<head><foreign>Passus nonus de visione vt supra & primus de Dowel</foreign></head>
<l> Sire dowel dwelleth quod witte · nouȝt a day hennes</l>
<l> In a castel þat kynde made · of foure kynnes<note>Bx.9.2: <hi>kynnes</hi>: Alpha's non-alliterative <hi>maner</hi> is not supported by <hi>AC</hi> (K.10.2, RK.10.219)</note> þinges</l>
<l> Of erthe and eyre is it<note>Bx.9.3: <hi>is it</hi>: The order is reversed in HmOF. <hi>AC</hi> also vary.</note> made · medled togideres</l>
<l> With wynde and with water · witterly enioyned</l>
<l> Kynde hath closed þere-Inne · craftily with-alle</l>
<l> A lemman þat he loueth · like to hym-selue</l>
<l> <foreign>Anima</foreign> she hatte · ac enuye hir hateth</l>
<l> A proude pryker of Fraunce · <foreign>prynceps huius mundi</foreign></l>
<l> And wolde winne hir awey · with wyles and he myȝte</l>
<l><app><rdg>Ac</rdg><rdg>And</rdg></app><note>Bx.9.10: <hi>Ac / And</hi>: The beta reading is <hi>Ac</hi>, supported by <hi>Ax</hi>. Alteration to <hi>And</hi> in CrC is characteristic (cf. <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.9.17</ref>, <ref>57</ref> etc.). But here the alpha reading is also <hi>And</hi>, and it is in turn the reading of <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> kynde knoweth þis wel · and kepeth hir þe bettere</l>
<l> And hath do<note>Bx.9.11: <hi>hath do</hi>: So LMR and GO, as in <hi>Ax</hi> and most <hi>C</hi> mss.; beta2 and CF have the simple present tense, as in some of the P family of <hi>C</hi>.</note> hir with sire<note>Bx.9.11: <hi>sire</hi>: So <hi>AC</hi>, though omitted by alpha.</note> dowel · is<note>Bx.9.11: <hi>is</hi>: Certainly <hi>Bx</hi>, though omitted by GOF and <hi>AC</hi>.</note> duke of þis<note>Bx.9.11: <hi>þis</hi>: So <hi>AC</hi>. R has <hi>þe</hi> and F <hi>þat</hi>.</note> marches</l>
<l> Dobet is hir damoisele · sire doweles douȝter</l>
<l> To serue þis lady lelly · bothe late and rathe</l>
<l> Dobest is aboue bothe · a bisschopes pere</l>
<l> Þat he bit mote be do · he reuleth hem alle</l>
<l> <foreign>Anima</foreign> þat lady · is ladde bi his lerynge<note>Bx.9.16: <hi>lerynge</hi>: The beta reading (though M is a correction), with the late texts CrG altering as usual to <hi>lerneing</hi>. But alpha also has <hi>lernyng</hi>. The better <hi>C</hi> mss. have <hi>leryng</hi>.</note></l>
<l> ¶ Ac þe constable of þat castel · þat kepeth al þe wacche</l>
<l> Is a wys kniȝte with-al · sire Inwitte he hatte</l>
<l> And hath fyue feyre sones · bi his first wyf</l>
<l> Sire sewel and saywel · and <app><rdg>herewel</rdg><rdg>sire herewel</rdg></app><note>Bx.9.20: <hi>herewel / sire herewel</hi>: Beta is supported by <hi>Ax</hi>, but alpha's addition of <hi>sire</hi> is also in <hi>Cx</hi>. Beta alliterates aaa/bb, alpha aaa/abb.</note> þe hende</l>
<l> Sire worche wel wyth þine hande · a wiȝte man of strengthe</l>
<l> And sire godfrey gowel · gret lordes<note>Bx.9.22: <hi>gret lordes</hi>: Beta's plural is supported by <hi>AC</hi> against the sg. in alpha.</note> for-sothe</l>
<l> Þise fyue<note>Bx.9.23: <hi>fyue</hi>: F's <hi>sixe</hi> is from <hi>A</hi>; it includes the constable. <hi>Cx</hi> has five.</note> ben sette · to saue þis lady<note>Bx.9.23: <hi>þis lady</hi>: Alpha drops <hi>lady</hi>, with F rewriting the b-verse. <hi>Cx</hi> <hi>for to saue Anima</hi> may offer slight support for R's reading. (<hi>Ax</hi> reads <hi>to saue þe castel</hi>.) </note> <foreign>anima</foreign></l>
<l> Tyl kynde come or sende [·] to saue hir for euere<note>Bx.9.24: <hi>saue hir for euere</hi>: Agreement of beta and R confirms this as the <hi>Bx</hi> reading even if corrupt. F's <hi>kepen hire hym-selue</hi> is the <hi>AC</hi> reading, taken by F from his <hi>A</hi> ms.</note></l>
<l> ¶ What kynnes thyng is kynde quod I · canstow me telle</l>
<l> ¶ Kynde quod witte is a<note>Bx.9.26: <hi>a</hi>: Clearly established for <hi>Bx</hi>, though omitted by <hi>Cx</hi> and most <hi>A</hi> mss. KD record it as omitted in MR, but in both it is erased. Misunderstanding in <hi>Bx</hi> may have been caused, or further compounded, by reading <hi>creatour</hi> as <hi>creature</hi> (as in HmCO), though the spelling of the two words is often confused; see <title>MED</title> <hi>creatour</hi> and <hi>creature</hi>.</note> creatour · of alle kynnes þinges</l>
