Passus duodevicesimus & tercius de dobet

Wolleward and wete-shoed · went I forth after
As a reccheles renke · þat of no wo recchethBx.18.2: reccheth: WG's past tense is not supported by Cx.
And ȝede forth lyke a lorel · al my lyf-tyme
Tyl I wex wery of þe worlde · and wylned eft toBx.18.4: to: Possibly not in Bx. It is added by the main scribe in L, omitted by R and by eight C mss. slepe
And lened me to a lenten · and longe tyme I slepte
And of crystes passioun and penaunce · þe peple þat of-rauȝteBx.18.6: þat of-rauȝte: As KD p. 176 argue, the line lacks sense in this position. They move it to follow l. 9, so that it depends upon dremed. Beta4 and F revise to make sense. It is not in Cx.
Rested me þere and rutte faste · tyl ramis palmarum
Of gerlis & of gloria laus · gretly me dremed
And how osanna by orgonye · olde folke songen
¶ One semblable to þe samaritan · & some-del to Piers þeBx.18.10: þe (2): Dropped by HmCGOF and the P family of C. plowman
Barfote on an asse bakke · botelees cam prykeBx.18.11: pryke: Cr and R (= alpha?) have the present participle as do many C mss. The infinitive after comen was becoming rarer; see Mustanoja (1960), 536-7.
Wyth-oute spores other spere · sp[r]aklicheBx.18.12: sprakliche: As at Bx.17.83, beta reads spakliche. Here Cx supports alpha. he loked
As is þe kynde of a knyȝte · þat cometh to be dubbed
To geten h[y]mBx.18.14: hym: Only L has hem. gylte spores · orBx.18.14: or: This is confirmed as Bx by LMWHmR. Alerted by the unsatisfactory sense, F alters to on and beta4 to and. Cx also reads and. galoches ycouped
¶ Þanne was faith in a fenestre · and cryde a fili dauid
As doth an Heraude of armes · whan aunturos cometh to iustes
Olde iuwes of ierusalem · for ioye þei songen
Benedictus qui venit in nomine domini
¶ Þanne I frayned at faith · what al þat fare be-ment
And who sholdeBx.18.20: sholde: Dropped by R, but supported by Cx. iouste in Iherusalem · Ihesus he seyde
And feccheBx.18.21: fecche: R's third person is not supported by Cx. þat þe fende claymeth · Piers fruit þe plowman
Bx.18.22: A paraph, as in WHmC with a line-space in M, would be appropriate, but is not indicated in L or alpha.Is Piers in þis place quod I · & he preynte on me
Þis ihesus of his gentriceBx.18.23: gentrice: (MED gentrise), as in Cx. CrHm and alpha substitute gentrie. · wole iuste in piers armes
In his helme & in his haberioun · humana natura
Þat cryst be nouȝt biknoweBx.18.25: biknowe: LW and alpha, against knowen or yknowe in others. However Cx has yknowe. here · for consumatus deus
In Piers paltok þe plowman · þis priker shal ryde
For no dynte shal hym dere · as in deitate patris
[¶]Bx.18.28: : The paraph marking Will's question is omitted in L but supported by WHmC and alpha and the line-space in M. Who shal iuste with ihesus quod I [·] iuwes or scribes
¶ Nay quod [faith but þe]Bx.18.29: faith but þe: So alpha supported by Cx. Beta has he þe foule. fende · and fals dome [to deye]Bx.18.29: to deye: So alpha supported by Cx. Beta has & deth.
Deth seith he shal fordo · and adown brynge
Al þat lyueth orBx.18.31: or (1): W and alpha read and, but this is not supported by Cx. loketh · in londe or in watere
Lyf seyth þat he liktheBx.18.32: likthe: "is lying". Since this is the spelling in L and alpha, it was probably Bx's form of MED lien v.(2). Cf. Bx.5.165 lixte. See Adams (2000), 186. · and leyth his lif to wedde
Þat for al þat deth can do · with-in þre dayes
To walke and fecche fro þe fende · piers fruite þe plowman
And legge it þere hym lyketh · and lucifer bynde
And forb[i]teBx.18.36: forbite: "bite through". R's rather odd reading was rejected by other B scribes, who read forbete or for to bete, but it is supported by the P family and three of the X family of C. It reflects morsus tuus ero in Osee 13.14, quoted by F and many C mss. in the next line. See Barney (2006), 25, citing Schmidt (1995), 402. and adownBx.18.36: adown: Supported by Cx against doun in MCrHmG and alpha. brynge [·] bale deth for euere
O mors ero mors tua
¶ Þanne cam pilatus with moche peple · sedens pro tribunali
To se how doughtilich deth sholde do · & deme her botheres riȝte
Þe iuwes and þe iustice · aȝeine ihesu þei were
And al [þe]Bx.18.41: þe: LR have her, which is probably coincident error, since Cx has þe and there is no apparent reason for the other B scribes to corrupt. courte on hym cryde · crucifige sharpe
[¶]Bx.18.42: : A paraph is appropriate, although it is only in Hm and alpha. In L the line is at the top of the page where a paraph is sometimes missed. Tho put hym forth a piloure · bifor pilat & seyde
This ihesus of owre iewesBx.18.43: iewes: Dropped by alpha, but wanted for the alliteration and supported by Cx. temple · iaped & dispised
To fordone it onBx.18.44: on: MG and alpha have in anticipating in thre dayes, but this is not supported by Cx. o day · and in thre dayes after
Edefye it eft newe · here he stant þat seyde it
And ȝit maken it as moche · in al manere poyntes
