Passus quartus decimus

I Haue but oneBx.14.1: one: L and alpha. Other mss. (including M) add hool, which KD (but not Schmidt) adopt on the basis that this is Haukyn's best cote (Bx.13.329). With the exception of the b-verse of l. 32, lines 1-42 have no parallel in C. hatere quod haukyn · I am þe lasse to blame
Þough it be soiled and selde clene · I slepe þere-inne on niȝtes
And also I haue an houswyf · hewen and children
Vxorem duxy & ideo non possum venire
Þat wolen bymolen it many tymeBx.14.5: tyme: G and alpha have tymes. See note to Bx.11.387 where there is the same variation. · maugre my chekes
¶ It hath ben laued in lente · and oute of lente bothe
With þe sope of sykenesse · þat seketh wonder depe
And with þe losse of catel · loth forto agulte
God or any gode man · bi auȝte þat I wisteBx.14.9: F rewrites to repair the alliteration.
And was shryuen of þe preste · þat gaue me for my synnes
To penaunce pacyence · and pore men to fede
Al for coueitise of my crystenedome · in clennesse to kepen it
¶ And couthe I neuereBx.14.13: neuere: Alpha has nouȝt. by cryste · kepen it clene an houre
Þat I ne soiled it with syȝte · or sum ydel speche
Or þorugh werke or þorugh wordeBx.14.15: þorugh worde: CGO omit þorugh, but it motivates alpha's non-alliterating thouȝt. F has þoruh in the b-verse. · or wille of myn herte
Þat I ne flober it foule · fro morwe tyl eue
¶ And I shal kenne þe quod conscience · of contricioun to make
Þat shal clawe þi cote · of alkynnes filthe
Cordis contricio &c
Dowel wasshenBx.14.20: wasshen: Beta2 and O supply shal (added by the M corrector) on the basis of ll. 18 and 22. it and wryngen it · þorw a wys confessour
Oris confessio &c
Dobet shal beten it and bouken it · as briȝte as any scarlet
And engreynen it with good wille · and goddes grace to amende þe
And sithen sende þe to satisfaccioun · for to so[nn]enBx.14.24: sonnen: "dry in the sun" after dyeing it, rather than beta's much easier sowen, "sew". Alpha's verb is sparsely cited in MED, but it is more appropriate for the process of cleaning. it after
Satisfaccio dobestBx.14.25: Following this F has two extra lines. KD adopt the first on the grounds that it is "pre-archetypal" (p. 172).
Bx.14.26: : The paraph is in beta only. In R the line is at the top of the page. Shal neuere mysteBx.14.26: myste: Presumably a Bx error for myske, "dirt" (MED mix). Beta2 alters to chyste / cheeste, "quarrelling". bimolen it · ne moth after biten it
Ne fende ne false man [·] defoulen it in þi lyue
Shal none heraude ne harpoure · haue a fairere garnement
Þan haukyn þe actyf man · and þow do by my techyng
Ne no mynstral be more worth · amonges pore & riche
Þan Haukynnes wyf þe wafrere · w[hic]h isBx.14.31: which is: KD accept that alpha's reading is archetypal, but argue that "from the poor sense of wif (why should her clothes be compared with those of heralds and harpers?) this is unoriginal" (p. 187), and so emend wif to wil. Like beta, which reads with his, KD miss the significance of ll. 3-4, where Hawkin's wife is an aspect of activa vita. actiua vita
¶ And I shal purueye þe paste quod pacyence · þoughBx.14.32: þough: Alpha reads þouȝ þow, but beta is supported by the b-verse in Cx (RK.15.234). no plow erie
And floure to fede folke with · as best be for þe soule
Þough neuere greyne growed · ne grape vppon vyne
AlleBx.14.35: Alle: Indirect object of fynde; WF supply prepositions. þat lyueth and loketh · lyflode wolde I fynde
And þat ynough shal none faille · of þinge þat hem nedeth
We shulde nouȝt be to busy · abouten owre lyflode
Ne solliciti sitis &c [·] volucres celi deus pascit &c [·] pacientes vincunt &cBx.14.38: We separate the three quotations by punctuation. MR separate the first two by punctuation and the second and third by a line-break, but L runs the line on without punctuation. F ends with scitis.
¶ Þanne laughed haukyn a litel · and liȝtly gan swerye
Who-so leueth ȝowBx.14.40: ȝow: R has ȝow noþer; F in a revised line has eyþir of ȝow. Perhaps alpha had ȝow either, i.e. either Conscience or Patience. Schmidt (1995) adopts yow either from alpha as "more precise" (p. 393). We retain copy-text. by owre lorde · I leue nouȝte he be blissed
¶ No quod pacyence paciently · and out of his poke hente
Vitailles of grete vertues · for al manere bestes
And seyde lo here lyflode ynough · if owre byleue be trewe
For lente neuere was [þere]Bx.14.44: þere: Supported by R alone, since F rewrites the line and beta drops the word, but C mss. have either here or more commonly þere (RK.15.238). lyf · but lyflode were shapen
Wher-of or wherfore · [and]Bx.14.45: and: Beta has or, though O reads &. F loses the line, but R's and is supported by Cx. where-by to lybbe
¶ Firste þe wylde worme · vnder weet erthe
Fissch to lyue in þe flode · and in þe fyre þe crykat
Þe corlue by kynde of þe eyre · moste clennest flesch of bryddes
And bestes by grasse and by greyne · and by grene rotis
In menynge þat alle men · myȝteBx.14.50: myȝte: Misunderstanding the syntax (þe same, "similarly"), scribes add do (MCrGOF) or se (C), but LWHmR are supported by Cx. þe same
Lyue þorw lele byleue and loue · as god witnesseth
Quodcumque pecieritisBx.14.52: pecieritis: Beta adds a patre. The P family of C reads patrem, the X family omits as does alpha. Biblical texts vary; see Alford (1992), 87. in nomine meo &c & alibi
Non in solo pane viuit homo set in omni verbo quod procedit de ore dei
¶ But I loked what lyflode itBx.14.54: lyflode it: Beta is supported by Cx (though in a b-verse) against alpha's þat liflode. was · þat pacience so preysed
And þanne wasBx.14.55: was: LWCG read was it, as in Cx, supplying a Bx omission preserved in MO before correction and in alpha. Cr has it was and Hm þat was. a pece of þe pater noster · fiat voluntas tua
¶ Haue haukyn quod pacyence · and ete þis whan þe hungreth
Or whan þow clomsest for colde · or clyngest for dr[outh]eBx.14.57: drouthe: The alpha reading is supported by Cx against beta's drye. However, the latter is a good reading (cf. Bx.5.549), and it is possible that the alpha reading is a revision.