<l> Fader and fourmour · of al þat euere was maked</l>
<l> And<note>Bx.9.26: <hi>And</hi>: Beta1 reads <hi>And þat is</hi>, supported by <hi>Ax</hi>. M reads <hi>And þis is</hi>. But L originally agreed with R before correcting to the beta1 reading. F rewrites the a-verse. <hi>Cx</hi> rewrites as <hi>The which is</hi>.</note> þe gret god [·] þat gynnynge had neuere</l>
<l> Lorde of lyf and of lyȝte · of lysse<note>Bx.9.29: <hi>lysse</hi>: Alpha spoils alliteration with <hi>blisse</hi>, as does the corrector in M. The two late texts CrG adopt the easier reading to avoid the obsolete synonym.</note> and of peyne</l>
<l> Angeles and al þing [·] aren at his wille</l>
<l> Ac man is hym moste<note>Bx.9.31: <hi>hym moste</hi>: Alpha reverses, but beta's order is supported by <hi>AC</hi>. From here to the end of the passus <hi>C</hi> is rewritten or heavily revised.</note> lyke · of marke and of schafte</l>
<l> For þorugh þe worde þat he spake · wexen forth bestes<note>Bx.9.32: F follows with three unique lines, the third of which is based on K.10.34, and omits <hi>Bx</hi>.9.33.</note></l>
<l> <foreign>Dixit & facta sunt</foreign></l>
<foreign>id est adam</foreign><note>Bx.9.34: <hi><foreign>id est adam</foreign></hi>: This gloss appears above the line in LM, and was incorporated into the text in CrHmF. It was therefore presumably a feature of the archetypal text. In R <hi>man</hi> is a correction in a second hand, perhaps indicating the scribe's confusion.</note>
<l> ¶ And made man likkest · to hym-self one</l>
<l> And Eue of his ribbe-bon · with-outen eny mene</l>
<l> For he was synguler hym-self · and<note>Bx.9.36: <hi>and</hi>: R (= alpha?) omits, and F has <hi>he</hi>. The passage is not in <hi>AC</hi>.</note> seyde <foreign>faciamus</foreign></l>
<l> As who seith<note>Bx.9.37: <hi>seith</hi>: CrCGR have subjunctive <hi>sey</hi>. The line is not in <hi>AC</hi>.</note> more mote here-to · þan my worde one</l>
<l> My myȝte mote helpe · now with my speche</l>
<l> Riȝte as a lorde sholde make lettres · and hym lakked parchemyn</l>
<l> Þough he couth write neuere so wel · ȝif he had no penne</l>
<l> Þe lettre for al þe lordship · I leue were neuere ymaked</l>
<l> ¶ And so it semeth bi hym · as þe bible<note>Bx.9.42: <hi>bible</hi>: Beta4 has <hi>book</hi>.</note> telleth</l>
<l> Þere he seyde [·] <foreign>dixit & facta sunt</foreign><note>Bx.9.43: <hi><foreign>dixit & facta sunt</foreign></hi>: (Psalm 148.5), repeating l. <ref>33</ref>. L punctuates after <hi>dixit</hi>, but the punctuation after <hi>seyde</hi> in other mss. is more appropriate. F's <hi>faciamus hominem ad ymaginem &c</hi> (Gen.1.26), is from <hi>A</hi> (K.10.41a), where it follows the line equivalent to <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.9.53</ref>. Cf. also <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.9.36</ref>.</note></l>
<l> He moste worche with his worde · and his witte shewe</l>
<l> And in þis manere was man made · þorugh myȝte of god almiȝti</l>
<l> With his worde and werkemanschip · and with lyf to laste</l>
<l> And þus god gaf hym a goost · of þe godhed of heuene</l>
<l> And of his grete grace [·] graunted hym blisse</l>
<l> And þat is lyf þat ay shal last · to al [his]<note>Bx.9.49: <hi>his</hi>: Lost in beta though independently restored by W on grounds of sense (Cr adds <hi>our</hi> instead). Alpha is supported by <hi>Ax</hi>.</note> lynage after</l>
<l> And þat is þe castel þat kynde made · <foreign>caro</foreign> it hatte</l>
<l> And is as moche to mene · as man with a soule</l>
<l> And þat he wrouȝt with werke · and with worde<note>Bx.9.52: <hi>worde</hi>: Alpha's <hi>his word(es)</hi> is not supported by <hi>Ax</hi>.</note> bothe</l>
<l> Þorugh myȝte of þe maieste · man was ymaked</l>
<l> ¶ Inwit and alle wittes [·] closed ben þer-inne</l>
<l> For loue of þe lady <foreign>anima</foreign> · þat lyf is ynempned</l>
<l> Ouer-al in mannes body · he<note>Bx.9.56: <hi>he</hi>: "she". See Introduction <xref>IV.1</xref>.</note> walketh and wandreth</l>
<l> Ac<note>Bx.9.57: <hi>Ac</hi>: Supported by LO and alpha (since F alters to his usual <hi>But</hi>), and by <hi>Ax</hi> (K.10.45). After this line <hi>AC</hi> offer only sporadic correspondences with <hi>Bx</hi> until l. <ref>191</ref>.</note> in þe herte is hir home · and hir moste reste</l>