Bothe as longe and as large · [a-]loftBx.18.47: a-loft: R (= alpha) and Cx; F has on lofte. Beta's bi lofte anticipates by grounde. & by grounde
Cru[ci]fige quod a cacchepolle · I warante hym a wicche
Tolle tolle quod an other · and toke o[f]Bx.18.49: of: L's spelling o is probably a slip since the scribe does not use the form elsewhere. kene þornes
And bigan of kene thorne · a gerelande to make
And sette it sore on his hed · and seyde in envye
Aue rabby quod þat RibaudeBx.18.52: þat Ribaude: Cx supports beta against R's þe ribaudes and F's þo rybawdis. Alpha's plural represents the two catchpoles. · and þrew redes at hym
Nailled hym with þreBx.18.53: þre: F has fowre, which the R corrector writes in the margin without deleting thre in the text. Cx has thre. For the opposing views of whether Christ's feet were nailed together or separately, see Geoffrey Shepherd (ed.), Ancrene Wisse (London, 1959), p. 57. nailles · naked onBx.18.53: on: Supported by the P family of C, though the X family support R's vp-on. þe Rode
And poysoun on a pole · þei put vpBx.18.54: vp: Not in R, nor in F in a recast line. Again C mss. are split, the X family supporting beta (RK.20.52). to his lippes
And bede hym drynke his deth yuel · his dayes were ydone
And ȝif þat þow sotil be · help now þi-seluen
If þow be cryst & kynges sone · come downe of þe Rode
Þanne shul we leue þat lyf þe loueth · and wil nouȝt lete þe deye
Consummatum est quod cryst · & comsed forto swowe
Pitousliche and pale · as a prisoun þat deyeth
ÞeBx.18.61: Þe: Supported by Cx against Til (R), Tyl þe (F). lorde of lyf & of liȝte · þo leyed his eyen togideres
Þe daye for drede with-drowe · and derke bicam þe sonne
Þe wal wagged and clef [·] and al þe worlde quaued
Ded men for that dyne · come out of depeBx.18.64: depe: Required for the alliteration and supported by Cx against alpha's here. graues
And tolde whi þat tempest · so longe tyme dured
For a bitter bataille · þe ded bodye sayde
Lyf and deth in þis derknesse · her one fordoth her other
Shal no wiȝte wite witterly [·] who shal haue þe maystrye
Er sondey aboute sonne rysynge · & sank with þat til erthe
Some seyde þat he was goddes sone · þat so faire deyde
Vere filius dei erat iste · &c
And somme saide he was a wicche · good is þat weBx.18.72: þat we: R omits both words, and F omits þat. Beta is supported by Cx. assaye
Where he be ded or nouȝte ded · doun er he be taken
¶ Two theues also · tholed deth þat tyme
Vppon a crosse bisydes cryst · so was þe comune lawe
ABx.18.76: A: R (= alpha?) begins Ac a and F But a; there is no support from Cx, and it anticipates l. 78. cacchepole cam forth · and craked bothe her legges
And her armes after · of eyther of þo theues
Ac was no boy so bolde · goddes body to touche
For he was knyȝte & kynges sone · kynde forȝaf þat tymeBx.18.79: tyme: Beta is supported by Cx. Alpha's synonym throwe, though not an uncommon word, is used nowhere else in the poem. Both KD and Schmidt adopt it.
Þat non harlot were so hardy · to leyne handeBx.18.80: hande: R has an hand and F has plural hondys. The line is not in Cx. vppon hym
¶ Ac þere cam forth a knyȝte · with a kene spere ygrounde
Hiȝte longeus as þe lettre telleth · and longe had lore his siȝte
Bifor pilat & other peple · in þe place he houed
Maugre his many tethe · he was made þat tyme
To take þe spere in his honde · & iusten with ihesus
For alle þei were vnhardy · þat houed on hors or stodeBx.18.86: stode: Alpha replaces with stede, not supported by Cx.
To touche hymBx.18.87: hym (1): Dropped by Cr and alpha but supported by Cx. or to taste hym · or take hymBx.18.87: hym (3): Dropped by M and beta2, but supported by Cx. down of Rode
But þis blynde bacheler [·] þa[t]Bx.18.88: þat: MCrW omit, LHm and beta4 have þanne (all except C before the punctuation). Beta has missed the construction alle (l. 86) ... But. Alpha is supported by Cx. bar hym þorugh þe herte
Þe blode spronge down by þe spere · & vnsperedBx.18.89: vnspered: Alpha substitutes the non-alliterating and easier synonym opned. Cx reads as beta. þe kniȝtes eyen
Þanne fel þe knyȝte vpon knees · and cryed [ihesu]Bx.18.90: ihesu: R (= alpha?) is supported by Cx. F has crist and beta hym. mercy
Aȝeyne my wille it was lorde · to wownde ȝow so sore
He seighed & sayde · sore it me athynketh
For þe dede þat I haue done · I do me in ȝowre grace
Haue on me reuth riȝtful ihesu · & riȝt with þat he wept
¶ Thanne gan faith felly · þe fals iuwes dispise
Called hem caytyues · acursedBx.18.96: acursed: Alpha adds hem, making the verb past tense. Cx supports beta. for euere
For þis foule vyleynye · veniaunce to ȝow alleBx.18.97: alle: WHmG read falle, perhaps prompted by the alliteration, or perhaps resisting the notion that all Jews were condemned; see Schmidt (1995), 402. The reading alle seems securely Bx, even though Cx (RK.20.97) also reads falle (P family) or bifalle (X family). WHmG may possibly be contaminated from a C text; see note to l. 394.