[And]Bx.14.58: And: R (=alpha?) is supported by Cx, though beta omits and F has Þere. shal neuere gyuesBx.14.58: gyues: "shackles". Cx supports beta. Alpha substitutes non-alliterating feytoures, "deceivers"; presumably this was a misreading of a gloss feteres, "fetters" in Bx. For another case of a gloss being included in the text, cf. note to Bx.15.25. þe greue · ne grete lordes wrath
Prisone ne peyne · for pacientes vincunt
Bx.14.60: L's paraph is unsupported except for the line-space in M.Bi so þat þow be sobre · of syȝte and of tonge
In etynge and in handlyng · and in alle þi fyue wittis
Darstow neuere care for corne · ne lynnen cloth ne wollen
Ne for drynke ne deth drede · but deye as god lyketh
Or þorw honger or þorw hete · at his wille be it
For if þow lyuest after his lore · þe sho[r]ter lyf þe betterBx.14.65: better: Alpha has leuere, perhaps by alliterative attraction; beta is supported by Cx.
Si quis amat cristum mundum non diligit istum
¶ For þorw his breth bestes wexenBx.14.67: wexen: L's forms are inf. wax(en), pr. 3 sg. wexeth, waxeth, pr. pl. wexeth, pa. sg. wex, pa. pl. wexen, woxen, ppl. waxen, woxen. The readings of other beta mss. confirm that wexen is here past tense, as is ȝeden. R has the present; the most authoritative C mss. have the past. · and abrode ȝeden
Dixit & facta sunt &c ·
Ergo þorw his breth mowen · men & bestes lyuen
As holywrit witnesseth · whan men segge her gracesBx.14.70: graces: Beta's plural is supported by Cx.
Aperis tu manum tuam · & imples omne animal benediccione
¶ It is founden þat fourty wynter · folke lyued with-outen tulying
And oute of þe flynte spronge þe flode · þat folke & bestes dronke
And in Elyes tyme · heuene was yclosed
Þat no reyne neBx.14.75: ne: Omitted by MHmF and the P family of C. rone · þus rede menBx.14.75: rede men: This word-order is supported by Cx against the reversal in MF. in bokes
Þat many wynt[er]Bx.14.76: wynter: There is the usual variation between the marked and unmarked forms of the plural. Here Cx supports CrR. men lyueden · and no mete ne tulyeden
[¶]Bx.14.77: : WHmR have a paraph here which in L has slipped to the next line. Seuene slepe as seith þe boke · seuene hundreth wynter
And lyueden with-oute lyflode · and atte laste þei woken
And if men lyued as mesure wolde · shulde neuere-moreBx.14.79: more: Although in alliterative position, this is omitted by all C mss. as well as by beta4 and F presumably by coincidence in a revised b-verse. be defaute
Amonges cristene creatures · if crystes wordes ben trewe
Ac vnkyndnesse carestia maketh · amonges crystene peple
And ouer-plente maketh pruyde · amonges pore & riche
Ac mesure is so moche worth · it may nouȝte be to dere
For þe meschief and þe meschaunce · amonges men of sodome
Wex þorw plente of payn · & of pure sleuthe
Ociositas & habundancia panis peccatum turpissimum nutriuitBx.14.86: R ends the quotation at panis, and F omits altogether. Lines 81-110 have no parallel in C.