<l> Ac Inwitte is in þe hed · and to the herte he<note>Bx.9.58: <hi>he</hi>: Omitted by CrR.</note> loketh</l>
<l> What <foreign>anima</foreign> is lief or loth · he lat<note>Bx.9.59: <hi>lat</hi>: The variants confirm this as a form of "leads".</note> hir at his wille</l>
<l> For after þe grace of god · þe grettest is Inwitte</l>
<l> ¶ Moche wo worth þat [wiȝte]<note>Bx.9.61: <hi>wiȝte</hi>: Though not an unusual word, <hi>wiȝte</hi> is sporadically replaced by <hi>man</hi> (e.g. <hi>Bx</hi>.P.208 (R), <ref>5.118</ref> (F), <ref>8.53</ref> (Hm), <ref>8.73</ref> (O)). Alpha's alliterative pattern is aaa/xa (on /w/); beta's <hi>man</hi> gives the standard alliterative pattern aa/ax (on /m/). <hi>Cx</hi> does not help to establish the reading, but indicates dissatisfaction with whatever it was, reversing the b-verse: "And moche wo worth hym þat inwit myspeneth" (RK.10.175).</note> · þat mys-reuleth his Inwitte</l>
<l> And þat be glotouns globbares · her god is her wombe</l>
<l> <foreign>Quorum deus venter est</foreign></l>
<l> For þei seruen sathan · her soule<note>Bx.9.64: <hi>soule</hi>: The reading of LMR is enough to establish <hi>Bx</hi> against the more obvious plural in other mss. Cf. the distributive sg. again in the next line.</note> shal he haue</l>
<l> Þat liueth synful lyf here · her soule is liche þe deuel</l>
<l> And alle þat lyuen good lyf · aren like<note>Bx.9.66: <hi>like</hi>: The agreement of LR supports this against <hi>like to</hi> in beta1. Both locutions are used elsewhere. M originally read <hi>vnto</hi>, corrected to <hi>to</hi>, and F has <hi>lyk after</hi>.</note> god almiȝti</l>
<l> <foreign>Qui manet in caritate in deo manet &c</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ Allas þat drynke shal for-do · þat god dere bouȝte</l>
<l> And doth god forsaken hem · þat shope [hem]<note>Bx.9.69: <hi>shope hem</hi>: Beta's <hi>he shope</hi> gives an unmetrical b-verse (x x / x x / x), and the alpha reading is syntactically difficult enough to have generated it. However, KD, p. 143, ascribe the alpha reading to "parallelism induced by preceding <hi>forsaken hem</hi>".</note> to his liknesse</l>
<l> <foreign>Amen dico vobis nescio vos · & alibi et dimisi eos secundum desideria eorum<note>Bx.9.70: <hi><foreign>& alibi et dimisi eos secundum desideria eorum</foreign></hi>: This (Psalm 80.13) is not in alpha: in fact F drops both quotations. It finds it way into <hi>Cx</hi> at this point (RK.10.165a).</note></foreign></l>
<l> ¶ Foles þat fauten Inwitte · I fynde þat holicherche</l>
<l> Shulde fynden hem þat hem<note>Bx.9.72: <hi>hem</hi> (2): Not in R (F is different).</note> faute[th]<note>Bx.9.72: <hi>fauteth</hi>: So CGO and R. LMW have the past tense, but the present seems required by sense.</note> · and faderelees children</l>
<l> And wydwes þat han nouȝte wher-with · to wynnen hem her fode</l>
<l> Madde men and maydenes · þat helplees were</l>
<l> Alle þise lakken Inwitte · and lore bihoueth</l>
<l> ¶ Of þis matere I myȝte · make a longe tale</l>
<l> And fynde fele witnesses<note>Bx.9.77: <hi>witnesses</hi>: The form in alpha and CGO is also plural. See note to <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.2.150</ref>.</note> · amonges þe foure doctours</l>
<l> And þat I lye nouȝt of þat<note>Bx.9.78: <hi>of þat</hi>: Lost in alpha, and F further abbreviates to make sense of the omission.</note> I lere þe · luke bereth witnesse</l>
<l> ¶ Godfader and godmoder · þat sen her godchildren</l>
<l> At<note>Bx.9.80: <hi>At</hi> (1): The alpha reading is uncertain.</note> myseise and at<note>Bx.9.80: <hi>at</hi> (2): Not in MCGOF.</note> mischief · and mowe hem amende</l>
<l> Shal haue penaunce in purgatorie · but ȝif þei hem helpe</l>
<l> For more bilongeth to þe litel barne · ar he þe lawe knowe</l>
<l> Þan nempnyng of a name · and he neuere þe wiser</l>
<l> <note>Bx.9.84: CO and alpha have a paraph.</note>Shulde no crystene creature · crien atte ȝate</l>
<l> Ne faille payn ne<note>Bx.9.85: <hi>Ne ... ne</hi>: Alpha has <hi>And ... and</hi>.</note> potage · and prelates did as þei shulden</l>
<l> A Iuwe wolde nouȝte se a Iuwe · go iangelyng for defaute</l>