To do þe blynde bete hym ybounde · it was a boyes conseille
Cursed caytyue[s]Bx.18.99: caytyues: So alpha and Cx. Beta probably had the sg., presumably referring (obviously wrongly) to Longeus. M hesitates, first adding -s and then erasing; CrHmO make the obvious correction. · kniȝthod was it neuere
To mysdo a ded body · by day or by nyȝte
Þe gree ȝit hath he geten · for al his grete wounde
¶ For ȝowre champioun chiualer [·] chief knyȝt of ȝow alle
Ȝelt hym recreaunt rennyng · riȝt at ihesus wille
For be þis derkenesse ydo · deth worth [yvenkeshed]Bx.18.104: deth worth yvenkeshed: The alpha reading is supported by Cx against beta's his deth worth avenged.
And ȝe lordeynes han ylost · for lyf shal haue þe maistrye
And ȝowre Fraunchise þat fre was · fallen is in thraldome
And ȝe cherles & ȝowre children · chieue shal ȝe neure
Ne haue lordship in londe · ne no londe tylye
But al bareyne be · & vsurye vsen
Which is lyf þat owre lorde · in alle lawes acurseth
Now ȝowre good dayes ar done · as Danyel prophecyed
Whan cryst cam herBx.18.112: her: So L and beta4. Beta2 reads of hire, and M is corrected to that reading. The alpha reading is uncertain, with R þe and F to his. See next note. kyngdom · þe croune shulde [lese]Bx.18.112: lese: The beta reading is cesse, but since cesse is not a transitive verb, beta2 adds of, and M is corrected to that reading: "the crown (i.e. authority) of their kingdom should come to an end". L realises something is wrong, and leaves out the last word while waiting for further guidance. But cese is probably a beta error picked up from cessabit in the next line (only cited in beta), and alpha is right with lese. Cx rewrites the line.
Cum veniat sanctus sanctorumBx.18.113: sanctorum: Beta completes the quotation with cessabit vnxio vestra. Cf. Bx.15.631 for the same variation. Cx also varies: the P family has the full quotation (RK.20.112a).
¶ What for fere of þis ferly · & of þeBx.18.114: þe: R's þo is not supported by Cx. fals iuwes
I drowe me in þat derkenesse · to de[s]cendit ad inferna
And þere I sawe sothely · secundum scripturas
Out of þe west coste · a wenche as me thouȝte
Cam walkynge in þeBx.18.118: þe: R's þat is not supported by Cx. wey · to helle-ward she loked
Mercy hiȝt þat mayde · a meke þynge with-alle
A ful benygne buirde · and boxome of speche
Bx.18.121: : The paraph is in beta only. Her suster as it semed · cam softlyBx.18.121: softly: Supported by Cx. MW soþly is an odd misreading, with Cr worthely probably an attempt to make sense of that. walkyng
Euene out of þe est · and westward she loked
A ful comely creature · treuth she hiȝte
For þe vertue þat hir folwed · aferd was she neuere
Bx.18.125: : The paraph is in beta only. WhanBx.18.125: Whan: Alpha's And whan is not supported by Cx. þis maydenes mette · mercy and treuth
Eyther axed other · of þis grete wonder
Of þe dyne & of þe derknesse · and how þe daye rowed
And whichBx.18.128: which: Alpha's swich is not supported by Cx. a liȝte and a leme · lay befor helle
Ich haue ferly of þis fare · in feith seyde treuth
And am wendyng to wyte · what þis wonder meneth
¶ Haue no merueille quod mercy · myrthe it bytokneth
A mayd[e]Bx.18.132: mayde: CrG and alpha are supported by Cx against beta's mayden. þat hatte marye · and moder with-out felyng
Of any kyn[de]Bx.18.133: kynde: "natural"; so alpha against beta's kynnes. The X family of C has kynde, the P family kynde of. creature · conceyued þorw speche
And grace of þe holygoste · wex grete with childe
With-outen wem · in-to þis worlde she brouȝt hym
And þat my tale be trewe · I take god to witnesse
Sith þis barn was bore · ben thretty wynter passed
Which deyde & deth þoled · þis day aboute mydday
And þat is cause of þis clips · þat closeth now þe sonne
In menynge þat man shal · fro merkenesse be drawe
Þe whileBx.18.141: while: MCrHmF read which, but Cx supports the others. þis liȝte & þis leme · shal Lucyfer ablende
For patriarkes & prophetes · han preched her-of often
Þat man shal man saue · þorw a maydenes helpe
And þat was tynt þorw tre · tree shal it wynne
And þat deth doun brouȝte · deth shal releue
¶ Þat þow tellest quod treuth · is but a tale of waltrot
For Adam & Eue · & abraham withBx.18.147: with: GF read and. MCr drop and (2) and have it here. Cx supports with. other
