bi his sorwe · þat who-so loueth ioye</l>
<l> To penaunce & to pouerte [·] he moste putten hym-seluen</l>
<l> And moche wo in þis worlde · willen<note>Bx.19.68: <hi>willen</hi>: F and most <hi>C</hi> mss. have <hi>wilnen</hi>, perhaps correctly.</note> & suffren</l>
<l> ¶ Ac to carpe more of cryst · and how he come to þat name</l>
<l> Faithly forto speke · his firste name was ihesus</l>
<l> Tho he was borne in bethleem [·] as þe boke telleth</l>
<l> And cam to take mankynde · kynges and aungeles</l>
<l> Reuerenced hym [riȝt]<note>Bx.19.73: <hi>riȝt</hi>: Lost in beta. F is supported by <hi>Cx</hi> and the alliteration.</note> faire · with richesse<note>Bx.19.73: <hi>richesse</hi>: This may be sg. or plural. W and a few <hi>C</hi> mss. have the marked pl. form. See note to <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.3.23</ref>.</note> of erthe</l>
<l> Angeles out of heuene · come knelyng & songe</l>
<l> <foreign>Gloria in excelsis deo &c</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ Kynges come after · kneled & offred</l>
<l> Mirre & moche golde · with-outen mercy<note>Bx.19.77: <hi>mercy</hi>: Evidently the reading of both <hi>Bx</hi> and <hi>Cx</hi>. Cr is naturally puzzled and alters to <hi>mede</hi>, as does the M corrector (overwriting <hi>muche gold</hi>). F, also dissatisfied, alters <hi>with-outen</hi> to <hi>with myche</hi>, and adds <hi>Ensens</hi> to complete the three gifts (as in l. <ref>88</ref>). One <hi>C</hi> scribe, similarly motivated, begins <hi>Rechels Golde & myr</hi>. See Schmidt (2008), 454-5.</note> askynge</l>
<l> Or any kynnes catel · but knowlechyng<note>Bx.19.78: <hi>knowlechyng</hi>: So apparently beta, though MCr have <hi>knoweliche</hi>, and G has past tense as in <hi>Cx</hi>. F has <hi>þey knowlechid</hi>, possibly representing alpha.</note> hym soeuereigne</l>
<l> Bothe of sonde<note>Bx.19.79: <hi>sonde</hi>: Supported by <hi>Cx</hi> against <hi>londe</hi> in beta2.</note> sonne & see · & sithenes þei went</l>
<l> In-to her kyngene kyth · by conseille of angeles<note>Bx.19.80: <hi>conseille of angeles</hi>: Supported by <hi>Cx</hi> against F's <hi>kennynge of an angel</hi>.</note></l>
<l> And there was þat worde fulfilled · þe which þow of<note>Bx.19.81: <hi>þow of</hi>: As <hi>Cx</hi>. F's <hi>first þou</hi> is probably motivated by alliteration with <hi>ful-fyld</hi>.</note> speke</l>
<l> <foreign>Omnia celestia terrestria flectantur in hoc nomine Ihesu</foreign></l>
<l> For alle þe angeles of heuene · at his burth kneled</l>
<l> And al þe witte of þe worlde · was in þo þre kynges<note>Bx.19.84: <hi>kynges</hi>: Supported by <hi>Cx</hi> against F's <hi>þynges</hi>.</note></l>
<l> Resoun & riȝtfulnesse<note>Bx.19.85: <hi>riȝtfulnesse</hi>: So LC. Though <hi>C</hi> mss. are split, this is evidently the reading of <hi>Cx</hi>. All other <hi>B</hi> mss. have <hi>riȝtwisnesse / rightuousnes</hi>, which may, of course, be right, even if not archetypal. In l. <ref>90</ref> below <hi>Riȝtwisnesse</hi> is secure and supported by <hi>Cx</hi> and it may have prompted scribes to adopt it here. See Schmidt (2008), 455.</note> · & reuth þei offred</l>
<l> Wherfore & whi · wyse men þat tyme</l>
<l> Maistres & lettred men · <foreign>Magy</foreign> hem called</l>
<l> ¶ That o kynge cam with resoun · keuered vnder sense</l>
<l> Þe secounde kynge sitthe · sothliche<note>Bx.19.89: <hi>sitthe sothliche</hi>: Cr has <hi>sothly sithens he</hi>, as does M, with <hi>he</hi> added as an alteration. F also has <hi>he</hi>, as does the P family of <hi>C</hi>, but the X family is without it. There is no metrical need for the pronoun, since -<hi>liche</hi> is disyllabic.</note> offred</l>
<l> Riȝtwisnesse vnder red golde [·] resouns felawe<note>Bx.19.90: F drops ll. 90b and 91a.</note></l>
<l> Golde is likned to leute · þat last shal euere</l>
<l> And resoun to riche golde<note>Bx.19.92: <hi>riche golde</hi>: Clearly an error (since justice is likened to gold), but the reading of both <hi>Bx</hi> and <hi>Cx</hi>. F rewrites the a-verse and W drops the line altogether. Schmidt (1995) conjectures <hi>richels</hi>, "incense", calling this "one of the stronger indications that B<hi>1</hi> was the basis of the <hi>C</hi> revision" (p. 405).</note> · to riȝte & to treuthe</l>
<l> The þridde kynge þo cam · [and] knel[ed]<note>Bx.19.93: <hi>and kneled</hi>: F is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>. Compare the actions of the two other kings, also in past tense (ll. <ref>88-9</ref>). The phrase <hi>cam knelyng</hi> is perhaps picked up from l. <ref>74</ref>.</note> to ihesu</l>
<l> And presented hym with pitee · apierynge by myrre</l>
<l> For mirre is mercy to mene · & mylde speche of tonge</l>
<l> [Erthe]liche<note>Bx.19.96: <hi>Ertheliche</hi>: F is supported by <hi>Cx</hi> and by superior sense. Beta's <hi>Thre yliche</hi>, though possible, appears likely to be a misreading.</note> honest þinges · was<note>Bx.19.96: <hi>was</hi>: LF only, but supported by <hi>Cx</hi>. Other <hi>B</hi> mss. have <hi>were</hi>. For other examples of pl. <hi>was</hi> preserved by L and alpha, see l. <ref>47</ref> and note to <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.17.11</ref>.</note> offred þus at ones</l>
<l> Þorw þre kynne kynges · knelynge to ihesu</l>
<l> ¶ Ac for alle þise preciouse presentz [·] owre lorde prynce ihesus</l>
<l> Was neyther kynge ne conquerour · til he gan to<note>Bx.19.99: <hi>gan to</hi>: Certainly <hi>Bx</hi>, though <hi>Cx</hi> has alliterating <hi>comsed</hi>.</note> wexe</l>
<l> In þe manere of a man · & þat by moche sleight</l>
<l> As it bicometh a conquerour · to konne<note>Bx.19.101: <hi>konne</hi>: F's <hi>knowe</hi> is not supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> many sleightes</l>
<l> And many wyles & witte · þat wil ben a leder</l>
<l> And so did ihesu in his dayes · who-so had tyme to<note>Bx.19.103: <hi>had tyme to</hi>: Certainly <hi>Bx</hi>, though <hi>Cx</hi> has alliterating <hi>durste</hi>.</note> telle it</l>
<l> Sum-tyme he suffred · & sum-tyme he hydde hym</l>
<l> And sum-tyme he fauȝte faste · & fleigh otherwhile</l>
<l> And some-tyme he gaf good · & graunted hele bothe</l>
<l> Lyf & lyme · as hym lyste he wrought</l>
<l> As kynde is of a conquerour · so comsed ihesu</l>
<l> Tyl he had alle hem · þat he fore bledde</l>
<l> ¶ In his iuuente þis ihesus · a[t]<note>Bx.19.110: <hi>at</hi>: L's <hi>atte</hi> represents "at the", which is supported here only by O. <hi>Cx</hi> has <hi>at</hi>. See the variants at l. <ref>117</ref>.</note> iuwen feste</l>
<l> Water in-to wyn tourned<note>Bx.19.111: <hi>Water in-to wyn tourned</hi>: So beta. F has <hi>he turnede</hi> at the end of the previous line, with some support from <hi>Cx</hi> where the a-verse is <hi>Turned watur into wyn</hi>. Perhaps the standard prose order of F and <hi>Cx</hi> is more likely to be scribal, as argued by RK, p. 123. For the contrary view see Schmidt (2008), 455.</note> · as holy writ telleth</l>
<l> And þere bigan god · of his grace to<note>Bx.19.112: <hi>to</hi>: F's omission, shared with beta4, is not supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> dowel</l>
<l> For wyn is lykned<note>Bx.19.113: <hi>is lykned</hi>: F has <hi>y lykne</hi>, but this is not supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> to lawe · & lyf of holynesse<note>Bx.19.113: <hi>lyf of holynesse</hi>: This seems clearly the reading of <hi>Bx</hi>. However, W agrees with <hi>Cx</hi> on <hi>lifholynesse</hi>, which we must suppose is a coincidental variant. So Schmidt (2008), 455.</note></l>
<l> And lawe lakked þo · for men loued nouȝt her enemys</l>
<l> And<note>Bx.19.115: <hi>And</hi> (1): F has <hi>But</hi>. This and other F variants in the line are not supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> cryst conseilleth þus<note>Bx.19.115: <hi>þus</hi>: The reading <hi>vs</hi> in beta4 is shared with a few <hi>C</hi> mss. including XY. F has <hi>þus vs</hi>.</note> · & comaundeth bothe</l>