<l> For alle þe moebles<note>Bx.9.87: <hi>moebles</hi>: HmR <hi>nobles</hi> is a good example of coincidental error.</note> on þis molde · and he amende it miȝte</l>
<l> ¶ Allas þat a crestene creature · shal be vnkynde til<note>Bx.9.88: <hi>til</hi>: So LWHmR against <hi>to</hi> in others.</note> an other</l>
<l> Sitthen Iuwes þat we iugge · Iudas felawes</l>
<l> Ayther<note>Bx.9.90: <hi>Ayther</hi>: Alpha's reading was evidently that of R, with F making a typical attempt to repair the line. See KD p. 142.</note> of hem helpeth other · of þat þat hym<note>Bx.9.90: <hi>hym</hi>: Beta2, G and F repeat <hi>hem</hi> from the a-verse.</note> nedeth</l>
<l> <note>Bx.9.91: Alpha has a paraph.</note>Whi nel we cristene · of cristes good be as kynde<note>Bx.9.91: <hi>kynde</hi>: The M corrector uniquely adds <hi>willed</hi> at the end of the line, perhaps to correct the alliterative pattern. See Duggan, <title>YLS</title> 1 (1987), 66.</note></l>
<l> As Iuwes þat ben owre lores-men · shame<note>Bx.9.92: <hi>shame</hi>: R (= alpha?) has <hi>to schame</hi>, with F altering to <hi>It is shame</hi>.</note> to vs alle</l>
<l> Þe comune for her vnkyndenesse · I drede me shul abye</l>
<l> ¶ Bisschopes shul be blamed · for beggeres sake</l>
<l> He is worse þan Iudas · þat ȝiueth a iaper siluer</l>
<l> And biddeth þe begger go · for his broke clothes</l>
<l> <foreign>Proditor est prelatus cum Iuda · qui patrimonium cristi minus distribuit // & alibi</foreign></l>
<l> <foreign>Perniciosus dispensator est · qui res pauperum cristi inutiliter consumit</foreign></l>
<l> He doth nouȝt wel þat doth þus · ne drat nouȝt god almiȝty</l>
<l> Ne<note>Bx.9.100: <hi>Ne</hi>: Beta2 and F repeat <hi>He</hi> from the previous line.</note> loueth nouȝt salamones sawes · þat sapience tauȝte</l>
<l> <foreign>Inicium sapiencie timor domini ·</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ Þat dredeth god he doth wel · þat dredeth hym for loue<note>Bx.9.102-03: Beta4 abbreviates these two lines and runs them together.</note></l>
<l> And nouȝt for drede<note>Bx.9.103: <hi>And nouȝt for drede</hi>: Alpha is derived from the previous b-verse.</note> of veniaunce · doth þer-fore<note>Bx.9.103: <hi>doth þer-fore</hi>: Following on from its error in the a-verse, alpha reads <hi>to do</hi>.</note> þe bettere</l>
<l> He doth best þat with-draweth hym · by day and bi nyȝte</l>
<l> To spille any speche [·] or any space of tyme</l>
<l> <foreign>Qui offendit in verbo<note>Bx.9.106: <hi><foreign>verbo</foreign></hi>: This is probably <hi>Bx</hi> since it is the reading of LR and probably original M, corrected to <hi>vno</hi> in conformity with James 2.10. Beta1 also has <hi>vno</hi>, while F includes both words, <hi>vno verbo</hi>. The reading <hi>verbo</hi> is presumably Langland's adaptation of the quotation for the context, with some scribes reverting to the biblical text. (The line in L is marked for correction, perhaps significantly.) The quotation also occurs at <hi>Bx</hi>.11.326, where no ms. has <hi>verbo</hi>. While <hi>verbo</hi> must have been present in <hi>Bx</hi>, it may alternatively have been in the form of an interlinear gloss to <hi>vno</hi>. See Donaldson (1955), 198-9; Schmidt (1995), 379-80; Burrow (2003), 191-2.</note> in omnibus est reus</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ Lesyng of tyme · treuthe wote þe sothe</l>
<l> Is moste yhated vp<note>Bx.9.108: <hi>vp</hi>: Supported by LCR and original M. For prepositional <hi>vp</hi>, cf. <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.5.425</ref>.</note> erthe · of hem þat beth in heuene</l>
<l> And sitthe to spille speche · þat spyre<note>Bx.9.109: <hi>spyre</hi>: "offspring", as in L, beta4 and R, evidently puzzled other scribes.</note> is of grace</l>
<l> And goddes gleman · and a game of heuene</l>
<l> Wolde neuere þe faithful fader · his fithel were vntempred</l>
<l> Ne his gleman a gedelyng · a goer to tauernes</l>
<l> ¶ To alle trew tidy men · þat trauaille desyren</l>
<l> Owre lorde loueth hem and lent · loude other stille</l>
<l> Grace to go to hem<note>Bx.9.115: <hi>to hem</hi>: R has <hi>to hem tille</hi> and F has <hi>hem to</hi>. The reversal could be right.</note> · and agon<note>Bx.9.115: <hi>agon</hi>: "earn". W restores the more "correct" form <hi>ofgon</hi> (OE <hi>ofgan</hi>).</note> her lyflode</l>