Patriarkes & prophetes · þat in peyne liggen
Leue þow neuere þat ȝone liȝte · hem alofte brynge
Ne haue hem out of helle · h[o]ldeBx.18.150: holde: L reads helde. þi tonge mercy
It is but trufleBx.18.151: trufle: Beta has a trufle, but Cx supports R. F has the plural. þat þow tellest · IBx.18.151: I: Dropped by alpha, but supported by Cx. treuth wote þe sothe
For þatBx.18.152: þat: WHmF add he, and the same mss. have he for it in the b-verse. Cx begins That thyng. is ones in helle · out cometh it neuere
Iob þe prophete patriarke · reproueth þi sawes
Quia in inferno nulla est redempcio
¶ Þanne mercy ful myldly · mouthed þise wordes
Thorw experience quod [he]Bx.18.156: he: "she". The form in Cr and alpha; supported by Cx and required for the alliteration. See Introduction IV.1 and V.3.1. · I hope þei shal be saued
For venym fordoth venym · & þat I proue by resoun
For of alle venymes · foulest is þe scorpioun
May no medcyne helpe · þe place þere he styngeth
Tyl he be ded & do þer-to · þe yuel he destroyeth
Þe fyrst venymouste · þorw ve[rtue]Bx.18.161: vertue: Alpha is supported by Cx. Beta repeats venym, not implausibly. of hym-self
So shal þis deth fordoBx.18.162: fordo: Beta supported by Cx against alpha's do. · I dar my lyf legge
Al þat deth dydBx.18.163: dyd: WHm take fordide from the previous line. In KD's listing of WHm agreements (pp. 38-9), over half occur in passus 17-19, indicating a different genetic relationship (beta3, so not including Cr) in the last part of the poem (see KD, p. 49). In passus 18 WHm agree in error at ll. 108, 209, 214, 222, 230, 256, 278, 338, 339, 441. furste · þorw þe deuelles entysynge
And riȝt as þorw gyle · man was bigyled
So shal grace þat bigan · make a good sleighteBx.18.165: sleighte: The sense is poor, and comparison with Cx suggests that Bx has lost a line after good, skipping to good in the line that follows (RK.20.164-5). KD supply "[end / And bigile þe gilour, and þat is good]". See Schmidt (1995), 402-03. G's end (shared with Y) is by conjecture or contamination.
Ars vt artem falleret
¶ Now suffre we seyde treuth · I se as me þinketh
Out of þe nippe of þe north · nouȝt ful fer hennes
Riȝtwisnesse come rennynge · reste we þe while
For he wote more þan we · he was er we bothe
Bx.18.171: : The paraph marking the start of speech is in beta and F. That is soth seyde mercy · and I se here bi southe
Where [cometh pees]Bx.18.172: cometh pees: R's order is supported by Cx. Beta and F reverse to prose order. playinge · in pacience yclothed
Loue hath coueyted hir longe · leue I none other
But he sent hir some lettre [·] what þis liȝte bymeneth
Þat ouer-houeth helle þus · [he]Bx.18.175: he: The L scribe added an initial <s>, to agree with all other beta mss., but alliteration and Cx support alpha's form. See Introduction IV.1. vs shal telle
¶ Whan pees in pacience yclothed · approched nere hem tweyne
Riȝtwisnesse hir reuerenced · for her riche clothyng
And preyed pees to telle hir · to what place sheBx.18.178: she: In this case neither alliteration nor Cx supports alpha's he. Cf. notes to ll. 156 and 175. wolde
And in her gay garnementz · whom sheBx.18.179: she: In this case neither alliteration nor Cx supports alpha's he. Cf. notes to ll. 156, 175 and 178. grete þouȝte
¶ My wille is to wende quod sheBx.18.180: she: Alpha has he. Cx rewrites. Cf. notes to ll. 156, 175, 178 and 179. · and welcome hem alle
Þat many day myȝte I nouȝte se · for merkenesse of synne
Adam & Eue [·] & other moo in helle
Moyses & many mo · mercy shal haue
Bx.18.184: The line is preserved in beta only; it is in Cx. And I shal daunce þer-to · do þow so sustre
For ihesus iusted wel · ioye bygynneth dawe
Ad vesperum demorabitur fletus · & ad matutinum leticia ·
Loue þat is my lemman · suche lettres meBx.18.187: me: R's he me has support from the X family of C, but the P family is without he. sente
That mercy my sustreBx.18.188: my sustre: Dropped by alpha, but supported by Cx and by alliteration. & I · mankynde shulde saue
And þat god hath forgyuen · & graunted me pees & mercy
To be mannes meynpernoure · for euere-more after
Lo here þe patent quod pees · in pace in idipsum
And þat þis dede shal dure · dormiam & requiescam
¶ What rauestow quod riȝtwisnesse [·] or þow art riȝt dronke
Leuestow þat ȝonde liȝte · vnlouke myȝte helle