<l> Bothe<note>Bx.19.116: <hi>Bothe</hi>: Apparently beta, though omitted by WHmF to avoid the repetition. Most of the X family of <hi>C</hi> have it, though the others omit.</note> to lered & to lewed · to louye owre enemys</l>
<l> So atte feste<note>Bx.19.117: <hi>atte feste</hi>: WHm have <hi>at þat feeste</hi>, as do the majority of <hi>C</hi> mss.</note> firste [·] as I bifore tolde</l>
<l> Bygan god of his grace [·] & goodnesse to dowel</l>
<l> And þo was he cleped & called [·] nouȝt holy<note>Bx.19.119: <hi>holy</hi>: This is the beta reading. Yet CrF have <hi>onely</hi>, and M is altered to that reading, agreeing with <hi>Cx</hi>. On the face of it, <hi>onely</hi> does not give appropriate sense, since Langland's scheme is that Jesus was not called Christ until he became a conqueror. Kane (2005) interprets <hi>onely</hi> as an adj. "peerless", but see Barney (2006), 121, who conjectures <hi>nouȝt cryst but onely Ihesu</hi>, "not Christ but rather Jesus". The sense of <hi>holy</hi> is straightforward, even if it reads like a line-filler, to introduce a long dip into the b-verse. For further discussion see Burrow (2009), 90-1.</note> cryst but Ihesu</l>
<l> A faunt[k]yn<note>Bx.19.120: <hi>fauntkyn</hi>: L's form <hi>fauntfyn</hi> shows the source of the error in beta, leading other scribes to interpret as <hi>faunt fyn</hi>. F agrees with <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> ful of witte · <foreign>filius marie</foreign></l>
<l><note>Bx.19.121: <hi></hi>: The paraph is in LM only.</note> For<note>Bx.19.121: <hi>For</hi>: Supported by <hi>Cx</hi>, though dropped by MCr and replaced by <hi>&</hi> in F.</note> bifor his moder marie · made he þat wonder</l>
<l> Þat she furste & formest · ferme shulde<note>Bx.19.122: <hi>ferme shulde</hi>: F reverses the order, as does <hi>Cx</hi>. RK, p. 123, note this as "variation to prose order".</note> bilieue</l>
<l> That he þorw grace was gete · & of no gome elles</l>
<l> He wrouȝt þat bi no witte · but þorw worde one</l>
<l> After þe kynde þat he come of · þere comsed he dowel</l>
<l> And whan he was woxen more · in his moder absence</l>
<l> He made lame to lepe · & ȝaue liȝte to blynde</l>
<l> And fedde with two fisshes · & with fyue loues</l>
<l> Sore afyngred folke · mo þan fyue thousande</l>
<l> Þus he conforted carful<note>Bx.19.130: <hi>carful</hi>: Supported by <hi>Cx</hi> against CrF <hi>þe carefull</hi>.</note> · & cauȝte a gretter name</l>
<l> Þe whiche was dobet · where þat he went</l>
<l> For defe þorw his doynges · & dombe speke [& herde]<note>Bx.19.132: <hi>& dombe speke & herde</hi>: F supported by <hi>Cx</hi> (though mss. XYU have <hi>he</hi> for <hi>&</hi>). Beta has <hi>to here & dombe speke he made</hi>, imposing a more obvious order and perhaps not recognising <hi>speke</hi> as a past tense form.</note></l>
<l> And alle he heled & halpe · þat hym of grace asked</l>
<l> And þo was he called in contre [·] of þe comune peple</l>
<l> For þe dedes þat he did · <foreign>fili dauid ihesus</foreign><note>Bx.19.135: <hi><foreign>fili dauid ihesus</foreign></hi>: This word order is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note></l>
<l> For dauid was douȝtiest<note>Bx.19.136: <hi>douȝtiest</hi>: F and <hi>Cx</hi> supply the definite article.</note> · of dedes in his tyme</l>
<l> The berdes þo<note>Bx.19.137: <hi>The berdes þo</hi>: Supported by <hi>Cx</hi> against beta4 (<hi>þat</hi> for <hi>þo</hi>) and F's revision to avoid <hi>berdes</hi>.</note> songe · <foreign>Saul interfecit mille · et dauid decem milia ·</foreign></l>
<l> For-þi þe contre þere ihesu cam · called hym <foreign>fili dauid</foreign></l>
<l> And nempned hym of nazereth · & no man so worthi</l>
<l> To be kaisere or kynge · of þe kyngedome of iuda</l>
<l> Ne ouer iuwes iustice · as ihesus was hem þouȝte</l>
<l> ¶ Where-of<note>Bx.19.142: <hi>Where-of</hi>: F has <hi>Þerfore</hi>; <hi>Cx</hi> has <hi>Hereof</hi>.</note> [hadde caiphas]<note>Bx.19.142: <hi>hadde caiphas</hi>: So F and <hi>Cx</hi>. Beta reverses to prose order.</note> enuye · & other of þe<note>Bx.19.142: <hi>other of þe</hi>: The beta reading; F has <hi>oþire konynge</hi>. Both could be additions to lengthen a short b-verse, since <hi>Cx</hi> has just <hi>other</hi>.</note> iewes</l>
<l> And<note>Bx.19.143: <hi>And</hi>: F (and Hm) omit, but beta is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> forto doun hym to deth · day & nyȝte þei casten</l>
<l> Kulleden<note>Bx.19.144: <hi>Kulleden</hi>: F and <hi>Cx</hi> begin with <hi>&</hi>, easily supplied for a smooth transition.</note> hym on crosse-wyse · at caluarie on [a]<note>Bx.19.144: <hi>a</hi>: CrHmF are supported by <hi>Cx</hi>. However, all could be independent additions.</note> fryday</l>
<l> And sithen buryden his body · & beden þat men sholde</l>
<l> Kepen it fro niȝt-comeres · with knyȝtes yarmed</l>
<l> For no frendes<note>Bx.19.147: <hi>frendes</hi>: Beta has the pl.; F shares the sg. with <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> shulde hym<note>Bx.19.147: <hi>hym</hi>: So beta, though F and <hi>Cx</hi> have <hi>it</hi> as in the previous line. Cf. also l. <ref>151</ref>.</note> fecche · for prophetes hem tolde</l>
<l> Þat þat blessed body · of burieles shulde rise<note>Bx.19.148: <hi>shulde rise</hi>: The word-order, reversed in WHm, is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>. For <hi>rise</hi>, <hi>Bx</hi> may have read <hi>arise</hi> as in MCr supported by <hi>Cx</hi>. F has <hi>vp ryse</hi>.</note></l>
<l> And gone in-to galile · and gladen his apostles</l>
<l> And his moder Marie · þus men bifore demed<note>Bx.19.150: <hi>demed</hi>: Secure for <hi>Bx</hi>, though <hi>Cx</hi> has <hi>deuyned</hi>.</note></l>
<l> ¶ The knyȝtes þat kepten it<note>Bx.19.151: <hi>it</hi>: Supported by <hi>Cx</hi>. Beta4 reads <hi>hym</hi>, and Hm is altered to that reading, following on from l. <ref>147</ref>.</note> · biknewe[n]<note>Bx.19.151: <hi>biknewen</hi>: F agrees with <hi>Cx</hi>. Beta, having lost the final syllable of the verb, provides the long dip by adding a pronoun, thus anticipating the clause of the next line.</note> hem-seluen</l>
<l> Þat angeles & archangeles · ar þe day spronge</l>
<l> Come knelynge [·] to þe<note>Bx.19.153: <hi>þe</hi>: F and <hi>Cx</hi> have <hi>þat</hi>.</note> corps & songen<note>Bx.19.153: <hi>& songen</hi>: In beta this is followed by <hi><foreign>cristus resurgens</foreign></hi>, but both F and <hi>Cx</hi> postpone the Latin to the start of the following line. F characteristically supplies <hi>konyngly</hi> to fill out a short b-verse and provide alliteration. But the caesura follows <hi>knelynge</hi>, though all <hi>B</hi> scribes take it to follow <hi>corps</hi>. This is the reading of <hi>Cx</hi>, with F providing crucial, if characteristically "improved" support. Our argument is that both F and beta reacted to the short line with its uncertain placement of the caesura: F added the adverb <hi>konyngly</hi> to provide b-verse alliteration, and beta took the Latin from the next line, dropping the detached b-verse of l. <ref>154</ref> as a consequence, perhaps taking it as a scribal gloss on the Latin. See note to next line.</note></l>
<l> [<foreign>Cristus resurgens</foreign> · and he ros after]<note>Bx.19.154: <hi><foreign>Cristus resurgens</foreign> · and he ros after</hi>: See note to previous line. Beta has taken the Latin as the end of the line above, and perhaps assumed the English to be a scribal gloss, thus losing this whole line. But <hi>and he ros after</hi> is necessary to the narrative: "after that he rose, true man ...". F offers the reading of <hi>Cx</hi> with characteristic elaboration, extending the Latin quote and adding the adverb <hi>a-noon</hi>. For F's <hi>he</hi>, <hi>Cx</hi> reads <hi>it</hi>; see note to l. <ref>151</ref>.</note></l>
<l> Verrey man bifor hem alle · & forth with hem ȝede<note>Bx.19.155: <hi>ȝede</hi>: In L the scribe has inserted <hi>he</hi>, bringing it into line with other beta mss. that have lost <hi>he</hi> in the line above, but <hi>Bx</hi> was probably without it, as suggested by the agreement of F and <hi>Cx</hi>.</note></l>