<l> <foreign>Inquirentes autem dominum non minuentur omni bono</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ Trewe wedded libbing folk · in þis worlde is dowel</l>
<l> For þei mote worche & wynne · and þe worlde susteyne</l>
<l> For of her kynde þei<note>Bx.9.119: <hi>þei</hi>: Alpha has the form <hi>he</hi>. See Introduction <xref>IV.1</xref>.</note> come · þat confessoures ben nempned</l>
<l> Kynges and kniȝtes · kayseres and cherles<note>Bx.9.120: <hi>cherles</hi>: F's <hi>clerkys</hi> is the <hi>A</hi> reading (K.10.137).</note></l>
<l> Maydenes and martires · out of o man come</l>
<l> Þe wyf was made þe weye<note>Bx.9.122: <hi>weye</hi>, "man, husband". Perhaps only F understood the word, for the usual spelling in L and elsewhere is <hi>wye</hi>. However C mss. regularly spell it <hi>wey(e)</hi>.</note> · for to help worche</l>
<l> And þus was wedloke ywrouȝt · with a mene persone<note>Bx.9.123b-26a: Alpha omits as a result of homoarchy (<hi>And þus was wedloke ywrouȝt</hi> 123a, 126a).</note></l>
<l> First bi þe faderes wille · and þe frendes conseille</l>
<l> And sytthenes bi assent of hem-self · as þei two myȝte acorde</l>
<l> And thus was wedloke ywrouȝte · and god hym-self it made</l>
<l> In erthe þe heuene is<note>Bx.9.127: <hi>þe heuene is</hi>: The syntax of the a-verse, "the heaven (of wedlock) is on earth", puzzled alpha (<hi>þere / here heuen is</hi>) and CrW (<hi>and in heuene</hi>). M is altered to CrW's reading.</note> · hym-self was þe<note>Bx.9.127: <hi>was þe</hi>: WCF have <hi>bereþ</hi>, attracted to the common collocation (<ref><hi>Bx</hi>.2.39</ref>, <ref>7.53</ref>, <ref>7.93</ref>, etc.).</note> witnesse</l>
<l> ¶ Ac fals folke [and]<note>Bx.9.128: <hi>and</hi>: Alpha is supported by <hi>Ax</hi> (K.10.139).</note> faithlees · theues and lieres</l>
<l> Wastoures and wrecches · out of wedloke I trowe</l>
<l> Conceyued ben in yuel<note>Bx.9.130: <hi>yuel</hi>: Certainly the <hi>Bx</hi> reading, though <hi>Ax</hi> has alliterating <hi>cursid</hi>.</note> tyme · as caym was on Eue</l>
<l> Of such synful shrewes · þe sauter maketh mynde</l>
<l> <foreign>Concepit in dolore<note>Bx.9.132: <hi><foreign>in dolore</foreign></hi>: The beta reading is that of <hi>Cx</hi> (RK.10.212a) while alpha (and Hm by correction) have <hi>dolorem</hi>, as do some <hi>A</hi> mss. (K.10.150). The adaptation of scriptural <hi>dolorem</hi> (Job 15.35, Psalms 7.15) on the model of l. <ref>130</ref> <hi>in yuel tyme</hi> suggests scribal hypercorrection in alpha, as demonstrated directly in Hm. See Alford (1992), 61-2.</note> et peperit iniquitatem &c</foreign></l>
<l> And alle þat come of þat caym [·] come to yuel ende</l>
<l> For god sent to seem · and seyde bi an angel</l>
<l> Þyne issue in þyne issue · I wil þat þei be wedded</l>
<l> And nouȝt þi kynde with caymes<note>Bx.9.136: <hi>caymes</hi>: Alpha has <hi>caym</hi>, but the possessive is supported by <hi>Ax</hi> (K.10.158).</note> · ycoupled ne yspoused</l>
<l> ¶ Ȝet some<note>Bx.9.137: <hi>some</hi>: The reading of <hi>Bx</hi>; Cr has <hi>Sem</hi> on the basis of l. <ref>134</ref>, and M is corrected to that reading.</note> aȝein þe sonde [·] of owre saueoure of heuene</l>
<l> Caymes kynde & his kynde · coupled togideres</l>
<l> Tyl god wratthed for<note>Bx.9.139: <hi>for</hi>: The reading of L, beta2 and R; it is perhaps harder than MGOF <hi>with</hi>, which however has some support from <hi>Ax</hi> <hi>was wroþ wiþ</hi> (K.10.161).</note> her werkis · and suche a worde seyde</l>
<l> Þat I maked man · now it me athynketh<note>Bx.9.140: <hi>athynketh</hi>: LMCO. It may have given rise to R's <hi>þinketh</hi> and the commoner <hi>forþynkeþ</hi> as in WHmCrGF. The form is secure at <hi>Bx</hi>.18.92. Yet <hi>Ax</hi> has <hi>forþinkeþ</hi> (K.10.164). We follow copy-text.</note></l>
<l> <foreign>Penitet me fecisse hominem</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ And come to Noe anon · and bad hym nouȝt lette</l>
<l> Swithe go shape a shippe · of shides and of bordes</l>
<l> Þiself and þi sones three · and sithen ȝowre wyues</l>
<l> Buske ȝow to þat bote · and bideth ȝe þer-inne</l>
<l> Tyl fourty dayes be fulfilde · þat flode haue ywasshen<note>Bx.9.146: <hi>ywasshen</hi>: Beta is supported by <hi>AC</hi> against alpha's <hi>Iwasted</hi>.</note></l>