And saue mannes soule · sustre weneBx.18.195: wene: Alpha's wene þow is not supported by Cx. it neure
At þe bygynnynge god · gaf þe dome hym-selue
Þat Adam & Eue · and alle þat hem suwed
Shulde deye doune-riȝte · and dwelle in p[e]yneBx.18.198: peyne: Alpha is supported by Cx and ll. 205, 208. Beta has pyne, "torment" (see MED pein(e and pine n.(1)). after
If þat þei touched a tre · and þe fruiteBx.18.199: þe fruite: This seems undoubtedly the Bx reading, despite the lack of alliteration. Hm þe trees fruyt corrects the alliteration. F of þe frut is the Cx reading, presumably by coincidence, influenced by l. 201. eten
Adam afterward · aȝeines his defence
Frette of þat fruit · & forsoke as it were
Þe loue of owre lorde · and his lore bothe
And folwed þat þe fende tauȝte · & his felawes wille
Aȝeines resoun IBx.18.204: I: The line is omitted by alpha, and beta mss. apart from L read and. The three best C mss. of the X family agree with L; other C mss. have and (RK.20.204). Schmidt (1995), 403, ascribes the error to "variation to the stock phrase, and misconstruction of the mood of recorde as imperative". Omission of I might be a Bx error, as at l. 208, with the correction conjectured by L, but such activity is untypical of the L scribe. riȝtwisnesse · recorde þus with treuth
Þat her peyne be perpetuel · & no preyere hem helpe
For-þi late hem chewe as þei chose · & chyde we nouȝt sustres
For it is botelees bale · þe bite þat þei eten
¶ And [I]Bx.18.208: I: Easily lost (see l. 204), but the agreement of LR suggests it might be a Bx error with the obvious correction made by other scribes (note F has I for And I). shal pre[i]eBx.18.208: preie: Alpha is supported by Cx against beta's preue. quod pees · her peyne mote haue ende
And wo in-to wel · mowe wende atte laste
For hadBx.18.210: had (1): Omitted by alpha (added in F). Cx supports beta. þei wist of no wo · wel had þei nouȝte knowen
For no wiȝte wote what wel is · þat neuere wo suffred
Ne what is hote hunger · þat had neuere defaute
If no nyȝte ne were · no man as I leue
Shulde wite witterly · what day is to mene
Bx.18.215: L has an unrubricated paraph marker but no blank line. It is inappropriate and not supported by other mss. Possibly it was intended for l. 213, where WHmR have a paraph.Shulde neuere riȝte riche man · þat lyueth in reste & ese
Wyte what wo is · ne were þe deth of kynde
So god þat bygan al · of his good wille
Bycam man of a mayde · mankynde to saue
And suffred to be solde · toBx.18.219: to (2): Alpha reads and, but beta is supported by Cx. see þe sorwe of deyinge
The which vnknitteth al kare · & comsynge is of reste
For til modicum meteBx.18.221: mete: CrHmCGO and alpha have pa.t., as do a good many C mss. with vs · I may it wel avowe
Wote no wiȝte as I wene · what is ynoughBx.18.222: is ynough: R's is nouȝte probably reproduces alpha, with F altering to make sense. Cx supports beta. to mene
Bx.18.223: : The paraph is in beta only. For-þi god of his goodnesse · þe fyrste gome Adam
Sette hym in solace · & in souereigne myrtheBx.18.224: myrthe: Cx supports beta against alpha's ioye, picked up from l. 230.
And sith he suffred hym synne · sorwe to fele
To wite what wel wasBx.18.226: was: Cx supports beta against alpha's is, which is perhaps again picked up from l. 230. · kyndelich to knowe it
And after god auntred hym-self · and toke Adames kynde
To wyte what he hath suffred · in þre sondri places
Bothe in heuene & in erthe · & now til helle he þynketh
To wite what al wo is · þat wote of al ioye
¶ So it shal fare bi þis folke · her foly & her synne
Shal lere hem what langour is · & lisseBx.18.232: lisse: Supported by Cx (RK.20.243) and alliteration over GR's blisse. F loses l. 232b and l. 233a. with-outen ende
Wote no wighte what werre is · þere þat pees regneth
Ne what is witterly wel · til weyllowey hym teche
¶ Thanne was þere a wiȝte · with two brode eyen
Boke hiȝte þat beupere · a bolde man of speche
By godes body quod þis boke · I wil bere witnesse
Þat þo þis barne was ybore · þere blased a sterre
That alle þe wyseBx.18.239: wyse: Supported by Cx and alliteration over alpha's men. Did alpha understand it as wyes as in a few C mss.? ofBx.18.239: of: Beta is supported by Cx against alpha's in. þis worlde · in o witte acordedenBx.18.239: acordeden: Cx supports the past tense as in LHmOR.