For þei mesured nouȝt hem-self · of þat þei ete and dronke
Diden dedly synne [·] þat þe deuel lyked
So vengeaunce fel vpon hem · for her vyle synnes
Þei sonken in-to helle · þoBx.14.90: þo: So LM and F, but R joins the others with þe. Either could be a substitution for the other. citees vchone
¶ For-þi mesure we vs wel · and make owre faithe owre scheltroun
And þorw faith cometh contricioun · conscience wote wel
Whiche dryueth awey dedly synne · and doth it to be venial
And þough a man myȝte nouȝte speke · contricioun myȝte hym saue
And brynge his soule to blisse · byBx.14.95: by: LCr + alpha; MW substitute for and others drop. For the idiom by so, "provided that", cf. Bx.11.76. so þat feith bere witnesse
Þat whiles he lyued he bileued · in þe lore of holycherche
Ergo contricioun feith and conscience · is kyndelich dowel
And surgienes for dedly synnesBx.14.98: synnes: Apparently beta, though CrHm agree with alpha on the sg. We follow copy-text. · whan shrifte of mouth failleth
¶ Ac shrifte of mouth more worthy is · if man be i[n]licheBx.14.99: inliche: R reproduces alpha, as shown by F's error with (for within). MO also have ynlich, presumably a scribal restoration since other beta mss. have iliche. contrit
For shrifte of mouth sleeth synne · be it neuere so dedly
Per confessionem to a prest · peccata occiduntur
Þere contricioun doth but dryueth it doun · in-to a venial synne
As dauid seith in þe sauter · et quorum tecta sunt peccata
Ac satisfaccioun seketh oute þe rote · and bothe sleeth and voideth
And as it neuere had ybe · to nouȝt bryngeth dedly synne
Þat it neuere eft is seen ne sore · but semeth a wounde yheled
¶ [Ȝe]Bx.14.107: Ȝe: Alpha only, but an opening discourse-marker that is characteristically Langlandian; cf. l. 113 below, Bx.11.145 etc. where woneth charite quod haukyn · I wiste neuere in my lyue
Man þat with hym spake · as wyde as I haue passed
Bx.14.109: : The paraph at the start of the speech is in beta and F. Cf. l. 107 above, and l. 111 below. Þere parfit treuthe and pouere herte is · and pacience of tonge
Þere is charitee þe chief chaumbrereBx.14.110: chaumbrere: The form chambre in MHmCG and alpha could represent Bx, corrected by other scribes. See note to laborere in l. 338. [·] for god hym-selue
¶ Whether pacien[c]e pouerteBx.14.111: pacience pouerte: This, rather than paciente pouerte in LCrWO, is likely to be the beta reading, as in CG and MHm before correction. Scribes were understandably puzzled, not realising that Pacience is a term of address (as in l. 292). Evidence that W's exemplar may have read pacience is that W nowhere else spells paciente with final /e/. On this analysis, alpha, equally puzzled, added and, to read pacience and pouerte. Yet alpha's reading has support from Cx, pouerte and pacience (RK.15.277). quod haukyn · be more plesaunte to owre driȝteBx.14.111: driȝte: The difficult word is misread by C and glossed by G and alpha. Cx has instead "plese more god almyhty".
Þan ricchesse riȝtfulliche ywonne · and resonablelich yspendedBx.14.112: yspended: Beta2 alters to dispended.
¶ Ȝe quis est ille quod pacience · quik laudabimus eum
Þough men rede of richchesse · riȝt to þe worldes ende
I wist neuere renke þat riche was · þat whan he rekne sholde
Whan itBx.14.116: it: L's agreement with R against the easily adopted he (as in the b-verse) in the other beta mss. would be secure for Bx except that Cx reads he drow to þe deth. F omits the pronoun. See Introduction V.3.2. drow to his deth-day · þat he ne dred hym sore
And þatBx.14.117: þat: The beta reading, but easily lost as in MGR. atte rekenyng in arrerage fel · rather þan oute of dette
¶ There þe pore dar plede · and preue by pure resoun
To haue allowaunce of his lorde · by þe lawe he it cleymeth
Ioye þat neuere ioye hadde · of riȝtful iugge he axeth
And seith lo briddes and bestes · þat no blisse ne knoweth
And wilde wormes in wodes · þorw wyntres þow hem greuest
And makest hem welnyegh meke · and mylde for defaute
And after þow sendest hem somer · þat is her souereigne Ioye
And blisse to alle þat ben · bothe wilde and tame
Þanne may beggeres asBx.14.126: as: So L, corrected M, CrW. Certainly a more meaningful reading than and in beta4 and alpha, and supported by the X family of C, though some of the P family also have and. bestes · after bote waiten
Þat al her lyf han lyued · in langour and in defaute
But god sent hem some-tyme · some manere ioye
Other here or elles-where · kynde wolde it neuere
For to wrotherhele was he wrouȝte · þat neuere was ioyeBx.14.130: was ioye: The word-order is supported by alliteration and Cx, against the reversal in Hm and alpha. shaped
¶ Angeles þat in helle now ben · hadden ioye some-tyme
And diues in deyntees lyued · and in douce vye
Riȝte so resoun sheweth · þat þoBx.14.133: þo: Beta2 has, less appropriately, þe. Lines 133-40 are not in C. men þat were richeBx.14.133: þat were riche: The phrase is lost in alpha. F repairs.
And her makes also · lyued her lyf in murthe
¶ Ac god is of a wonder wille · by þat kynde witte sheweth
To ȝiue many men his mercymonye · ar he it haue deserued
Riȝt so fareth god by some riche · reuthe me it þinketh
For þei han her hyre here · anBx.14.138: an: "and". The fact that the form is also in M may indicate that it is beta's. heuene as it were
And isBx.14.139: is: "it is". Dropped by beta2 and F, and erased in M. gret lykyng to lyue · with-oute laboure of body
And whan he deyeth ben disalowed · as dauid seith in þe sauter
Dormierunt & nichil inuenerunt
And in an other stede also · velud sompnum surgencium domine in ciuitate tua & adBx.14.142: & ad: Scribes have corrected this familiar quotation (Psalm 72.20). F reads sompnium, "dream", in place of sompnum, "sleep", and adds ymaginem, both as in the Vulgate. Alpha's ad for beta's & ad is probably a similar correction. Cx ends the quotation at surgencium. nichilum rediges
Allas þat ricchesse shal reue · and robbe mannes soule
Fram þe loue of owre lorde · at his laste ende
¶ Hewen þat han her hyre aforeBx.14.145: afore: Alpha has to-fore and Cx byfore. See note to Bx.5.12. · aren euermore nedy
And selden deiethBx.14.146: deieth: Beta adds the pronoun he, but R (F rewrites) is supported by Cx in postponing the subject until the b-verse. out of dette · þat dyneth ar heBx.14.146: he: Beta supported by the X group of C, while alpha's plural has support from the P group. The plural is probably prompted by the previous line. deserue it
And til he haue done his deuor · and his dayes iourne
For whan a werkman hath wrouȝte · þanne may men se þe sothe
What he were worthi for his werke · and what he hath deserued
And nouȝt to fonge bifore · for drede of disalowynge
¶ So I segge by ȝow riche · it semeth nouȝtBx.14.151: nouȝt: Lost by alpha making nonsense; F rewrites the b-verse to improve the sense. þat ȝe shulle
Haue [two] heuene[s]Bx.14.152: two heuenes: Alpha is supported by Cx. Probably beta misunderstood the sense of a line which causes scribes problems in other respects also. It involves an unusual disjuncture after the first stress: "(You shall not) have two heavens: (one) in your present existence and (another) in heaven afterwards". In Cx the line is simplified by dropping the b-verse: "(You shall not) have two heavens in return for your present existence" (RK.16.9). inBx.14.152: in: Though R's for is shared with Cx, it makes no sense in the context of the line as in Bx. ȝowre here-beyngBx.14.152: here-beyng: Only recorded here and in C by MED, her adv. 7(a). Beta2 and G corrupt to here beryng (? OED harbouring), prompting W to guess at here dwellyng. · and heuene her-afterBx.14.152: her-after: This is perhaps Bx, though it could have been prompted by here in the a-verse. WGR have þere-after.