<l> Clene awey þe cursed blode · þat caym hath ymaked</l>
<l> ¶ Bestes þat now ben · shulle banne þe tyme</l>
<l> Þat euere þat cursed caym · come on þis erthe</l>
<l> Alle shal deye for his dedes · bi dales and<note>Bx.9.150: <hi>and</hi>: So M and R (=alpha?), supported by <hi>Ax</hi> and most <hi>C</hi> mss. against <hi>and bi</hi> in L and beta1. F drops the line.</note> hulles</l>
<l> And þe foules þat fleeghen · for[th]<note>Bx.9.151: <hi>forth</hi>: L has <hi>for</hi>.</note> with other bestes</l>
<l> Excepte oneliche [·] of eche kynde a couple</l>
<l> Þat in þi<note>Bx.9.153: <hi>þi</hi>: R has <hi>þis</hi> (F omits the line). <hi>Ax</hi> has <hi>þe</hi>; <hi>Cx</hi> supports beta.</note> shyngled shippe · shul ben ysaued</l>
<l> Here abouȝt þe barne · þe belsyres gultes</l>
<l> And alle for her forfadres · þei ferden þe worse</l>
<l> Þe gospel is here-ageine · in o degre I fynde</l>
<l> <foreign>Filius non portabit iniquitatem patris & pater non portabit iniquitatem filij &c<note>Bx.9.157: <hi><foreign>& pater non portabit iniquitatem filij &c</foreign></hi>: Ezek. 18.20. Alpha abbreviates. We follow copy-text, though it is quite likely that <hi>Bx</hi> ended the quotation at <hi>patris</hi>, as <hi>Cx</hi> does, and as at <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.10.119</ref>.</note> ·</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ Ac I fynde if þe fader [·] be false and a shrewe</l>
<l> Þat somdel þe sone · shal haue þe sires tacches</l>
<l> ¶ Impe on<note>Bx.9.160: <hi>on</hi>: So beta, though Hm has <hi>vpon</hi>, C <hi>in</hi> and G <hi>off</hi>. Alpha has <hi>vp-on</hi>. The line is not in <hi>AC</hi>.</note> an ellerne · and if þine apple be swete</l>
<l> Mochel merueile me þynketh · & more of a schrewe</l>
<l> Þat bryngeth forth any barne · but if he be þe same</l>
<l> And haue a sauoure after þe sire · selde seestow other</l>
<l> <foreign>Numquam colligitur de spinis vuas<note>Bx.9.164: <hi><foreign>colligitur de spinis vuas</foreign></hi>: So LM and R, therefore <hi>Bx</hi>. F has the Vulgate reading "colligunt de spinis uvas" (Matt. 7.19). Other scribes correct to a grammatical reading in which <hi>vua</hi> is subject of <hi>colligitur</hi> (beta2 and corrected M), or <hi>vuas</hi> object of <hi>colligimus</hi> (CGO).</note> · nec de tribulis fycus</foreign></l>
<l> [¶]<note>Bx.9.165: <hi></hi>: There is no paraph in L, but the line appears at the top of the leaf and the rubricator probably missed it. WHmR have a paraph and M a line break.</note> And þus þourw cursed caym · cam care vppon erthe</l>
<l> And al for þei wrouȝt wedlokes · aȝein goddis wille</l>
<l> For-þi haue þei maugre for<note>Bx.9.167: <hi>for</hi>: Supported by LMR. Other mss. have <hi>of</hi>.</note> here mariages · þat marye so<note>Bx.9.167: <hi>þat marye so</hi>: R has <hi>as men maryen now</hi>; F rewrites.</note> her childeren</l>
<l> For some as I se now · soth forto telle</l>
<l> For coueitise of catel [·] vnkyndeliche ben wedded</l>
<l> As careful concepcioun [·] cometh of suche mariages<note>Bx.9.170: <hi>of such mariages</hi>: R's <hi>to þat mariages</hi> presumably represents alpha, with F altering for sense.</note></l>
<l> As bifel of þe<note>Bx.9.171: <hi>þe</hi>: Beta is supported by <hi>Ax</hi> (K.10.185) against alpha's <hi>þat</hi>.</note> folke · þat I bifore of tolde</l>
<foreign>id est boni</foreign>
<foreign>id est bonas</foreign>
<l> <note>Bx.9.172-3: Both lines are omitted in alpha skipping from paraph to paraph (though R has an erased line after l. 171). They are not present in <hi>Ax</hi> but are transmitted to <hi>Cx</hi> (RK.10.254-5). See Hanna (1996), 217.</note><note>Bx.9.172: <hi></hi>: The paraph, in L alone, is perhaps not archetypal, yet eyeskip from paraph to paraph would account for the loss of ll. 172-3 in alpha. See Burrow (2010), 24-6.</note> For goode shulde wedde goode<note>Bx.9.172: <hi>goode</hi> (1) and (2): Glossed <hi>id est boni</hi> and <hi>id est bonas</hi> above the line in LM in the main hand, suggesting that this was a feature of beta. Although the line is not in alpha, we take this to be derived from <hi>Bx</hi> and include the glosses in the text. Cf. the gloss above l. <ref>34</ref>.</note> · þough hij no good hadde</l>