That such a barne was borne · in bethleem [þe]Bx.18.240: þe: WR are supported by Cx. Without it the b-verse would have the metrical form x / x / x usually avoided. Possibly beta had dropped it and W restored it on metrical grounds. R presumably represents alpha, with F dropping the article. Citee
Þat mannes soule sholde saue · & synne destroye
And alle þe elementz quod þe boke · her-of bereth witnesse
Þat he was god þat al wrouȝte · þe walkene firste shewed
Þo that weren in heuene · token stella comata
And tendeden hir as a torche · to reuerence his birthe
Þe lyȝte folwed þe lorde · in-to þe lowe erthe
Þ[e]Bx.18.247: Þe: Cx supports CrWO and alpha against Þat in LMHmC (G has Þat þe). water witnesse[th]Bx.18.247: witnesseth: Most C mss. support the present tense as in GO and alpha against the past tense in others. þat he was god · for he went on it
Peter þe apostel · parceyued his gate
And as he went on þe water · wel hym knewe & seyde
Iube me venire ad te super aquas
And lo how þe sonne gan loukeBx.18.251: louke: "lock". Alpha's spellings represent "look". Cx supports beta. · her liȝte in her-self
Whan she seye hym suffre · þat sonne & seBx.18.252: se: Beta is supported by Cx against alpha's mone. made
The erthe for heuynesse · that he wolde suffre
Quaked as quykke þinge · and al biquash[e]Bx.18.254: biquashe: Probably Langland wrote al biquashe þe roches (plural: "all the rocks shatter"; cf. "petrae scissae sunt", Matt. 27.51), as in the X family of C, al toquasch þe roches (RK.20.257), but Bx obviously read roche. Alpha reproduces the verb, presumably taking it as the third-person present sg. with assimilated -s ending, though the ending is nearly always -eth in the B tradition. Beta "corrects" the verb form by making it past, biquasht, influenced by the context of past-tense verbs (though G has byquassethe). The P family of C also has the past tense, toquasched, but retains the plural noun. þe roche
Lo helle miȝte nouȝte holde · but opened þo god þoled
And lete oute symondes sones · to seen hym hange on Rode
And now shal lucifer leueBx.18.257: leue: Beta is supported by Cx against F's leese. R omits the word. it [·] thowgh hym loth þinke
Bx.18.258-9: These two lines preserved only in beta are supported by Cx. For gygas þe geaunt · with a gynne engyned
To breke & to bete [adown]Bx.18.259: adown: Cx supports MWHmCO. The line is lost in alpha. · þat ben aȝeines ihesus
And I boke wil be brent · but ihesus rise to lyue
In alle myȝtes of manBx.18.261: man: Alpha has a man. The line is not in Cx. · & his moder gladye
And conforte al his kynne · & out of care brynge
And al þe iuwen ioye · vnioignen & vnlouken
And butBx.18.264: but: MCrF have but if, but the others are supported by Cx. þei reuerencen his Rode · & his resurexioun
And bileue on a newe lawe · be lost lyf & souleBx.18.265: Beta4 has an additional line following this. It is patently scribal and is not in Cx.
¶ Suffre we seide treuth · I here & se bothe
[A]Bx.18.267: A: So alpha, supported by Cx. Beta begins How a. spirit speketh to helle · & bit vnspere þe ȝatis
Attollite portas &cBx.18.268: Alpha treats the two Latin words as the beginning of l. 269. In C four of the X group do the same, while four of the P group place them at the end of the previous line.
A voice loude in þat liȝte [·] to lucifer cryethBx.18.269: cryeth: Beta4 has the past tense; Cx has saide.
Prynces of þis place · vnpynneth & vnlouketh
For here cometh with croune · þat kynge is of glorie
[¶]Bx.18.272: : The paraph is not in L, but is appropriate and supported by WHmC and alpha, and the line-space in M. Thanne syked sathan · & seyde to he[lle]Bx.18.272: helle: Alpha is supported by Cx. Probably beta was puzzled by the unusual personal use, which derives from the Gospel of Nicodemus, in which a devil is named "Inferus", generally translated as Hell (e.g. MED helle 1 (c)).
Suche a lyȝte aȝeines owre leue · Lazar it fette
Care & combraunce · is comen to vs alle
If þis kynge come in · mankynde wil he fecche
And lede itBx.18.276: it: that is, mankynde. Beta is supported by Cx against alpha's hem. þer [Lazar is]Bx.18.276: Lazar is: Alpha is supported by Cx. Beta's hym lyketh is probably sheer inattention rather than objection to the implication that Lazarus is in heaven. Cf. l. 421. · & lyȝtlych me bynde
Patriarkes & prophetes · han parled her-of longe
Þat such a lorde & a lyȝte · sh[al]Bx.18.278: shal: Alpha is supported by Cx against beta's shulde. lede hem alle hennes
¶ Lysteneth quod Lucifer · for I þis lorde knowe
Bothe þis lorde & þis liȝte · is longe ago I knewe hym
May no deth [þis lorde]Bx.18.281: þis lorde: Alpha is supported by Cx against beta's hym. dere · ne no deueles queyntise
And where he wil is his waye · ac war hym of þe periles
If he reue me [of]Bx.18.283: of: Alpha is supported by Cx against beta's omission. my riȝte · he robbethBx.18.283: he robbeth: Beta is supported by Cx against alpha's & robbe, though the subjunctive, parallel to reue makes excellent sense, making the whole line conditional, explaining the periles (sc. of lawlessness) of l. 282. me by maistrye
For by riȝt & bi resoun · þ[e]Bx.18.284: þe: Beta2, C and alpha are supported by Cx against þo in LMGO. renkes þat ben here
Bodye & soule ben myne · bothe gode & ille
For hym-self seyde [·] þat sire is of heuene
ȜifBx.18.287: Ȝif: Alpha begins Þat ȝif. The equivalent line in Cx has a different construction, beginning "That Adam and Eve" (RK.20.303). Adam ete þe apple · alle shulde deye
And dwelle with vs deueles · þis þretynge he made
And he þat sothenesse is [·] seyde þise wordes
And [I] sitthen I-seisedBx.18.290: I sitthen I-seised: "I being then in possession", an absolute construction. This is R's reading, with F simplifying the presumed alpha reading. Beta has dropped I, probably taking ppl. I-seised as pronoun + past tense. Cx has instead we haen ben sesed (RK.20.309). · seueneBx.18.290: seuene: Alpha adds þise, but it has no support from Cx. hundreth wyntre
I leue þat lawe nil nauȝte · lete hym þe leest
¶ That is sothe seyde Sathan · but I me sore drede
For þow gete hem with gyle · & his gardyne breke
And in semblaunce of a serpent · sat on þe appeltre
And eggedest hem to ete · Eue by hir-selue
And toldest hir a tale · of tresoun were þe wordes
And soBx.18.297: so: Alpha's al-so is without support from Cx. þow haddest hem oute [·] & hider atte laste
It is nouȝte graythely geten · þere gyle is þe Rote
For god wil nouȝt be bigiled · quod Gobelyn ne bi-iaped
We haue no trewe title to hem · for þorwgh tresoun were þei dampned
Certes I drede me quod þe deuel · leste treuth wil hem feccheBx.18.301: The line that follows in beta4 is evidently scribal. It is added in the Crowley revisions, Cr2 and Cr3.