<l> ¶ The iewes preyed hem pees<note>Bx.19.156: <hi>pees</hi>: F and <hi>Cx</hi> read <hi>of pees</hi>. In view of the variations of the b-verse in both F and <hi>Cx</hi> (see next note), we follow beta throughout the line.</note> · & bisouȝte þe knyȝtes<note>Bx.19.156: <hi>& bisouȝte þe knyȝtes</hi>: F supplies alliteration with <hi>alle þo propre knyghtis</hi>, but this has no support from <hi>Cx</hi>, which reads <hi>& preyed þo knyhtes</hi>, suggesting that <hi>Bx</hi> may have avoided the repetition of the verb.</note></l>
<l> Telle þe comune þat þere cam · a compaignye of his aposteles</l>
<l> And bywicched hem as þei woke · & awey stolen it</l>
<l> ¶ Ac Marie Magdeleyne · mette hym bi þe wey</l>
<l> Goynge toward galile · in godhed &<note>Bx.19.160: <hi>&</hi>: F and the X family of <hi>C</hi> repeat the preposition <hi>in</hi>, but beta and the P family omit it.</note> manhed</l>
<l> And lyues<note>Bx.19.161: <hi>lyues</hi>: The adjectival gen. "alive" (only here in the poem) causes scribes difficulty, but it is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> & lokynge · & she<note>Bx.19.161: <hi>she</hi>: F has <hi>he</hi> for "she", as in the next line; see Introduction <xref>IV.1</xref>. The X family of <hi>C</hi> omit the pronoun.</note> aloude cryde</l>
<l> In eche a compaignye þere she cam · <foreign>cristus resurgens</foreign></l>
<l> Þus cam it out þat cryst ouer-cam · rekeuered & lyued</l>
<l> <foreign>Sic oportet cristum pati & intrare &c ·</foreign><note>Bx.19.164-5: These two lines are omitted by F but are in <hi>Cx</hi>.</note></l>
<l> For þat<note>Bx.19.165: <hi>þat</hi>: MWHmCO supply a second <hi>þat</hi>; only LCrG are without it (the line is lost in F). A few <hi>C</hi> mss. also have <hi>þat þat</hi>, but it seems clear that <hi>Cx</hi> had <hi>þat</hi>.</note> wommen witeth · may nouȝte wel be conseille</l>
<l> ¶ Peter parceyued al<note>Bx.19.166: <hi>al</hi>: Inserted by the L scribe and omitted by MCr, but supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> þis · & pursued after</l>
<l> Bothe iames & Iohan · Ihesu for<note>Bx.19.167: <hi>for</hi>: Secure for <hi>Bx</hi>, but not in <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> to seke</l>
<l> Tadde & ten mo · with Thomas of ynde</l>
<l> And as alle þise wise wyes · weren togideres</l>
<l> In an hous al bishette · & her dore ybarred</l>
<l> Cryst cam in & al closed · bothe dore & ȝates</l>
<l> To peter & to his aposteles · and seyde <foreign>pax vobis</foreign></l>
<l> And toke Thomas by þe hande · and tauȝte hym to grope</l>
<l> And fele with his fyngres · his flesshelich herte</l>
<l> ¶ Thomas touched it · & with his tonge seyde</l>
<l> <foreign>Deus meus & dominus meus</foreign><note>Bx.19.176: <hi><foreign>Deus meus & dominus meus</foreign></hi>: CrF reverse the nouns to the order of John 20.28 perhaps as a correction of <hi>Bx</hi>. Cf. <hi>lorde ... god</hi> in the next line. <hi>Cx</hi> also has the Vulgate order. F's additional b-verse gives a good line, but has no support from <hi>Cx</hi>.</note></l>
<l> Thow art my lorde I bileue · god lorde ihesu<note>Bx.19.177: F's b-verse is not supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note></l>
<l> Þow deydest & deth þoledest · and deme shalt vs alle<note>Bx.19.178: F's variants are not supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note></l>
<l> And now art lyuynge & lokynge<note>Bx.19.179: F's a-verse is not supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> · & laste shalt euere</l>
<l> ¶ Crist carped þanne · and curteislich seyde</l>
<l> Thomas for þow trowest þis · & trewliche bileuest it</l>
<l> Blessed mote þow be · & be shalt for euere</l>
<l> And blessed mote þei<note>Bx.19.183: <hi>þei</hi>: Beta evidently had <hi>þei alle</hi>, obscuring the parallel with the previous a-verse, but GF are supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> be · in body & in soule</l>
<l> That neuere shal se me in siȝte · as þow doste<note>Bx.19.184: <hi>doste</hi>: This must be the reading of <hi>Bx</hi>, though it does not alliterate. Cr reads <hi>hast</hi>, while O alone has <hi>seest</hi>, the reading of <hi>Cx</hi>, presumably by conjecture. Cf. l. <ref>156</ref> where <hi>Bx</hi> again seems to avoid repetition of the verb.</note> nouthe</l>
<l> And lellich bileuen al þis · I loue hem & blesse hem</l>
<l> <foreign>Beati qui non viderunt [& crediderunt]<note>Bx.19.186: <hi><foreign>& crediderunt</foreign></hi>: Hm, beta4 and F are supported by <hi>Cx</hi>. It may be, of course, that scribes expanded beta's abbreviation of the quotation.</note></foreign></l>
<l> ¶ And whan þis dede was done · dobest he tauȝte<note>Bx.19.187: <hi>tauȝte</hi>: Neither beta or F <hi>took sone</hi> is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>, which reads <hi>thouhte</hi>. But <hi>tauȝte</hi> makes excellent sense; see Burrow (2009), 93 n. 15.</note></l>
<l> And ȝaf Pieres power · and pardoun he graunted</l>
<l> To alle manere<note>Bx.19.189: <hi>manere</hi>: The majority of <hi>C</hi> mss. read <hi>maner of</hi>, as do CrCF, but the best texts of the X family read <hi>maner</hi>. F commonly expands to <hi>manere of</hi>, as in the following line.</note> men · mercy & forȝyfnes</l>
<l> Hym myȝte men to<note>Bx.19.190: <hi>Hym myȝte men to</hi>: LC are supported by the best mss. of the X family of <hi>C</hi>. Other scribes in both traditions take various actions to avoid a construction they fail to understand, as do KD (pp. 120-1) and RK (pp. 134-5). But ll. 188-90 mean: "He gave Piers power, and granted pardon, mercy and forgiveness to all sorts; [granted] him power to absolve men of all kinds of sins." For an interpretation of the archetypal reading see Barney (2006), 128.</note> assoille · of alle manere<note>Bx.19.190: <hi>manere</hi>: F again has <hi>manere of</hi>, as do CrG, not supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> synnes</l>
<l> In couenant þat þei come · & knewleche<note>Bx.19.191: <hi>knewleche</hi>: The past tense in WHm is actually the reading of <hi>Cx</hi>, though a few <hi>C</hi> mss. have the present, as <hi>Bx</hi> clearly does.</note> to paye</l>
<l> To pieres pardon þe plowman · <foreign>redde quod debes</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ Thus hath pieres powere · be his pardoun payed</l>
<l> To bynde &<note>Bx.19.194: <hi>&</hi>: L alone has <hi>& to</hi>. <hi>C</hi> mss. are divided, with the X family reading <hi>& to</hi>.</note> vnbynde · bothe here & elles<note>Bx.19.194: <hi>elles</hi>: Agreement of LF, together with <hi>Cx</hi>, secures this as the <hi>Bx</hi> reading against <hi>elles-where</hi> in other <hi>B</hi> mss.</note></l>
<l> And assoille men of alle synnes · saue of dette one</l>
<l> ¶ Anone after an heigh · vp in-to heuene</l>
<l> He went & wonyeth þere · & wil come atte laste</l>
<l> And<note>Bx.19.198: <hi>And</hi>: LG have <hi>And wil</hi>, without support from <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> rewarde hym riȝte wel · þat <foreign>reddit quod debet</foreign></l>
<l> Payeth parfitly [·] as pure trewthe wolde</l>
<l> And what persone payeth it nouȝt · punysshen he þinketh<note>Bx.19.200: <hi>Cx</hi> offers no support for F's b-verse.</note></l>
<l> And demen hem at domes-daye · bothe quikke & ded<note>Bx.19.201: Again F has a unique b-verse, which is presumably designed to offer a more regular alliterative pattern.</note></l>
<l> Þe gode to þe godhede · & to grete ioye</l>
<l> And wikke[de]<note>Bx.19.203: <hi>wikkede</hi>: The form in all mss. except L is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>. For similar variation with <hi>wikke</hi>, see <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.5.231</ref>.</note> to wonye · in wo with-outen ende</l>
<l> [¶]<note>Bx.19.204: <hi></hi>: The paraph is in WHmCF, and is entirely appropriate.</note> Þus conscience of crist · & of þe crosse carped</l>
<l> And conseilled me to knele þer-to · & þanne come me þouȝte</l>
<l> One <foreign>spiritus paraclitus · </foreign> to Pieres & to<note>Bx.19.206: <hi>to</hi> (2): Not in F; beta has the support of most <hi>C</hi> mss.</note> his felawes</l>