<l> I am <foreign>via & veritas</foreign> seith cryst · I may auaunce alle</l>
<l> ¶ It is an oncomely<note>Bx.9.174: <hi>an oncomely</hi>: L originally wrote <hi>an comely</hi>, but the line is noted for correction and then corrected. F also has <hi>an komely</hi>. M omitted the adjective altogether, then correcting <hi>a</hi> to <hi>an vncomely</hi> above the line.</note> couple · bi cryst<note>Bx.9.174: <hi>cryst</hi>: Alpha has <hi>Ihesus</hi>, but beta is supported by <hi>Ax</hi> and by the alliteration.</note> as me þinketh</l>
<l> To ȝyuen a ȝonge wenche · to an olde feble</l>
<l> Or wedden any widwe · for welth of hir goodis</l>
<l> Þat neuere shal barne bere · but if<note>Bx.9.177: <hi>if</hi>: As in LCrWCOR, though omitted by MHmG (F rewrites) and <hi>Ax</hi>.</note> it be in armes</l>
<l> Many a peire sithen þe pestilence · han pliȝt h[e]m<note>Bx.9.178: <hi>hem</hi>: L's form <hi>hom</hi> is perhaps a miswriting; the scribe uses it nowhere else.</note> togideres</l>
<l> Þe fruit þat þei brynge forth · aren foule wordes</l>
<l> In ialousye ioyeles · and ianglyng on bedde<note>Bx.9.180: The line is omitted by alpha, but is in <hi>AC</hi>.</note></l>
<l> Haue þei no children but cheste<note>Bx.9.181: <hi>cheste</hi>: "strife". Beta is supported by <hi>AC</hi> and alliteration against alpha's synonym <hi>iangelynge</hi>.</note> · an<note>Bx.9.181: <hi>an</hi>: "and".</note> choppyng<note>Bx.9.181: <hi>choppyng</hi>: "striking". So LCGO. CrW read <hi>clappyng</hi> and Hm <hi>carpynge</hi>. M is revised to <hi>chidynge</hi>, Alpha was probably even more confused, since R has <hi>gaying</hi> (sic), and F omits altogether. <hi>AC</hi> have <hi>choppes</hi>.</note> hem bitwene</l>
<l> <note>Bx.9.182-4: Beta's readings of these lines on the Dunmow flitch are supported by <hi>AC</hi>. Lines 182b-4 in RF are clearly scribal replacements. Perhaps they were damaged in alpha and were invented independently by R and F, but this is unprecedented behaviour for R. Furthermore, although they are independent, there are enough similarities to suggest a common original. 182b <hi>to fecche hom here bakon</hi> (R), <hi>& fecche þere bakoun</hi> (F) must be alpha, and it signals the disruption. 183 is quite different in the two mss., but similarities in 184 are <hi>þus þei lyuen in</hi> (R), <hi>lyven þus in</hi> (F), and <hi>þe deuel</hi> (R), <hi>þe develys</hi> (F).</note> <note>Bx.9.182: The paraph, in LC only (with a new line-group in M), interrupts the argument.</note> And þough þei don hem to donmowe · but if þe deuel help</l>
<l> To folwen after þe flicche · fecche þei it neuere</l>
<l> And but þei bothe be forsworne · þat bacoun þei tyne</l>
<l> ¶ For-þi I conseille alle crystene · coueite nouȝt be<note>Bx.9.185: <hi>be</hi>: MCrR read <hi>to be</hi>. <hi>AC</hi> mss. vary similarly, but while <hi>Ax</hi> is perhaps the latter, <hi>Cx</hi> is certainly the former.</note> wedded</l>
<l> For coueitise of catel · ne of kynrede riche</l>
<l> Ac maydenes and maydenes · macche<note>Bx.9.187: <hi>macche</hi>: Beta, supported by <hi>Ax</hi>. F's <hi>marye</hi> probably reflects dissatisfaction with alpha's synonym <hi>make</hi> (as in R), yet it is the reading of <hi>Cx</hi>.</note> ȝow togideres</l>
<l> Widwe[r]s and widw[e]s<note>Bx.9.188: <hi>Widwers and widwes</hi>: Alpha's word-order has the support of <hi>Ax</hi> and the P family of <hi>C</hi>, though the X family has beta's order.</note> · worcheth þe same</l>
<l> For no londes but for loue · loke ȝe be wedded</l>
<l> And þanne gete ȝe þe grace<note>Bx.9.190: <hi>þe grace</hi>: Alpha has <hi>grace</hi>. In the absence of a parallel in <hi>AC</hi>, this could be right, but <hi>þe</hi> is easily lost after <hi>ȝe</hi>.</note> of god · and good ynogh to lyue with</l>
<l> <note>Bx.9.191-9: These nine lines are omitted in alpha. They are not in <hi>Ax</hi>, but are transmitted to <hi>Cx</hi>. The cause of the omission is not obvious. KD, p. 68, suggest eyeskip from <hi>maner ... man</hi> 191 <hi>to man and womman</hi> 200, but this is unconvincing, especially as <hi>man</hi> 191 is their emendation and not <hi>Bx</hi>. More probably alpha jumped from the paraph at 191, since at the point of resumption alpha (but not beta) has a paraph.</note> ¶ And euery maner seculer [·] þat may nouȝt continue</l>