¶ ÞisBx.18.302: Þis: For numeral + wynter treated as sg. cf. Bx.3.39, 5.561, 18.305. Here CrWC "correct" it to pl. with Thise. þretty wynter as I wene · [he wente aboute]Bx.18.302: he wente aboute: Alpha is supported by Cx and alliteration against beta's hath he gone. & preched
I haue assailled hym with synne · & some-tymeBx.18.303: some-tyme: Beta is supported by Cx against alpha's some. [I] askedBx.18.303: I asked: Beta has the ppl. yasked, but alpha's pronoun + past tense is supported by Cx. Cf. l. 290.
Where he were god or goddes sone · he gaf me shorte answere
And þus hath heBx.18.305: hath he: Beta's word-order is supported by Cx against alpha's reversal. trolled forth · þis two & thretty wynter
And whan I seighe it was so · slepyngBx.18.306: slepyng: Beta2 reads non-alliterative lepynge, and M is altered to that reading. Perhaps the scribe didn't know the story. I went
To warne pilates wyf · what donesBx.18.307: dones: "sort of". For the form, see OED done ppl. a. (n.); Mustanoja (1960), 86. man was ihesus
For iuwes hateden hym · and han done hym to deth
IBx.18.309: I: Alpha begins And I, but beta is supported by Cx. wolde haue lengthed his lyf · for I leuedBx.18.309: leued: Alpha's present tense is not supported by Cx. ȝif he deyede
That his soule woldeBx.18.310: wolde: Alpha has walde nauȝt, and Hm nolde. There is no equivalent line in Cx. suffre · no synne in his syȝte
For þe body whil it on bones ȝede · aboute was euere
To saue men fram synne · ȝif hem-self wolde
And now I se where a soule · cometh hiderward seyllynge
With glorie & withBx.18.310: with (2): Omitted by O and alpha, but Cx has it. grete liȝte · god it is I wote wel
I rede we flee quod he · faste alle hennes
For vs were better nouȝte be · þan biden his syȝte
For þi lesynges Lucifer · loste is al owre praye
Bx.18.318: W and alpha have a paraph, perhaps prompted by Firste.Firste þorw þe we fellen · fro heuene so heigh
Bx.18.319-20: Beta loses 319b and 320a through eyeskip (lesynges ... lesynge). The X family of C does the same. For we leued þi lesynges · [we loupen oute alleBx.18.319: we loupen oute alle: Alpha only. R adds with þe, perhaps rightly, but it is unnecessary to the sense and metrically clumsy. Cx is revised.
And now for thi last lesynge ·] ylore [haue we]Bx.18.320: haue we: Beta reverses to prose order. Cx is rewritten: þere losten we (RK.20.347). Adam
And al owre lordeship I leue · alonde & a water
Nunc princeps huius mundi eicietur foras
¶ Efte þe liȝte bad vnlouke · & Lucifer answeredBx.18.323-6: It seems evident that the quotations from Psalm 23.10 have become disordered in Bx. This would most easily have happened if at some earlier stage they were to the right of each line:
Efte þe liȝte bad vnlouke · & Lucifer answered · quis est iste
What lorde artow quod lucifer · þe liȝte sone seide · Rex glorie
The lorde of myȝte & of mayne · & al manere vertues · dominus virtutum
All B mss. agree on the arrangement of l. 324, with quis est iste as the b-verse. Evidently, despite some rearrangement by F, Bx.18.325 began with Rex glorie. As the b-verse R (= alpha?) amalgamates and abbreviates 325b with 326; F abbreviates still further. LWC have dominus virtutum to the right of 326; MCrHmGO have it as a line on its own (with Hm expanding); R has it to begin 327, and F drops it altogether. Cx does not include the Latin phrases (RK.20.359-61).