<l> In lyknesse of a liȝtnynge · he<note>Bx.19.207: <hi>he</hi>: Omitted in some <hi>C</hi> mss., but none support F's <hi>&</hi>.</note> lyȝte on hem alle</l>
<l> <note>Bx.19.208-11: F drops four lines through eyeskip on <hi>hem alle</hi>. The lines are in <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> And made hem konne & knowe · alkyn langages</l>
<l> [¶]<note>Bx.19.209: <hi></hi>: In L there is an unrubricated paraph marker, missed because the scribe failed to leave a line-space. M has a line-space and HmC a paraph.</note> I wondred what þat was · & wagged conscience</l>
<l> And was afered of<note>Bx.19.210: <hi>of</hi>: So beta (F out). <hi>Cx</hi> has <hi>for</hi>.</note> the lyȝte · for in fyres lyknesse</l>
<l> <foreign>Spiritus paraclitus</foreign> · ouer-spradde hem alle</l>
<l> ¶ Quod conscience & kneled · þis is crystes messager</l>
<l> And cometh fro þe grete god · &<note>Bx.19.213: <hi>&</hi>: So beta, but dropped by F and <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> grace is his name</l>
<l> Knele now quod conscience · & if þow canst synge</l>
<l> Welcome hym & worshipe hym · with <foreign>veni creator spiritus</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ Thanne songe I<note>Bx.19.216: <hi>Thanne songe I</hi>: <hi>Cx</hi> begins <hi>And y sange</hi>. F drops this and the following line.</note> þat songe · and<note>Bx.19.216: <hi>and</hi>: Dropped by WHm, but supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> so did many hundreth</l>
<l> And cryden with conscience · help vs god of grace</l>
<l> And þanne<note>Bx.19.218: <hi>þanne</hi>: Dropped by F but supported by the X family of <hi>C</hi>. The P family begins <hi>Tho</hi>.</note> bigan grace · to go with piers plowman</l>
<l> And conseilled hym & conscience · þe comune to sompne</l>
<l> For I wil dele<note>Bx.19.220: <hi>dele</hi>: Omitted by F, but supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> to-daye · & dyuyde<note>Bx.19.220: <hi>dyuyde</hi>: Supported by <hi>Cx</hi> against the variants in WHm and in F.</note> grace</l>
<l> To alkynnes creatures · þat kan<note>Bx.19.221: <hi>kan</hi>: LF supported by <hi>Cx</hi> and alliteration. Beta1 (including M) corrupts to <hi>han</hi>.</note> h[is]<note>Bx.19.221: <hi>his</hi>: F is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>. Beta alters to pl. <hi>her</hi> for concord, as do a few <hi>C</hi> mss.</note> fyue wittes</l>
<l> Tresore to lyue by · to her lyues ende<note>Bx.19.222: Beta4 omits 222b-231a by eyeskip.</note></l>
<l> And wepne to fyȝte with · þat wil neure faille</l>
<l> For antecryst & his · al þe worlde shal greue</l>
<l> And acombre þe conscience · but if cryst þe helpe</l>
<l> ¶ And fals prophetes fele · flatereres & glosers</l>
<l> Shullen come & be curatoures · ouer kynges & erlis<note>Bx.19.227: <hi>erlis</hi>: F's <hi>knyghtis</hi> has no support from <hi>Cx</hi>.</note></l>
<l> And pryde shal<note>Bx.19.228: <hi>pryde shal</hi>: F and <hi>Cx</hi> read <hi>þanne shal pryde</hi>.</note> be pope · prynce<note>Bx.19.228: <hi>prynce</hi>: F and <hi>Cx</hi> read <hi>& prince</hi>.</note> of holycherche</l>
<l> Coueytyse & vnkyndenesse · cardinales hym to lede</l>
<l> For-þi quod grace er I go · I wil gyue ȝow tresore</l>
<l> And wepne to fiȝte with · whan antecryst ȝow assailleth</l>
<l> And gaf eche man a grace · to gye<note>Bx.19.232: <hi>gye</hi>: As in <hi>Cx</hi>. CrW have <hi>gide</hi>; beta4 reads <hi>go</hi>.</note> with hym-seluen</l>
<l> That ydelnesse encombre hym nouȝt · envye<note>Bx.19.233: <hi>envye</hi>: F and <hi>Cx</hi> have <hi>ne envyȝe.</hi></note> ne pryde</l>
<l> <foreign>Diuisiones graciarum sunt &c ·</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ Some<note>Bx.19.235: <hi>Some</hi>: Secure for <hi>Bx</hi>. The X family of <hi>C</hi> reads <hi>Som men</hi>, the P family <hi>To somme men</hi> (cf. Cr).</note> he ȝaf wytte · with wordes to shewe</l>
<l> Witte to wynne her lyflode with<note>Bx.19.236: The a-verse is revised in <hi>Cx</hi>, avoiding the repetition of <hi>witte</hi>.</note> · as þe worlde asketh</l>
<l> As prechoures & prestes [·] & prentyce of lawe</l>
<l> Þei lelly to lyue · by laboure of tonge</l>
<l> And bi witte to wissen other · as grace hem wolde teche</l>
<l> ¶ And some he kenned crafte · & kunnynge of syȝte</l>
<l> With sellyng & buggynge · her bylyf<note>Bx.19.241: <hi>bylyf</hi>: "subsistence". MCr, Hm (altered) and F read <hi>liflode</hi>. Many <hi>C</hi> scribes also have difficulty with the word.</note> to wynne</l>
<l> And some he lered to laboure<note>Bx.19.242: <hi>laboure</hi>: Beta drops 242b and 243a through eyeskip (<hi>laboure ... labour</hi>). F is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> [· on londe and on water</l>
<l> And lyue by þat labour] · a lele lyf & a<note>Bx.19.243: <hi>a</hi> (2): Omitted by beta4 and F, but supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> trewe</l>
<l> And somme he tauȝte to tilie · to dyche & to thecche<note>Bx.19.244: <hi>thecche</hi>: Beta4 has <hi>hegge</hi>, F has <hi>þresche</hi>, both probably misreadings. Most <hi>C</hi> mss. read <hi>to teche and to coke</hi>, but some make the obvious correction of <hi>teche</hi> to <hi>theche</hi>. See KD, pp. 174-5; RK, p. 125.</note></l>
<l> To wynne with her lyflode · by lore of his techynge<note>Bx.19.245: <hi>Cx</hi> has an entirely different line here.</note></l>
<l> And some to dyuyne &<note>Bx.19.246: <hi>&</hi>: M's <hi>and to</hi> is shared with some of the X family of <hi>C</hi>.</note> diuide · noumbres to kenne</l>
<l> And some to compas craftily<note>Bx.19.247: <hi>And some to compas craftily</hi>: <hi>Cx</hi> omits <hi>some</hi> and <hi>craftily</hi>.</note> · & coloures to make</l>
<l> And some to se & to saye · what shulde bifalle</l>
<l> Bothe of wel & of wo · telle it or it felle<note>Bx.19.249: <hi>telle it or it felle</hi>: In <hi>Cx</hi> the b-verse is <hi>and be ywaer bifore</hi>.</note></l>
<l> As Astronomyenes þorw astronomye · & philosophres wyse</l>
<l> ¶ And some to ryde & to<note>Bx.19.251: <hi>ryde & to</hi>: Supported by the P family of <hi>C</hi>, while Hm and beta4 have <hi>ryde and summe to</hi> as in the X family. F's <hi>rekne &</hi> has no support.</note> recoeure<note>Bx.19.251: <hi>recoeure</hi>: So L; cf. F's <hi>rekewre</hi>. See <title>MED</title> <hi>recuren</hi> (Lat <hi>recurare</hi>), formally different from <title>MED</title> <hi>recoveren</hi> (OFr), as in the other mss.</note> · þat vnriȝtfully<note>Bx.19.251: <hi>vnriȝtfully</hi>: Supported by <hi>Cx</hi> against <hi>wrongfully</hi> in W. The odd <hi>riȝtfully</hi> in Hm perhaps reflects puzzlement with the ironic reference to <hi>foluyles lawes</hi> in l. <ref>253</ref>.</note> was wonne</l>
<l> He wissed hem<note>Bx.19.252: <hi>hem</hi>: <hi>Cx</hi> reads <hi>men</hi>.</note> wynne<note>Bx.19.252: <hi>wynne</hi>: As in <hi>Cx</hi>, against <hi>to wynne</hi> in W, with <hi>to</hi> inserted in O. F omits the line.</note> it aȝeyne · þorw wightnesse<note>Bx.19.252: <hi>wightnesse</hi>: Supported by <hi>Cx</hi>; misunderstood by HmC (<hi>wytnesse</hi>) and G (<hi>ryghtyovsnes</hi>).</note> of handes</l>
<l> <note>Bx.19.253: L alone has a paraph at the top of the page. Presumably it was meant to precede <hi>And</hi> in the next line.</note>And fecchen it fro fals men · with foluyles lawes</l>
<l> [¶]<note>Bx.19.254: <hi></hi>: The paraph, misplaced at the head of the previous line in L, is supported by WHm. Cf. the parallels in ll. <ref>235</ref>, <ref>240</ref> and <ref>251</ref>; though apparently not ll. <ref>242</ref> (W only), <ref>244</ref> and <ref>246</ref> (WHm only).</note> And some he lered<note>Bx.19.254: <hi>lered</hi>: CrHmGF read <hi>lerned</hi>, a common variation; cf. e.g. <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.1.148</ref>, <ref>153</ref>, and l. <ref>256</ref> below. <hi>C</hi> mss. also vary.</note> to lyue · in longynge to ben hennes</l>