<l> Wysly go wedde · and war hym fro synne</l>
<l> For leccherye in likyng · is lymeȝerde of helle</l>
<l> Whiles þow art ȝonge · and þi wepne kene</l>
<l> Wreke þe with wyuynge · ȝif þow wil<note>Bx.9.195: <hi>wil</hi>: For this subjunctive form in L, cf. <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.6.232</ref>. The other beta witnesses have the indicative. The line is not in <hi>A</hi>, and the b-verse is revised in <hi>C</hi>.</note> ben excused</l>
<l> <foreign>Dum sis vir fortis · ne des tua robora scortis</foreign></l>
<l> <foreign>Scribitur in portis · meretrix est ianua mortis</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ Whan ȝe haue wyued bewar · and worcheth in tyme</l>
<l> Nouȝt as Adam & Eue · whan caym was engendred</l>
<l> <note>Bx.9.200: Alpha has a paraph.</note>For in vntyme trewli · bitwene man & womman</l>
<l> Ne shulde no bourde on bedde<note>Bx.9.201: <hi>bourde on bedde</hi>: "fun in bed". Beta's reading is the basis of the RF variants, and is supported by <hi>AC</hi> <hi>bedbourd</hi> (K.10.203; RK.10.290).</note> be · but if þei bothe were clene</l>
<l> Bothe of lyf and<note>Bx.9.202: <hi>and</hi> (1): L has <hi>& and</hi> in error.</note> of soule · and in parfyte charitee</l>
<l> Þat ilke derne dede [·] do noman sholde<note>Bx.9.203: <hi>sholde</hi>: Beta has <hi>ne sholde</hi>, but <hi>Cx</hi> supports alpha (though F is revised) without <hi>ne</hi>. <hi>A</hi> mss. are divided. Beta needs to lengthen the b-verse as a result of placing the punctuation after <hi>do</hi> rather than before it. See Smith (2008), 90-1.</note></l>
<l> And if þei leden þus her lyf · it liked<note>Bx.9.204: <hi>liked</hi>: The LR reading, supported by F's <hi>wold lyke</hi> against the present tense of other mss. The line is not in <hi>AC</hi>.</note> god almiȝti</l>
<l> For he made wedloke firste · and him-self it seide</l>
<l> <foreign>Bonum est vt vnusquisque vxorem suam habeat propter fornicacionem<note>Bx.9.206: <hi><foreign>propter fornicacionem</foreign></hi>: Omitted in alpha, but beta is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>.</note></foreign></l>
<l><note>Bx.9.207: <hi></hi>: The paraph is in LWHm, with a new line-group in M. In R the line is at the foot of the page.</note> And þei þat oþergatis ben geten · for gedelynges ben holden</l>
<l> A[nd]<note>Bx.9.208: <hi>And</hi>: Alpha is supported by <hi>AC</hi> against beta's <hi>As</hi>.</note> false folke fondelynges · faitoures and lyars</l>
<l> Vngracious to gete goode · or loue of þe poeple</l>
<l> Wandren and wasten · what þei cacche mowe</l>
<l> Aȝeines dowel þei don yuel · and þe deuel serue</l>
<l> And after her deth-day · shulle dwelle with þe same<note>Bx.9.212: <hi>þe same</hi>: Beta is supported by <hi>Ax</hi>. R (= alpha?) repeats <hi>þe deuel</hi> from the previous line, with F, <hi>here Mayster</hi>, varying the expression. <hi>Cx</hi> has instead <hi>dwellen shollen in helle</hi>.</note></l>
<l> But god gyue hem grace here · hem-self to amende</l>
<l> <note>Bx.9.214-17: Lines omitted in alpha, skipping from <hi>Dowel</hi> to <hi>dowel</hi> and from paraph to paraph. Once again they are not in <hi>Ax</hi>, but are transmitted to <hi>Cx</hi>. Compare the same situation in <ref>Bx.9.172-3</ref> and <ref>191-9</ref>. In all three instances skipped paraphs are involved.</note> ¶ Dowel my frende is ·<note>Bx.9.214: Scribes have understandable uncertainty about the placing of the mid-line punctus.</note> to don as lawe techeth</l>
<l> To loue þi frende and þi foo · leue me þat is dobet</l>
<l> To ȝiuen and to ȝemen · bothe ȝonge and olde</l>
<l> To helen and to helpen · is dobest of alle</l>
<l> ¶ And [þus is] dowel<note>Bx.9.218: <hi>And þus is dowel</hi>: Alpha's word-order is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>. <hi>Ax</hi> has <hi>Þanne is dowel</hi>.</note> to drede god · and dobet to suffre</l>
<l> And so cometh dobest of bothe · and bryngeth adoun þe mody</l>
<l> And þat is wikked wille · þat many werke<note>Bx.9.220: <hi>werke</hi>: Beta's distributive sg. is supported by <hi>Ax</hi>.</note> shendeth</l>
<l> And dryueth away dowel · þorugh dedliche synnes</l>