Riȝt as a seruaunt taketh his salarye bifore · & sitth wolde clayme moreBx.14.153: R (reproducing alpha) divides the line at the end of the unusually heavy a-verse, but is left with an impossibly short line. F therefore expands freely. Hm divides at the same point as alpha, and then fills out the following line independently. Alpha's huire for beta's more anticipates Bx huyre in l. 154. The passage up to l. 169 is dropped in C.
As he þat none hadde · and hath huyreBx.14.154: huyre: Alpha's heuene is a consequence of its muddle in the previous line. atte laste
It may nouȝt be ȝe riche men · or matheu on god lyeth
De delicijs ad delicias · deficile est transireBx.14.156: transire: Alford (1992), 89, quotes Jerome in support of this reading rather than ascendere in alpha, who still has his eye on heuene.
Bx.14.157: : The paraph, following the Latin line, is in beta and F. Ac if [ȝ]eBx.14.157: ȝe: LMCrGF þe is an easy misreading. It may, however, represent Bx, with WHmCOR making an obvious correction. riche haue reuthe · and rewarde wel þe pore
And lyuen as lawe techeth · done leute to alleBx.14.158: alle: All beta mss. except L have hem alle (referring to the poor) but alle is probably the alpha reading, as in R, with F expanding a short b-verse to his brothir. On M's agreement with beta1, see Introduction III.2.
Criste of his curteysie · shal conforte ȝow atte laste
And rewarde alle dowble ricchesse · þat reuful hertes habbeth
And as an hyne þat hadde · his hyre ar he bygonne
And whan he hath done his deuor wel · men doth hym other bounte
Ȝyueth hym a cote aboue his couenaunte · riȝte so cryst ȝiueth heuene
Bothe to riche and to nouȝte riche · þat rewfullichBx.14.164: rewfullich: Cf. l. 160. Alpha adopts the easier reading riȝtfullich. lybbeth
And alle þat done her deuor wel · han dowble hyre for her trauaille
Here forȝyuenesse of her synnes · and heuene blisse after
Bx.14.167-71: These five lines are lost in alpha, jumping from Ac to Ac and paraph to paraph. ¶ Ac it nys but selde yseyn · as by holy seyntes bokesBx.14.167: bokes: M shares the error liues with O.
Þat god rewarded double reste · to any riche wye
For moche murthe is amonges riche · as in mete and clothyng
And moche murthe in Maye is · amonges wilde bestes
And so forth whil somer lasteth · her solace dureth
[¶]Bx.14.172: : An appropriate paraph, recorded by WHm and alpha. AcBx.14.172: Ac: Alpha must have had this reading, though R omits it. F has (as usual) But. beggeres aboute Midsomer · bredlees þei soupe
And ȝit is wynter for hem worse · for wete-shodde þei gange
Afyrst sore and afyngred · and foule yrebuked
And arated of riche men · þat reuthe is to here
Now lorde sende hem somer · and some manere ioye
Heuene after her hennes-goynge · þat here han suche defaute
For alle myȝtest þow haue made · none mener þan other
And yliche witty & wyse · if þe welBx.14.179: þe wel: In L the scribe has first written þi followed by five letters; the /i/ has been altered to /e/ followed by wel and a punctus. There can be little question that L's original reading was þi wille as in MCGOF. Rather doubtfully we follow L's corrected reading, supported by beta2 (CrWHm) and R, on the grounds that þe wel was more likely to have been mistaken for þi wille than vice versa. Cx revises the b-verse and offers no guide. hadde lyked
Bx.14.180: Alpha's paraph is not appropriate.And haue reuthe on þise riche men · þat rewarde nouȝte þi prisoneresBx.14.180: prisoneres: For R's form prisones, see note to Bx.3.138 and l. 186 below. Here and elsewhere we follow copy-text. Lines 180-209 are not in C.
Of þe good þat þow hem gyuest · ingrati ben manye
Ac god of þi goodnesse · gyue hem grace to amende
For may no derth ben hem dere · drouth ne weet
Ne noyther hete ne haille · haue þei here hele
Of þat þei wilne and wolde · wanteth hem nouȝt here
¶ Ac pore peple þi prisoneres · lordeBx.14.186: lorde: R has lore, either as a spelling of lorde as at Bx.5.407, 18.61, or as the ppl. "lost". Perhaps the form represents alpha, since F supposes it to be a verb, reading lyȝn, "lie". Note also the addition of final /d/ in O's lord. in þe put of myschief
Conforte þo creatures · þat moche care suffren
Þorw derth þorw drouth · alle her dayes here
Wo in wynter tymesBx.14.189: wynter tymes: Alpha has wyntres tyme. In the same a-verse in C at RK.9.78, the X family has beta's reading, the P family has wynter tyme. Cf. somer tyme in the next line. · for wantyng of clothes
And in somer tyme selde · soupen to þe fulle
Conforte þi careful [·] cryst in þi rycheBx.14.191: ryche: Beta2 corrupts to rychesse, and M is altered to that reading.