<l> In pouerte & in p[acie]nce<note>Bx.19.255: <hi>pacience</hi>: HmF are supported by <hi>Cx</hi>, though three <hi>C</hi> mss. read <hi>penaunce</hi>. The beta reading must be <hi>penaunce</hi>, so how did Hm come by the right reading? Both <hi>penaunce</hi> and <hi>pacience</hi> are frequently collocated with <hi>pouerte</hi>; cf. especially <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.14.231</ref> and <ref>19.67</ref>.</note> · to preye for alle crystene</l>
<l> And alle he lered to be lele · & eche a crafte loue other</l>
<l> And forbad hem alle debate · þat none were amonge hem<note>Bx.19.257: In <hi>Cx</hi> the line reads "Ne no boest ne debaet be among hem alle" (RK.21.251). For the suggestion of <hi>Cx</hi> revision here and in ll. <ref>259-60</ref>, see Barney (2006), 143.</note></l>
<l> Thowgh some be clenner þan somme · ȝe se wel quod grace</l>
<l> Þat he þat vseth þe fairest crafte · to þe foulest I couth haue put hym<note>Bx.19.259-60: Replaced by one line in <hi>Cx</hi>: "That all craft and connyng cam of my ȝefte" (RK.21.253).</note><note>Bx.19.259: Followed in F by four sanctimonious lines with defective alliteration. See KD, p. 223.</note></l>
<l> Þinketh alle<note>Bx.19.260: <hi>alle</hi>: F has <hi>alle now</hi>. The line is omitted by beta4.</note> quod grace · þat grace cometh of my ȝifte</l>
<l> Loke þat none lakke other · but loueth alle<note>Bx.19.261: <hi>alle</hi>: Not in <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> as bretheren</l>
<l> ¶ And who<note>Bx.19.262: <hi>who</hi>: <hi>Cx</hi> reads <hi>he</hi>.</note> þat moste maistries can · be myldest of berynge</l>
<l> And crouneth conscience kynge · & maketh crafte ȝowre stuward</l>
<l> And after craftes conseille · clotheth ȝow & fede</l>
<l> For I make Pieres þe<note>Bx.19.265: <hi>þe</hi>: GF are without it. <hi>C</hi> mss. vary.</note> plowman · my procuratour & my reve</l>
<l> And Regystrere to receyue · <foreign>redde quod debes</foreign></l>
<l> My prowor<note>Bx.19.267: <hi>prowor</hi>: "overseer". Supported by <hi>Cx</hi>, though some scribes stumble over it.</note> & my plowman · Piers shal ben on erthe</l>
<l> And for to tulye treuthe · a teme shal he haue</l>
<l> ¶ Grace gaue Piers a teme · foure<note>Bx.19.269: <hi>foure</hi>: W supplies <hi>of</hi>, as does the P family of <hi>C</hi>.</note> gret oxen</l>
<l> Þat on was Luke a large beste · and a lowe-chered</l>
<l> And marke & mathew þe þrydde · myghty bestes bothe</l>
<l> And ioigned to hem one Iohan · most gentil of alle</l>
<l> Þe prys nete of Piers plow · passyng alle other</l>
<l> ¶ And<note>Bx.19.274: <hi>And</hi>: F has <hi>& ȝit</hi>; <hi>Cx</hi> has <hi>And sethe</hi>.</note> grace gaue pieres · of his goodnesse<note>Bx.19.274: <hi>gaue pieres · of his goodnesse</hi>: The word-order in F, <hi>of his goodnesse / gaf peers</hi> is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>. It is perhaps a revision, but could be an error in <hi>Cx</hi>, or in beta influenced by l. <ref>269</ref>. See RK, p. 123, who adopt the beta reading.</note> foure stottis</l>
<l> Al þat his oxen eryed · þey to harwe<note>Bx.19.275: <hi>harwe</hi>: MCrF supply <hi>it</hi>, as do a couple of <hi>C</hi> mss.</note> after</l>
<l> On hyȝte Austyne · & ambrose an other</l>
<l> Gregori þe grete clerke · & Ierome þe gode</l>
<l> Þise foure þe feithe to teche · folweth pieres teme</l>
<l> And harwed in an handwhile · al holy scripture</l>
<l> Wyth two [aithes]<note>Bx.19.280: <hi>aithes</hi>: This is the reading of <hi>Cx</hi>. <title>MED</title> <hi>eithe</hi> (OE <hi>egþe</hi>, "harrow") records no other instance. F preserves it in the form <hi>hayȝtes</hi>. Beta and some <hi>C</hi> mss. have the much easier synonym <hi>harwes</hi>, picked up from the verb in the previous line.</note> þat þei hadde · an olde & a newe</l>
<l> <foreign>Id est vetus testamentum & nouum<note>Bx.19.281: <hi><foreign>nouum</foreign></hi>: F's addition of <hi>testamentum</hi> has no support from <hi>Cx</hi>.</note></foreign></l>
<l> ¶ And grace gaue [Pieres]<note>Bx.19.282: <hi>Pieres</hi>: Easily lost in beta. F is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> greynes · cardynales<note>Bx.19.282: <hi>cardynales</hi>: Beta supplies the definite article, but it is not supported by F or <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> vertues</l>
<l> And sewe it<note>Bx.19.283: <hi>sewe it</hi>: WHm alter to <hi>sew hem</hi> on grounds of concord; F reads <hi>he sew it</hi>. Neither has support from <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> in mannes soule · & sithen he<note>Bx.19.283: <hi>he</hi>: Hm and beta4 omit as do some <hi>C</hi> mss., but <hi>Cx</hi> has it.</note> tolde her names</l>
<l> <note>Bx.19.284: Only HmF mark a new paragraph here, corresponding to those at the other members of the numbered set, ll. <ref>289</ref>, <ref>297</ref> and <ref>306</ref>.</note><foreign>Spiritus prudencie</foreign> · þe firste seed hyȝte</l>
<l> And<note>Bx.19.285: <hi>And</hi>: Perhaps a beta error. F and <hi>Cx</hi> read less obvious <hi>Þat</hi>.</note> who-so eet þat<note>Bx.19.285: <hi>þat</hi>: F's <hi>of þat frut</hi> has no support from <hi>C</hi>, though the P family has <hi>þat seede</hi>.</note> · ymagyne he shulde</l>
<l> Ar he did any dede · deuyse wel þe ende</l>
<l> And lerned men a ladel bugge · with a longe stele</l>
<l> Þat<note>Bx.19.288: <hi>Þat</hi>: LMCrCG are supported by <hi>Cx</hi> against <hi>And</hi> in WHm, <hi>To</hi> in O, and <hi>For he</hi> in F.</note> cast for to kepe<note>Bx.19.288: <hi>kepe</hi>: So <hi>Bx</hi>, though <hi>Cx</hi> has <hi>kele</hi>, "cool".</note> a crokke · to<note>Bx.19.288: <hi>to</hi> (2): F and <hi>Cx</hi> read <hi>&</hi>.</note> saue<note>Bx.19.288: <hi>saue</hi>: F repeats <hi>keepe</hi> to strengthen the aaa/xx alliteration, as do two <hi>C</hi> scribes.</note> þe fatte abouen</l>
<l> ¶ The secounde seed hiȝte<note>Bx.19.289: <hi>hiȝte</hi>: So <hi>Cx</hi>, against F's <hi>þat he sew was</hi>. O is absent from this line to l. <ref>369</ref>.</note> [·] <foreign>spiritus temperancie</foreign></l>
<l> He þat ete of þat seed · hadde suche a kynde</l>
<l> Shulde neuere mete ne [myschief]<note>Bx.19.291: <hi>myschief</hi>: i.e. starvation. Beta is understandably puzzled and replaces with <hi>mochel drynke</hi>. F is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> · make hym to swelle</l>
<l> Ne sholde no scorner ne scolde<note>Bx.19.292: <hi>ne scolde</hi>: F and <hi>Cx</hi> omit, to the detriment of the alliteration.</note> · oute of skyl hym brynge</l>
<l> Ne wynnynge ne welthe<note>Bx.19.293: <hi>welthe</hi>: W's <hi>wele</hi> is not supported by <hi>Cx</hi>. Beta4 drops the line.</note> · of wordeliche ricchesse</l>
<l> Waste worde of ydelnesse · ne wykked speche meue</l>
<l> Shulde no curyous clothe · comen on hys rugge</l>
<l> Ne no mete in his mouth · þat maister Iohan spiced</l>
<l> ¶ The thridde seed þat Pieres sewe · was <foreign>spiritus fortitudinis</foreign></l>
<l> And who-so eet of þat seed [·] hardy was<note>Bx.19.298: <hi>was</hi>: The beta reading is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>. WHm have <hi>was he</hi>; F has <hi>he was</hi>.</note> eure</l>
<l> To suffre al þat god sent · sykenesse & angres</l>
<l> Myȝte no lesynge[s] ne lyere<note>Bx.19.300: <hi>lesynges ne lyere</hi>: Only L has sg. <hi>lesynge</hi>, which could nevertheless be right. For <hi>ne</hi>, F reads <hi>of</hi>. <hi>C</hi> mss. have instead <hi>lyare with lesynges</hi>, though X and three other mss. have sg. <hi>lesynge</hi>.</note> · ne losse of worldely catel</l>
<l> Maken hym for any mournynge · þat he nas merye in soule</l>
<l> And bolde & abydynge · bismeres to suffre</l>
<l> And pl[e]yeth<note>Bx.19.303: <hi>pleyeth</hi>: "plead in court", <title>MED</title> <hi>pleien</hi> v. (2), from <hi>ple</hi>. LCr <hi>playeth</hi> is a misunderstanding of the uncommon verb. F has the easier and unambiguous verb <hi>pleted</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> has <hi>plede</hi>, which could be either present or past tense. See RK, p. 123 and n. 42; Barney (2006), 151.</note> al with pacyence · <foreign>& parce michi domine</foreign></l>
<l> And couered<note>Bx.19.304: <hi>couered</hi>: CrCGF have the present tense, but <hi>Cx</hi> has the past.</note> hym vnder conseille · of catoun þe wyse</l>
<l> <foreign>Esto forti animo cum sis dampnatus inique</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ The fierthe seed þat pieres sewe · was <foreign>spiritus iusticie</foreign></l>
<l> And he þat eet of þat seed · shulde be euere<note>Bx.19.307: <hi>euere</hi>: <hi>Cx</hi> has <hi>euene</hi>.</note> trewe</l>
<l> With god &<note>Bx.19.308: <hi>With god &</hi>: F's <hi>& of god</hi> is not supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> nouȝt agast · but of gyle one</l>
<l> For gyle goth so pryuely · þat good faith other-while</l>
<l> May nouȝte ben aspyed · for<note>Bx.19.310: <hi>for</hi>: <hi>Cx</hi> has <hi>thorw</hi>.</note> <foreign>spiritus iusticie</foreign></l>
<l><note>Bx.19.311: <hi></hi>: LWHm have a paraph, not entirely appropriately in the middle of the account of the fourth seed. That it was in beta at least is further suggested by M's misplacement of a paraph marker at the next line, which is at the top of the leaf.</note> <foreign>Spiritus iusticie · </foreign> spareth nouȝte to spille<note>Bx.19.311: KD, p. 119, and RK, p. 133, detect misdivision and padding in this and the next two lines in both <hi>Bx</hi> and <hi>Cx</hi>.</note></l>
<l> Hem þat ben gulty · & forto correcte<note>Bx.19.312-13: Among <hi>C</hi> mss., X has "Hem þat ben gulty · and forto corecte the kyng / And the kyng falle in any a gulte", while P divides the line after <hi>corecte</hi>.</note></l>
<l> Þe Kynge ȝif he falle<note>Bx.19.313: <hi>falle</hi>: F's a-verse has no support from <hi>Cx</hi>. See previous note.</note> · in gylte or in trespasse</l>
<l> For counteth he no kynges wratthe<note>Bx.19.314: F's a-verse has no support from <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> · whan he in courte sitteth</l>
<l> To demen as a domes-man · adradde was he neure</l>
<l> Noither of duke ne of deth · þat he ne dede þe<note>Bx.19.316: <hi>þe</hi>: So LF and <hi>Cx</hi>. Dropped by beta1.</note> lawe</l>
<l> For present or for preyere · or any prynces lettres</l>
<l> He dede equite to alle · euene-forth his powere<note>Bx.19.318: <hi>powere</hi>: <hi>Cx</hi> reads <hi>knowyng</hi>.</note></l>
<l> ¶ Thise foure sedes pieres sewe · and sitthe he did hem harwe</l>
<l> Wyth olde<note>Bx.19.320: <hi>olde</hi>: F twice adds the definite article in the a-verse, without support from <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> lawe and newe lawe · þat loue myȝte wexe</l>
<l> Amonge þ[ise]<note>Bx.19.321: <hi>þise</hi>: Uncertain. F is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>. LMCrCG have <hi>þe</hi>; WHm have <hi>þo</hi>.</note> foure vertues · and vices destroye</l>
<l><note>Bx.19.322: <hi></hi>: The paraph is appropriate, though indicated in LM only. F begins <hi>&</hi>, but <hi>For</hi> is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> For comunelich in contrees · kammokes & wedes</l>
<l> Fouleth þe fruite in þe felde · þere þei growe togyderes</l>
<l> And so don vices · vertues worthy<note>Bx.19.324: <hi>worthy</hi>: In <hi>Cx</hi> this reads <hi>forþi quod Peres</hi>, and it is clear that <hi>Bx</hi> has misdivided the line. F characteristically expands a short line.</note></l>
<l> Quod Piers harweth alle þat kunneth kynde witte · bi conseille of þis doctours</l>
<l> And tulyeth after her techynge · þe cardinale vertues</l>
<l> ¶ Aȝeines þi greynes quod grace · bigynneth for to ripe</l>
<l> Ordeigne þe an hous Piers<note>Bx.19.328: <hi>Piers</hi>: So <hi>Cx</hi>. Probably beta read <hi>quod Piers</hi> (picked up from the following line), retained by LMCr, with WHm making an obvious correction by dropping <hi>quod</hi>, and beta4 dropping both words. F moves <hi>Peers</hi> to the beginning of the line.</note> · to herberwe in þi cornes</l>
<l> ¶ By god<note>Bx.19.329: <hi>god</hi>: F misunderstands as genitive. Beta is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> grace quod Piers · ȝe moten gyue<note>Bx.19.329: <hi>gyue</hi>: F and <hi>Cx</hi> read <hi>gyve me</hi>.</note> tymbre</l>
<l> And ordeyne þat hous · ar ȝe hennes wende</l>
<l> ¶ And grace gaue hym þe crosse · with<note>Bx.19.331: <hi>with</hi>: F's <hi>&</hi> is not supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> þe croune of þornes</l>
<l> That cryst vpon caluarye · for mankynde on pyned<note>Bx.19.332: <hi>on pyned</hi>: Beta is supported by <hi>Cx</hi> against F's <hi>kawhte</hi>.</note></l>
<l> And of his baptesme & blode · þat he bledde on Rode</l>
<l> He made a maner morter · &<note>Bx.19.334: <hi>&</hi>: F omits; beta is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> mercy it hiȝte</l>
<l> And þere-with grace bigan · to make a good foundement</l>
<l> And watteled it and walled<note>Bx.19.336: <hi>watteled ... walled</hi>: Reversed in MCr, without support from <hi>Cx</hi>. F rewrites the line.</note> it · with his peynes<note>Bx.19.336: <hi>peynes</hi>: Supported by <hi>Cx</hi> against W's sg. and F's <hi>woundis</hi>.</note> & his passioun</l>
<l> And of al holywrit · he made<note>Bx.19.337: <hi>made</hi>: Supported by <hi>Cx</hi>. F substitutes <hi>wroghte</hi> to alliterate with <hi>writ</hi>.</note> a rofe after</l>
<l> And called þat hous vnite · holicherche on englisshe</l>
<l> And whan þis dede was done · grace deuised</l>
<l> A carte hyȝte cristendome · to carye [home] pieres<note>Bx.19.340: <hi>home pieres</hi>: As in <hi>Cx</hi>. Beta drops <hi>home</hi> while F drops <hi>pieres</hi> (but supplies it in the next line), perhaps both simplifying for metrical reasons.</note> sheues</l>
<l> And gaf hym caples to his carte · contricioun & confessioun</l>
<l> And made presthode haywarde · þe while hym-self went</l>
<l> As wyde as þe worlde is · with pieres to tulye treuthe</l>
<l> [And þe [londe] of bileue · þe lawe of holychirche]<note>Bx.19.344: The line is preserved only by F, but it is in <hi>Cx</hi>. For <hi>londe</hi> as in <hi>Cx</hi>, F reads <hi>loore</hi>, but cf. <hi>londe of longynge</hi> <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.11.8</ref>. F also supplies <hi>&</hi> to begin the b-verse, but <hi>Cx</hi> does not have it. There seems nothing to have prompted beta's omission, except that the line was at the end of the paragraph, so it may be an addition in <hi>C</hi>.</note></l>
<l> ¶ Now is Pieres to þe plow · &<note>Bx.19.345: <hi>&</hi>: Secure for <hi>Bx</hi>, but not in <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> pruyde it aspyde</l>
<l> And gadered hym a grete oest · to greuen<note>Bx.19.346: <hi>to greuen</hi>: So LMC, and presumably beta. W has <hi>for to greven</hi>, and Hm <hi>for greuyn</hi>. CrG, reading <hi>to greue him</hi>, misunderstand the construction with the object in the next line. F, making the same mistake, has <hi>greven hym</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> reads simply <hi>greue(n)</hi>, with a few mss. adding <hi>to</hi> or <hi>hym</hi>. It is likely enough that <hi>Bx</hi> read <hi>greuen</hi>, with scribes reacting to the short b-verse.</note> he þinketh</l>
<l> Conscience and al crystene · and cardinale vertues</l>
<l> Blowe hem doune & breke hem · & bite atwo þe mores<note>Bx.19.348: <hi>þe mores</hi>: "roots". F rewrites the b-verse as <hi>& beetyn doun here maneres</hi>. The P family of <hi>C</hi> alters to <hi>rotes</hi>.</note></l>
<l> And sent forth surquydou[re]s<note>Bx.19.349: <hi>surquydoures</hi>: "arrogant one" (for this form in F see <title>MED</title> <hi>surquidrous</hi>), which both F and <hi>Cx</hi> interpret as plural (but cf. l. <ref>351</ref>), and so read <hi>sergawntys</hi> in place of <hi>seriaunt</hi>. Beta has the commoner form <hi>surquidous</hi>. See Schmidt (2008), 460.</note> · his seriaunt of armes</l>
<l> And his spye spille-loue · one speke yuel byhynde</l>
<l> Þise two come to conscience · and to crystene peple</l>
<l> And tolde hem tydynges · þat tyne þei shulde þe sedes</l>