For how þow confortest alle creatures · clerkes bereth witnesse
Conuertimini ad me & salui eritis
¶ Þus in genere of his genitriceBx.14.194: in genere of his genitrice: "by the very nature of his nobility". Alpha must have had alle his, as R, but beta copies apart from L have neither word. · Ihesu cryst seyde
To robberes and to reueres · to riche and to pore
[To hores to harlotes . to alle maner poeple]Bx.14.196: The line is in alpha only, beta missing the second line beginning To. For to (2) F has & to, possibly correctly, since R uniquely drops & in the parallel position in the line above. F's b-verse is, however, rather meaninglessly inclusive.
Þow tauȝtest hem in þe Trinitee · to take baptesme
And be clene þorw þat crystennynge · of alle kynnes [synnes]Bx.14.198: synnes: Dropped by L after kynnes. W alone has the sg.
AndBx.14.199: And: "if". Alpha underlines the sense with And if, adopted also by CrW. In M a word is first inserted and then erased. vs fel þorw folye · to falle in synne after
Confessioun and kne[w]lechyngBx.14.200: Confessioun and knewlechyng: Reversed in alpha. [·] & crauyng þi mercy
Shulde amende vs as many sithes · as man wolde desire
AcBx.14.202: Ac: Beta2, C and alpha have And. if þe p[ouke]Bx.14.202: pouke: Beta's pope is an odd error, especially in view of l. 205. KD, p. 147 suggest "a preferred villain substituted". wolde plede here-aȝeineBx.14.202: here-aȝeine: Alpha has þere-aȝeine, adopted also by G. · and punyssh vs in conscience
HeBx.14.203: He: Either Christ, or more probably "the one affected". R's Ho is perhaps an alpha error, altered by F to We for the sense. shulde take þe acquitance as quik · and to þe qued schewe it
Pateat &c per passionem domini
And putten of so þe pouke · and preuen vs vnder borwe
Ac þe perchemyn of þis patent · of pouerte be moste
And of pure pacience · and parfit bileue
Bx.14.208: The paraph in W and alpha is not adopted.Of pompe and of pruyde · þe parchemyn decorreth
And principaliche of alle peple · but þei be pore of herte
Ellis is al an ydel · al þat euere we writen
Pater nostresBx.14.211: Pater nostres: CrCGOR have the singular. Cx has preyeres (RK.16.38). and penaunceBx.14.211: penaunce: Here and elsewhere, romance loans ending in a sibilant may be unchanged in the plural, hence frequent variations between penaunce and penaunces, e.g. Bx.P.25, 7.132, 15.153, 16.39. Here Hm and alpha have the marked plural, as does the X family of C. It is worth observing that of 44 instances of penaunce from the C text in Wittig's Concordance, 16 are emendations of penaunces in the X family. · and pilgrimageBx.14.211: pilgrimage: CrWG have the plural, as do most C mss. See Bx.15.189 and 19.387 for a similar situation. to Rome
ButBx.14.212: But: "unless". Beta is supported by Cx. R has And; F begins With in a rewritten a-verse. owre spences and spendyngBx.14.212: spendyng: R has oure spendynge, as the X family of C. sprynge ·Bx.14.212: The punctuation follows sprynge (aaa/xx) in LR and probably in original M, though there another punctus appears before springe, as in other mss. (aa/ax). of a trewe welleBx.14.212: welle: The obviously superior reading is supported by Cx over wille in CrWCO (G corrects).
Elles is al owre laboure loste · lo how men writeth
In fenestres atte freres · if fals be þe foundement
For-þi crystene sholde ben in comune riche · none coueitouse for hym-selue
¶ For seuene synnes þatBx.14.216: þat: Dropped in CO, and postponed to the b-verse in WGF. Cx has þat in both positions. þere ben · assaillen vs euere
Þe fende folweth hem alle · and fondeth hem to helpe
Ac wiþ ricchesse þ[o] ribaude[s]Bx.14.218: þo ribaudes: Alpha, supported by Cx, referring to the sins. Beta has þat Ribaude referring to the devil. · rathest men bigyleth
For þere þat richesse regneth · reuerence[s]Bx.14.219: reuerences: i.e. expressions of deference. Alpha has the plural, as do the best C mss. Beta's form might be construed as plural without ending, as often with romance loans ending in a sibilant. See note to l. 211. folweth
And þat is plesaunte to pryde · in pore and in riche
AndBx.14.221: And: Beta supported by the X family of C against alpha's Ac/But. The P family has no conjunction. þe riche is reuerenced · by resoun of his richchesse
Þere þe pore is put bihynde [·] and par-auenture can more
Of witte and of wysdom · þat fer [w]eyBx.14.223: fer wey: R only, since the line is lost in F, but supported by Cx against beta's fer awey. Neither phrase occurs elsewhere in the poem. is better
Þan ricchesse or reaute · and rather yherde in heuene
For þe riche hath moche to rekene · and riȝte softeBx.14.225: riȝte softe: Corruption in beta2 leads CrW to invent and Hm to correct. Perhaps beta2 read ofte, and lost the word in the next line. walketh
Þe heighBx.14.226: heigh: Alpha and G repeat riȝt from the previous line. Beta's a-verse is as in Cx. waye to heuene-ward · oft ricchesseBx.14.226: ricchesse: Beta against alpha's riche. The b-verse is rewritten in C. letteth
Ita possibileBx.14.227: possibile: "It is as (ita) possible for a rich man etc." Quoted in this form also in RK.11.201a. MW alter to impossibile, in view of Matt. 19.23 which has "quia dives difficile ...". diuiti &c
¶ Þere þe pore presethBx.14.228: preseth: Beta is supported by Cx. Alpha has precheth (R) or procheth (in both cases <p> with abbreviation). bifor þe richeBx.14.228: þe riche: Certainly Bx, though Cx omits, as does F by contamination or coincidence. · with a pakke at his rugge
Opera enim illorum sequntur illos
Batauntliche as beggeres done · and baldeliche he craueth
For his pouerte and hisBx.14.231: his (2): Omitted by MCGO, as in the P family of C. (F loses ll. 229-31). pacience · a perpetuel blisse
Beati pauperes · quoniam ipsorum est regnum celorum
¶ AndBx.14.233: And: Alpha has Ac (F But); C mss. have And or Also. Cf. l. 221. pryde in ricchesse regneth · rather þan in pouerte
[Or] in þe Maister [or]Bx.14.234: Or ... or: Beta has Arst ... þan, but alpha is supported by Cx. Beta supposes that the master would have more pride than his man, but Skeat (1886), ii, 211 explains that by man Langland refers to "the arrogant manners of the retainers in a great household". in þe man · some mansioun heBx.14.234: he: Omitted by R, but supported by Cx. hath
Ac in pouerte þere pacyence is · pryde hath no myȝte
Ne none of þe seuene synnes · sitten ne mowe þere longe
Ne haue powere in pouerte · if pacyence it folwe
For þe pore is ay prest · to plese þe riche
And buxome at his byddyng · for his broke loues
And buxomenesse and boste · aren euer-more at werre
And ayther hateth other · in alle manere werkes
Bx.14.242: A paraph might be expected here, as for the other sins, but only WCF have one.If wratthe wrastel with þe pore · he hath þe worse ende
For if þey bothe pleyne · þe pore is but fieble
And if he chyde or chatre · hym chieueth þe worse
Bx.14.245-55: These eleven lines are lost in beta, probably by eyeskip from And if 244 to ¶ And if (in beta only) 256. Cx is closely parallel except for the last two lines, and generally supports R over F. [For lowelich he loketh · and loueliche is his speche
Þat mete or money · of other men mote asken
Bx.14.247: The paraph in F marks the introduction of gluttony.And if glotonye greue pouerte · he gadereth þe lasse
For his rentes wolBx.14.248: wol: R has ne wol. Cx has neither ne in the a-verse nor no in the b-verse. nauȝte reche · no riche metes to bugge
And þouȝ his glotonye be to gode ale · he goth to cold beddynge
And his heued vnhiled · vnesily ywrye
For whan he streyneth hym to strecche · þe strawe is his shetesBx.14.251: shetes: Cx supports R's plural.
So for his glotonye and his grete sleuthe · he hath a greuous penaunce
Þat is welawo whan he waketh · and wepeth for colde
And sum-tyme for his synnes · so he is neuere merye
Withoute mornynge amonge · and mischiefBx.14.255: mischief: The b-verse in Cx, "so meschief hym folleweth" (RK.16.78) offers no support to F's myche myschef. to bote]
¶ And [þouȝ]Bx.14.256: þouȝ: Alpha is supported by Cx against if in beta. coueitise woldeBx.14.256: wolde: Only L + alpha, but supported by Cx "wolde with þe pore wrastle". cacche þe pore · þei may nouȝt come togideres
And by þe nekke namely · her none may hente other
For men knoweth wel þat coueitise · is of a kene wille
And hath hondes and armes · of a longe lengthe
And pouerte nis but a petit þinge · appereth nouȝt to his naule
And louely layke was it neuere · bitwene þe longe and þe shorte
And þough auarice wolde angre þe pore · he hath but litel myȝte
For pouerte hath but pokes · to putten in his godis
Þere auarice hath almaries · and yren-bounde coffres
And whether be liȝter to breke · lasse boste itBx.14.265: lasse boste it: M alters its reading to agree with CrW; Cx supports the other mss. maketh
A beggeres bagge · þan an yren-bounde coffre
¶ Lecherye loueth hym nouȝt · for he ȝeueth but lytel syluer
Ne doth hym nouȝte dyne delycatly · ne drynke wyn oft
Bx.14.269-70: The lines are in beta only, but supported by Cx. Perhaps alpha censored them, though KD, p. 68, suggest eyeskip from A...stuwes 269 to And...suwe 271. A strawe for þe stuwes · it stode nouȝt I trowe
Had þei noneBx.14.270: none: Cx has alliterating noen haunt. We suppose that Bx or beta lost haunt, with L preserving the reading none, beta1 altering to no þing for sense, and G further altering to noght. If so, then M is perhaps dependent on beta1. but of pore men · her houses wereBx.14.270: were: All beta mss. except L read stoode, perhaps repeated from the previous line. Cx loses the b-verse. vntyled
¶ And þough sleuthe suwe pouerte · and serue nouȝt god to paye
Mischief is his maister · and maketh hym to thynke
Þat god is hisBx.14.273: his: Omitted by R and misplaced by F, but supported by Cx. grettest helpe · and no gome elles
And [he is]Bx.14.274: he is: The reading of R alone, but supported by Cx (RK.16.97). The beta reading, as in L, original M, and HmGOC, appears to have been his. CrWF make an obvious correction to he his, and this is followed by the M corrector. The sense is that Poverty is a servant in God's retinue. seruaunt as he seith · and of his sute bothe
And whereBx.14.275: where: "whether", the spelling of LR. he be or be nouȝte · he bereth þe signe of pouerte
And in þat secte owre saueoure · saued al mankynde
For-thi al poreBx.14.277: pore: CrCGO have pouertie, influenced by l. 275. Cx supports pore. þat paciente is · may claymen and askenBx.14.277: may claymen and asken: The b-verse does not alliterate. Cx has instead of puyr rihte may claymen.