<l> That Pieres þere hadde ysowen · þe cardynal vertues<note>Bx.19.353: In <hi>C</hi>, the X family begins <hi>That sire Peres sewe</hi>. The P family ends the previous line with <hi>sholde</hi> and therefore begins <hi>The seedes that syre Peers sewe</hi>, a satisfactory a-verse. <hi>Bx</hi> must also have been defective as a result of mislineation, and perhaps the a-verse read <hi>That Piers sewe</hi>, with beta and F expanding in different ways. See Schmidt (2008), 460.</note></l>
<l> And Pieres berne worth broke · & þei þat ben in vnite</l>
<l> Shulle come out &<note>Bx.19.355: <hi>&</hi> (1): So beta and <hi>Cx</hi>. Dropped in F, so that <hi>conscience</hi> is a term of address rather than part of a group subject of <hi>Shal</hi> in l. <ref>357</ref>.</note> conscience · & ȝowre two caples</l>
<l> Confessioun & contricioun · and ȝowre carte þe<note>Bx.19.356: <hi>þe</hi>: F has <hi>of</hi>; most <hi>C</hi> mss. omit.</note> byleue</l>
<l> Shal be coloured so queyntly · and keuered vnder owre<note>Bx.19.357: <hi>owre</hi>: So L and most beta mss. Cr has <hi>your</hi>, perhaps from the line above, while WF omit, perhaps to shorten a heavy b-verse. There is the same variation in <hi>C</hi> mss., with most reading <hi>oure</hi>.</note> sophistrie</l>
<l> Þat consci[ence]<note>Bx.19.358: <hi>conscience</hi>: L reads <hi>conscioun</hi>, with the line marked for correction. <hi>Cx</hi> supports beta's version of the line; F tries to improve sense and alliteration.</note> shal nouȝte · knowe by contricioun</l>
<l> Ne by confessioun · who is cristene or hethen</l>
<l> Ne no maner marchaunt · þat with moneye deleth</l>
<l> Where he wynne wyth riȝte<note>Bx.19.361: <hi>riȝte</hi>: CrF follow this with <hi>or</hi>, but it is not in <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> · with wronge or with vsure</l>
<l> ¶ With suche coloures & queyntise<note>Bx.19.362: <hi>& queyntise</hi>: Supported by <hi>Cx</hi> against MCr <hi>and coueityse</hi> and F <hi>y-peyntid</hi>.</note> · cometh pryde yarmed</l>
<l> With þe lorde þat lyueth after · þe luste of his body</l>
<l> To wasten on welfare · and on<note>Bx.19.364: <hi>on</hi> (2): This is the beta reading, though W has <hi>in</hi>, as do most <hi>C</hi> mss., and G omits. F's b-verse <hi>wikkednesse he meyntiþ</hi> has no support.</note> wykked kepynge<note>Bx.19.364: <hi>kepynge</hi>: There is no support for W's <hi>lyuyng</hi>.</note></l>
<l> Al þe worlde in a while · þorw owre witte quod pruyde</l>
<l> ¶ Quod conscience to alle crystene þo · my conseille is to<note>Bx.19.366: <hi>to</hi> (2): <hi>Cx</hi> has instead <hi>we</hi> or <hi>þat we</hi>. F's b-verse is <hi>y conseyle þe to wende</hi>.</note> wende</l>
<l> Hastiliche in-to<note>Bx.19.367: <hi>in-to</hi>: Beta is supported by the P family of <hi>C</hi>, but F's <hi>to</hi> has support from the X family.</note> vnyte · & holde we vs þere</l>
<l> And preye we þat a pees were · in Piers berne þe plowman</l>
<l> For witterly I wote wel · we beth nouȝte of strengthe</l>
<l> <note>Bx.19.370: O resumes.</note> To gone agayne pryde · but grace were with vs</l>
<l> ¶ And þanne cam kynde wytte · conscience to teche</l>
<l> And cryde & comaunded · al crystene peple</l>
<l> For to<note>Bx.19.373: <hi>For to</hi>: Secure for <hi>Bx</hi>; <hi>Cx</hi> begins <hi>To</hi>.</note> deluen a dyche<note>Bx.19.373: <hi>a dyche</hi>: LMWG, and so presumably the beta reading, supported by the X family of <hi>C</hi>. HmCOF have instead <hi>and dike/dych</hi> (Cr <hi>and digge</hi>). The P family of <hi>C</hi> has <hi>and dike a deop diche</hi>.</note> · depe aboute<note>Bx.19.373: <hi>aboute</hi>: Beta is supported by the X family of <hi>C</hi>. F's <hi>alle abowte</hi> is supported by the P family.</note> vnite</l>
<l> That holycherche stode in vnite<note>Bx.19.374: <hi>in vnite</hi>: This makes sense as a pun, "united". F's <hi>strong</hi> develops the sense of this, looking forward to l. <ref>376</ref> and adding alliteration with <hi>stoode</hi>. <hi>Cx</hi> reads instead <hi>in holinesse</hi>, alluding to the moat that is to be dug, but this is perhaps picked up from RK.21.380 (= <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.19.392</ref>).</note> · as it a pyle [were]<note>Bx.19.374: <hi>were</hi>: L omits, with the line marked for correction. For <hi>Bx</hi> <hi>a pyle were</hi>, <hi>Cx</hi> reads <hi>were a pyle</hi>.</note></l>
<l> ¶ Conscience comaunded þo · al crystene to delue</l>
<l> And make a muche mote · þat myȝte ben a strengthe</l>
<l> To helpe holycherche · & hem þat it kepeth</l>
<l> ¶ Thanne alkyn crystene · saue comune wommen</l>
<l> Repenteden & refused synne · saue they one</l>
<l> And fals men flateres<note>Bx.19.380: <hi>flateres</hi>: The form in LF against <hi>flaterers</hi> in others, as also at <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.2.168</ref> and <ref>13.450</ref>. See <title>MED</title> <hi>flatour</hi>. This line is not in <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> · vsureres and theues</l>
<l> Lyeres and questmongeres<note>Bx.19.381: <hi>Lyeres and questmongeres</hi>: <hi>Cx</hi> has instead <hi>A sysour and a sompnour</hi>. For <hi>questmongere</hi> see Alford (1988), 124.</note> · þat were forsworen ofte</l>
<l> Wytynge and willefully · with þe false helden</l>
<l> And for syluer were forswore · sothely þei wist it<note>Bx.19.383: F's puzzling b-verse has no support from <hi>Cx</hi>.</note></l>
<l> ¶ Þere nas no crystene creature · þat kynde witte hadde</l>
<l> Saue schrewes one · suche as I spak of<note>Bx.19.385: <hi>Cx</hi> drops this line. F characteristically expands a short line.</note></l>
<l> That he ne halpe a quantite · holynesse to wexe</l>
<l> Somme þorw bedes byddynge · and some<note>Bx.19.387: <hi>some</hi>: In beta and the P family of <hi>C</hi>, but not in F or the X family.</note> þorw<note>Bx.19.387: <hi>þorw</hi> (2): Secure for <hi>Bx</hi>, but Cr and <hi>Cx</hi> have <hi>bi</hi>, carrying the b-verse alliteration.</note> pylgrymage<note>Bx.19.387: <hi>pylgrimage</hi>: Only W has the plural. It is, however, the reading of <hi>Cx</hi>.</note></l>
<l> And other pryue penaunce<note>Bx.19.388: <hi>penaunce</hi>: For variation with and without <-s>, see note to <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.14.211</ref>. There is similar variation in <hi>C</hi> mss. MCr have <hi>peines</hi>. F reverses a- and b-verses.</note> · and some þorw penyes delynge</l>
<l> ¶ And þanne welled<note>Bx.19.389: <hi>welled</hi>: The reading <hi>walmede</hi> in F suggests that <hi>Bx</hi> might have had the form <hi>walled</hi> (<title>MED</title> <hi>wallen</hi> v.(1)), as in <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> water · for wikked werkes</l>
<l> Egerlich ernynge · out of mennes eyen</l>
<l> Clennesse of þe<note>Bx.19.391: <hi>of þe</hi>: WHm repeat <hi>out of</hi> from the line above.</note> comune · & clerkes clene lyuynge</l>
<l> Made vnite holicherche · in holynesse to stonde<note>Bx.19.392: <hi>to stonde</hi>: So beta. <hi>Cx</hi> is without <hi>to</hi>, as <hi>Bx</hi> may have been, since in F the b-verse reads <hi>holylyche stoonde</hi>.</note></l>
<l> [¶]<note>Bx.19.393: <hi></hi>: The paraph is in WHm, with a line-space in M.</note> I care nouȝte quod conscience · þough pryde come nouthe</l>
<l> Þe lorde of luste shal be letted · al þis lente I hope</l>
<l> Comeþ quod conscience · ȝe cristene and dyneth</l>
<l> Þat han laboured lelly · al þis lente tyme</l>
<l> Here is bred yblessed · and goddes body þer-vnder<note>Bx.19.397: <hi>þer-vnder</hi>: F, reading <hi>þere-Inne</hi>, is perhaps uncomfortable with the theological use, <title>MED</title> <hi>ther-under</hi> 2 (b).</note></l>
<l> Grace þorw goddes worde · gaue Pieres<note>Bx.19.398: <hi>Pieres</hi>: <hi>Cx</hi> has <hi>Peres the ploughman</hi>.</note> power</l>
<l> Myȝtes<note>Bx.19.399: <hi>Myȝtes</hi>: Beta2 and F begin <hi>And</hi>, with support from the P family of <hi>Cx</hi>. Though the noun is the more obvious sg. in CrCF, as in <hi>Cx</hi>, beta had the plural.</note> to maken it · & men to ete it after<note>Bx.19.399: <hi>to ete it after</hi>: <hi>Cx</hi> reads <hi>for to eten it</hi>.</note></l>