After her endynge here · heuene-riche blisse
¶ Moche hardier may he axen · þat here myȝte haue his wille
In londeBx.14.277: In londe: F's reading suggests that R's In lorde is an alpha error. and in lordship · and likynge of bodye
And for goddis loue leueth al · an lyueth as a beggere
And as a mayde for [a]Bx.14.282: a (2): R is supported by Cx against omission in all other B mss. mannes loue · her moder forsaketh
Hir fader and alle her frendes · and folweth hir make
Moche is suche a maydeBx.14.284: suche a mayde: LMHmCO are supported by Cx (RK.16.107). Alpha reads þat mayde, G drops suche, and CrW reflect a corrupt exemplar anticipating more in the following line. to louie · of hymBx.14.284: hym: Cx has a man to carry the alliteration. þat such one taketh
More þan a mayden is · þat is maried þorw brokage
As bi assent of sondry partyes · and syluer to bote
More for coueitise of good · þan kynde loue of bothe
¶ So it fareth bi eche a persone · þat possessioun forsaketh
And put hym to be pacient · and pouerte weddeth
Þe whichBx.14.290: Þe which: Supported by Cx against R Which and Cr Such. is sybbe to god hym-self · and so [neighe is pouerte]Bx.14.290: so neighe is pouerte: This is the reading of R and presumably of alpha, which F attempts to clarify by altering pouerte to þat persone. Beta is quite different, so to his seyntes, which makes superficial but inappropriate sense and can hardly have given rise to alpha. The readings of this b-verse and that of the next line suggest that Bx was damaged or unclear. Cx has a rather feeble repair: "The whiche is syb to Crist sulue and semblable bothe" (RK.16.113), and drops the next line.
¶ Haue god my trouthe quod Haukyn · ȝe preyse faste pouerteBx.14.291: ȝe preyse faste pouerte: Beta's b-verse at least makes sense but it lacks alliteration. R, presumably representing alpha, is nonsense, and F skilfully rewrites. It may be that Bx read ȝe herie faste pouerte, with preyse as a gloss to avoid confusion with "hear", a gloss then incorporated by the scribes. It may be also that Bx was only partly legible; see previous note.
What is pouerte pacienceBx.14.292: pacience: R only, but supported by Cx, where Actyf is addressing Patience. F drops the word and beta has with pacience. quod he · proprely to mene
Bx.14.293: : The paraph in LWHm introduces four Latin lines. Paupertas quod pacience · est odibile bonum
Remocio curarum · possessio sine calumpnia · donum dei · sanitatisBx.14.294: sanitatis: CrWC and original M have erroneous sanitas, as again at l. 326; R anticipates semita. mater
Absque solicitudineBx.14.295: solicitudine: O and Alpha have the error solitudine, as again at l. 331. Many C manuscripts have the same error. semita · sapiencie temperatrix · negocium sine dampno
Incerta fortuna · absque solicitudine felicitas ·
¶ I can nouȝt construe alBx.14.297: al: Dropped by Hm and beta4, but supported by Cx. þis quod haukyn · ȝe moste kenneBx.14.297: kenne: Scribes add me (WR) or alter to telle (Hm) or say (beta4). þis on englisch
Bx.14.298: MWHmCF mark the start of Patience's speech with a paraph or line-space.In englisch quod pacyence it is wel harde · welBx.14.298: wel (2): Lost by CrHmG who move the punctuation to follow pacyence. F also loses the word and expands the b-verse. to expounen
Ac somdel I shal seyne it · by so þow vnderstonde
Pouerte is þe first poynte · þat pryde moste hateth
Thanne is it good by good skil · al þat agasteth pryde
Riȝte as contricioun is confortable þinge · conscience wote wel
And a sorwe of hym-self · and a solace to þe sowle
So pouerte propreliche [·] penaunce and ioye
Is to þe body [·] pure spiritual helthe
Ergo paupertas est odibile bonum
Bx.14.307: Alpha has a paraph which beta more logically postpones to l. 308.And contricioun confort [·] & cura animarumBx.14.307: CGO add þe second, no doubt incorporated from a marginal note. But cf. l. 314.
¶ Selde sitte pouerte · þe sothe to declare
OrBx.14.309: Or: CrW read For, and M is altered to that reading. Hm takes Or as to be Latin, so writes horas justicie in display script. Many C scribes are puzzled by the syntax at this point. as iustyce to iugge men · enioigned is no poreBx.14.309: enioigned is no pore: The b-verse has been lost in alpha, with F patching.
Ne to be aBx.14.310: a: Dropped by beta2 and G, as by some C scribes. Maire [ouer]Bx.14.310: ouer: Probably alpha as in R, misread as on in F. It has support from Cx against beta's aboue. men · ne mynystre vnder kynges
Selden is anyBx.14.311: any (1): Beta supported by Cx. R's nonsensical enemye presumably reproduces alpha, revised to þe by F. pore yput · to punysshen any peple
Remocio curarum
Ergo pouerte and pore men · parfornen þe comaundement
Nolite iudicare quemquam þe þriddeBx.14.314: þe þridde: Supported by all B mss., though not in Cx and quite possibly incorporated from a marginal note. Cf. l. 307.