<l> In helpe of her hele · onys in a moneth</l>
<l> Or as ofte as þey hadden nede · þo þat hadde ypayed</l>
<l> To pieres pardoun þe plowman · <foreign>redde quod debes</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ How quod al þe comune · þow conseillest vs to ȝelde</l>
<l> Al þat we owen any wyȝte · ar<note>Bx.19.404: <hi>ar</hi>: As in the P family of <hi>C</hi>. F's <hi>er þat</hi> has support from the X family.</note> we go to housel</l>
<l> ¶ That is my conseille quod conscience [·] & cardynale vertues</l>
<l> [Or]<note>Bx.19.406: <hi>Or</hi>: "Or, in other words, ...". F agrees with <hi>Cx</hi> on much the harder reading. Probably beta altered it, as do a few <hi>C</hi> mss. Beta has support for the rest of the a-verse.</note> vche man forȝyue other · and þat wyl þe pater noster</l>
<l> <foreign>Et dimitte nobis debita nostra · &c ·</foreign></l>
<l> And so to ben assoilled · & sithen ben<note>Bx.19.408: <hi>ben</hi> (2): Supported by most of the P family of C. Beta4 and F repeat <hi>to been</hi>, with support from the X family. Perhaps that is more likely to be scribal.</note> houseled</l>
<l> ¶ Ȝe bawe quod a brewere · I wil nouȝt be reuled</l>
<l> Bi ihesu for al ȝowre ianglynge · with<note>Bx.19.410: <hi>with</hi>: <hi>Cx</hi> has <hi>aftur</hi>, as in the next line. F's form of the line is not supported.</note> <foreign>spiritus iusticie</foreign></l>
<l> Ne after conscience by cryste · whil I can<note>Bx.19.411: <hi>whil I can</hi>: <hi>C</hi> mss. vary between <hi>y couth</hi> and <hi>for y couthe</hi>. F's b-verse is not supported.</note> selle</l>
<l> Bothe dregges & draffe · and drawe it<note>Bx.19.412: <hi>it</hi>: This is the beta reading; F's b-verse is too different to reveal alpha. O makes a sensible correction by dropping the pronoun (since the object is in the following line), and thereby agrees with <hi>Cx</hi>. Cf. l. <ref>346</ref> for a similar instance of scribes reading line by line.</note> at on hole</l>
<l> Þikke ale and þinne ale · for<note>Bx.19.413: <hi>for</hi>: Not in F. <hi>Cx</hi> has <hi>and</hi>. Perhaps both <hi>for</hi> and <hi>and</hi> are scribal expansions.</note> þat is my kynde</l>
<l> And nouȝte hakke after holynesse · holde þi tonge conscience</l>
<l> Of <foreign>spiritus iusticie</foreign> · þow spekest moche an ydel<note>Bx.19.415: F rewrites the b-verse to increase the alliteration.</note></l>
<l> ¶ Caytyue quod conscience · cursed wrecche</l>
<l> Vnblessed artow brewere · but if þe god<note>Bx.19.417: <hi>þe god</hi>: F reverses to <hi>god þe</hi>, agreeing with the P family of <hi>C</hi>.</note> helpe</l>
<l> But þow lyue by lore<note>Bx.19.418: <hi>lore</hi>: F adds the definite article, as do some of the P family of <hi>C</hi>.</note> · of <foreign>spiritus iusticie</foreign></l>
<l> Þe chief seed þat Pieres sewe · ysaued worstow neure</l>
<l> But conscience þe comune fede<note>Bx.19.420: <hi>þe comune fede</hi>: "feed the people". The beta reading (with GO corrupting <hi>fede</hi> to <hi>seede</hi>). Beta is supported by the P family of <hi>C</hi>. F's reading <hi>be þyn comoun foode</hi> makes good sense addressed to the brewer, but it is exactly paralleled in only one <hi>C</hi> ms. The X family is divided, with one group reading <hi>þy comune fode</hi> and the other <hi>be comune fode</hi>. KD and RK emend to <hi>be þy comunes</hi>; see the discussion in RK, p. 126, where they argue that the adj. <hi>comoun</hi> "did not seem to have been used in the exact sense required, namely `customary, day-to-day'". For further evaluation of the readings, see Barney (2006), 167. See notes to next line.</note> · and cardynale vertues</l>
<l> Leue it<note>Bx.19.421: <hi>it</hi>: F's <hi>me</hi> has no support from <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> wel þei ben<note>Bx.19.421: <hi>þei ben</hi>: The beta reading, referring to the people (<hi>comune</hi>, l. <ref>420</ref>), treated as pl. also in l. <ref>465</ref>. F has <hi>þou art</hi> addressed to the brewer, continuing the sense of its previous line. <hi>Cx</hi>'s has instead <hi>we been</hi>, which avoids any difficulty. See note to l. <ref>420</ref>.</note> loste · bothe lyf & soule</l>
<l> ¶ Thanne is many<note>Bx.19.422: <hi>many</hi>: Among <hi>B</hi> mss. only L omits <hi>a</hi>, but L has the support of most <hi>C</hi> mss.</note> man ylost [·] quod a lewed vycory</l>
<l> I am a curatour of holykyrke · and come neure in my tyme</l>
<l> Man to me þat me couth<note>Bx.19.424: <hi>to me þat me couth</hi>: F simplifies to <hi>þat cowde me</hi>, but beta is supported by <hi>Cx</hi> (although the P family drop the second <hi>me</hi>).</note> telle · of cardinale vertues</l>
<l> Or þat acounted conscience · at a<note>Bx.19.425: <hi>at a</hi>: Beta is supported by some <hi>C</hi> mss., where <hi>at</hi> is perhaps added to fill out a b-verse shortened by loss of the final phrase (see next note). However, <hi>Cx</hi> seems to have been without the preposition, as F.</note> cokkes fether or an hennes<note>Bx.19.425: <hi>or an hennes</hi>: Omitted by F and some <hi>C</hi> mss., but in <hi>Cx</hi>. See previous note.</note></l>
<l> I knewe neure cardynal · þat he ne cam fro þe pope</l>
<l> And we clerkes whan þey come · for her comunes payeth</l>
<l> For her pelure and<note>Bx.19.428: <hi>her pelure and</hi>: Lost in F, but supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> her palfreyes mete · & piloures þat hem folweth</l>
<l> Þe comune <foreign>clamat cotidie</foreign> · eche a man to<note>Bx.19.429: <hi>to</hi>: WHmF have <hi>til</hi>, but it is not supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> other</l>
<l> Þe contre is þe curseder · þat<note>Bx.19.430: <hi>þat</hi>: F shares the easier <hi>þere</hi> with the P family of <hi>C</hi>. Note repeated <hi>þere</hi> in the next line.</note> cardynales come Inne</l>
<l> And þere they ligge and lenge moste<note>Bx.19.431: <hi>moste</hi>: In MCrCGO the punctuation follows <hi>lenge</hi>, with <hi>moste</hi> as adj. qualifying <hi>lecherye</hi>, but with the punctuation in LWHmF it is an adverb.</note> · lecherye þere regneth</l>
<l> <note>Bx.19.432: Note that WHmCF have a paraph.</note>For-þi quod þis vicori · be verrey god I wolde</l>
<l> That no cardynal come · amonge þe comune peple</l>
<l> But in her holynesse · holden<note>Bx.19.434: <hi>holden</hi>: Supported by most <hi>C</hi> mss. against past tense <hi>helden</hi> in CrWCG.</note> hem stille</l>
<l> At Auynoun amonge iuwes<note>Bx.19.435: <hi>iuwes</hi>: Beta has <hi>þe iuwes</hi>, but the definite article is easily added and the generalised sense as in F and <hi>Cx</hi> is appropriate.</note> · <foreign>cum sancto sanctus eris &c</foreign></l>
<l> Or in Rome as here rule wole · þe reliques to kepe</l>
<l> And þow conscience in kynges courte · & shuldest neure come þennes</l>
<l> And grace þat þow gredest so of · gyour<note>Bx.19.438: <hi>gyour</hi>: F's <hi>sholde be gyȝere</hi> is not supported by <hi>Cx</hi>. The P family has <hi>were gyour</hi>.</note> of alle clerkes</l>
<l> And Pieres<note>Bx.19.439: <hi>Pieres</hi>: F moves <hi>with his newe plowh</hi> to the b-verse and adds <hi>plowman</hi> for the alliteration, but it is not in <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> with his newe plow · & eke with his olde<note>Bx.19.439: <hi>eke with his olde</hi>: F has <hi>þe olde</hi> (though with <hi>also</hi> in the a-verse). In <hi>C</hi> the X family has <hi>also his olde</hi>; the P family ends the line <hi>hus olde boþe</hi>.</note></l>
<l> Emperour of al þe worlde · þat alle men were cristene</l>
<l> ¶ Inparfyt is þat pope · þat al peple<note>Bx.19.441: <hi>peple</hi>: L only, with all others adding <hi>þe</hi>. Quite possibly L dropped the article on the model of the previous b-verse. However, the X family of <hi>C</hi> is also without <hi>þe</hi>. Instead of <hi>peple</hi>, CrW read <hi>the world</hi> (cf. l. <ref>440</ref>).</note> shulde helpe</l>
<l> And sendeth hem þat sleeth suche · as he shulde saue</l>
<l> And wel worth piers þe plowman · þat [pur]sueth