¶ Selde is pore [riȝt]Bx.14.315: pore riȝt: Alpha is supported by Cx and alliteration over beta's any pore, picked up from l. 311. riche · but of [his]Bx.14.294: his: Omitted by all except R (rephrased in F), but supported by Cx. riȝtful heritage
Wynneth he nauȝt with weghtesBx.14.316: weghtes: Alpha must have had wittes as in R but revised in F. C mss. show some confusion, the majority reading wihtes, "weights", but with variants including wittes, whittus and whites (RK.16.130). fals · ne with vnseled mesures
Ne borweth of his neghbores · but þat he may wel paye
Possessio sine calumpnia ·
¶ Þe fierthe [it]Bx.14.319: it: Omitted by all except R, but it is in the most reliable mss. of C, and easily lost. Cf. ll. 324, 327, 334, 338, 342, where R again uniquely reads it. is a fortune · þat florissheth þe soule
Wyth sobrete fram al synne · and also ȝit more
It affaiteth þe flesshe · fram folyes ful manye
A collateral conforte · crystes owne ȝifte
¶ Þe fyfte [it]Bx.14.324: it: Omitted by all except R; cf. note to l. 319. C mss. have instead Ȝut is hit or Ȝut hit is. is moder of helthe [·] a frende in alle fondynges
And for þe la[w]d[e]Bx.14.325: lawde: The range of variants suggests that this spelling (as in CR) or possibly laude was the reading of Bx. Schmidt (1995), 394, plausibly proposes that it was an error for lowe, "humble people". Most beta scribes suppose the intended reading to be lande, but GO take it as the northern spelling of lewde. F's lawe presumably means "law" rather than "low", which is lowe, lowh, lowhȝ. Cx rewrites (RK.16.138) euere a lecheBx.14.325: a leche: Alpha's a-liche / y-lyche, though adopted by KD, is an obvious error. In its rewritten line Cx has of foule eueles leche. · a lemman of al clennesse
SanitatisBx.14.326: Sanitatis: For the error Sanitas in CrWC and uncorrected M and G, cf. l. 294. mater
¶ Þe sexte [it]Bx.14.327: it: Omitted by all except R; cf. note to l. 319. Most C mss. have it. is a path of pees · ȝe þorw þe pas of altoun
Pouerte myȝte passe · with-oute peril of robbyng
For þere þat pouerte passeth · pees folweth after
And euere þe lasse þat he bereth · þe hardyer heBx.14.330: he (2): R drops and Cx rewrites. The line is lost in F. is of herte
For-þi seith seneca · paupertas est absque solicitudineBx.14.331: solicitudine: See note to l. 295. semita
And an hardy man of herte · amonge an hepe of þeues
CantabitBx.14.333: Cantabit: Cr and alpha have the imperfect in error. (KD and Schmidt wrongly record Cantabit as F's reading). paupertas coram latrone viator
¶ Þe seueneth [it]Bx.14.334: it: Omitted by all except R; cf. note to l. 319. Most C mss. have it. is welle of wisdome · and fewe wordes sheweth
For lordes alloweth hym litel · or lysteneth to his reson
He tempreth þe tonge to treuthe-ward · [þat]Bx.14.336: þat: Alpha is supported by Cx against beta's easier and. no tresore coueiteth
Bx.14.337: The Latin tag (from l. 295) is recorded only in beta and is not in C. Sapiencie temperatrix
¶ The eigteth [it]Bx.14.338: it: Omitted by all except R; cf. note to l. 319. Most C mss. have it. is a lele laborereBx.14.338: laborere: The form has strong support for Bx from LCr and alpha, though Cx has labour. MED labour 6 gives the sense "laborer", with examples almost entirely from A mss, and it is quite a frequent variant in all three versions. Cf. flateres for flatererers in Bx.13.450 and 477, and MHmCG + alpha chambre for chaumbrere in Bx.14.110. · and loth to take more
Þan he may wel deserue · in somer or in wynter
And if [he]Bx.14.340: he (1): Omitted in L, where the line is marked for correction. chaffareth he chargeth no losse · mowe he charite wynne
Negocium sine dampno
¶ The nyneth [it]Bx.14.342: it: Omitted by all except R; cf. note to l. 319. Most C mss. have it. is swete to þe soule · no sugre is swettere
For pacyence is payn · for pouerte hym-selue
And sobrete swete drynke · and good leche in sykenesse
Þus lered me a le[r]edBx.14.345: lered (2): Alpha supported by Cx. To avoid the repetition, beta adopts lettred, while a number of C mss. have, oddly, lewid. man · for owre lordes loueBx.14.345: loue: Supposing an omission, WCr and F add of heuene on the model of Bx.6.19, 13.151, etc. Cx ends lordes loue seynt Austyn (RK.16.153), taking up the first words of the following line.
Seynt austyn a blissed lyf · with-outen bysynesseBx.14.346: bysynesse: CrW add ladde to complete the b-verse, and M is corrected to that reading. Cx redivides ll. 345-7, so that this line becomes "A blessed lyf withoute bisinesse bote onelyche for þe soule" (RK.16.155).
For body and for soule · absque solicitudine felicitas
Now god þat al good gyueth · graunt his soule reste
Þat þusBx.14.349: þus: Beta2 has þis, but Cx reads þus. fyrst wrote to wyssen men · what pouerte was to mene
¶ Allas quod haukyn þe actyf man þoBx.14.350: þe actyf man þo: Lost in alpha. These lines to the end of the passus are not in Cx. · þat after my crystendome
I ne hadde ben ded and doluen · for doweles sake
So harde it is quod haukyn · to lyue and to do synne
Synne suwethBx.14.353: suweth: Alpha's error scheweth prompts F to rewrite. vs euere quod he · and sori gan wexe
And wepte water with his eyghen · and weyled þe tyme
Þat euere he dede dede · þat dere god displesed
Swowed and sobbed · and syked ful ofte
Þat euere he hadde londe or lordship · lasse other more
Or maystrye ouer any man · mo þan of hym-self
I were nouȝt worthy wote god quod haukyn · to were any clothes
Ne noyther sherte ne shone · saue for shame one
To keure my caroigne quod he · and cryde mercye faste
And wepte and weyled · and þere-with I awaked