Bx.18.324KD.18.317, 316α
What lorde artow quod lucifer · quis est iste
Rex glorie · þe liȝte sone seide
[Þe]Bx.18.326: Þe: So alpha and Cx. Beta's And appears to be a consequence of the disordering; see previous note. lorde of myȝte & of mayneBx.18.326: mayne: Supported by Cx. WR have man. · & al manere vertues · dominus virtutum
DukesBx.18.327: Dukes: Alpha has the sg. The C mss. are also divided: the P group has the sg., the X group the plural. But l. 270 has Prynces, and this is supported by the source, the Gospel of Nicodemus, which has principes. of þis dym place · anon vndo þis ȝates
That cryst may come in · þe kynges sone of heuene
And with þat breth helle brakeBx.18.329: brake: Beta is supported by Cx against alpha's braste. · with Beliales barres
For any wye or warde · wide openeBx.18.330: opene: Alpha has the past tense verb, as does W and corrected Hm. The P family of C has the same, while the X family has the adjective. þe ȝatis
¶ Patriarkes & prophetes · populus in tenebris
Songen seynt Iohanes songe · ecce agnus dei
Lucyfer loke ne myȝte · so lyȝte hym ableynte
And þo þat owre [lorde]Bx.18.334: lorde: Omitted by L. loued · in-to his liȝte he lauȝte
And seyde to sathan · lo here my soule to amendes
For alle synneful soules · to saue þo þat ben worthy
Myne þei be & of me · I may þe bette hem clayme
Al-þough resoun recorde [·] & riȝt of my-self
That if þei ete þe apple · alle shulde deye
I bihyȝte hem nouȝt here · helle for euere
For þe dede þat þei dede · þi deceyte it made
With gyle þow hem gete · agayne al resoun
For in my paleys paradys · in persone of an addre
Falseliche þow fettest þere · þynge þat I loued
¶ Thus ylyke a lusarde · with a lady visage
Theuelich þow me robbedest · þe olde lawe graunteth
Þat gylours be bigiled · & þat is gode resoun
Dentem pro dente & oculum pro oculo
Ergo soule shal soule quyte · & synne to synne wende
And al þat man hath mysdo · I man wyl amende [it]Bx.18.350: it: Alpha has the pronoun, though F has it before the verb. R is supported by Cx in a slightly revised b-verse (RK.20.389). Note that in l. 352 beta has line-terminal it where alpha does not; see note there.
Membre for membre · bi þe olde lawe was amendes
And lyf for lyf also · & by þat lawe I claymeBx.18.352: clayme: Beta has clayme it, but the object is Adam in the next line. See note to l. 350. The line is not in Cx.
Adam & al his issue · at my wille her-after
And þat deth in hem fordid · my deth shal releue
And bothe quykkeBx.18.355: quykke: M and beta2 have quykene, quikne (MED quikenen), but Cx supports the others. & quyte · þat queynte was þorw synne
And þat grace gyle destruyeBx.18.356: destruye: "should destroy". Cr and alpha have the indicative. The line is rewritten in Cx. · good feith it asketh
So leue itBx.18.357: it: L and alpha are obviously right and supported by Cx. Beta1 had I, which the M reviser corrects to thow, bringing it into line with G. nouȝteBx.18.357: nouȝte: Beta is supported by Cx against alpha's neuere. lucifer [·] aȝeine þe lawe I fecche hem
But bi riȝt & byBx.18.358: by (2): Not in beta4 or alpha. The X family of C has a second preposition (thorw) but the P family is without it, perhaps rightly. resoun · raunceoun here my lyges
Non veni soluere legem · sed adimplere
Þow fettest myne in my place · aȝeines alBx.18.360: al: Lost in R (= alpha), and F makes up for it by supplying ryght &. resoun
Falseliche & felounelich · gode faith me it tauȝte
To recoure hem thorw raunceoun [·] & bi no resoun elles
So þat withBx.18.363: with: So L and alpha, supported by the X family of C. Beta1 anticipates þoruȝ, as does the P family of C. gyle þow gete · þorw grace it isBx.18.363: is: Beta is supported by Cx against alpha's was. ywone
Þow Lucyfer in lyknesse · of a luther addere
Getest by gyle · þoBx.18.365: þo: Perhaps alpha's þinge is a recollection of the similar b-verse of l. 344, but the parallel might instead lead one to prefer it. There is no parallel in Cx. that god loued
¶ And I in lyknesse of a leode · þat lorde am of heuene
Graciouslich þi gyle haue quytte · go gyle aȝeine gyle
And as Adam & alle · þorw a tre deyden
Adam & alle þorwe a tree · shal torneBx.18.369: torne: Beta adds aȝeine, providing vowel alliteration, and perhaps influenced by l. 372, but alpha is supported by Cx. to lyue
And gyle is bigyled · & in his gyle fallen
Et cecidit in foueam quam fecit
Now bygynneth þi gyle · ageyne þe to tourne
And my grace to growe · ay gretter & wyderBx.18.373: wyder: This must be the beta reading, though M originally repeated gretter, as in alpha. Cx has non-alliterating wyddore and wyddore (RK.20.400).
Þe bitternesse þat þow hast browe · [now]Bx.18.374: now: Alpha is supported by Cx. The line is lost in W. brouke it þi-seluen
Þat art doctour of deth · drynke þat þow madest
¶ For I þat am lorde of lyf · loue is my drynke
And for þat drynke to-day · I deyde vpon erthe
I fauȝte so me þrestesBx.18.378: þrestes: L and alpha share the very unusual -s inflexion, which may be a relict form. LALME's survey of the form covers the northern area only. ȝet · for mannes soule sake
May no drynke me moiste · ne my thruste slake
Tyl þe vendage falle · in þe vale of iosephath
Þat I drynke riȝte ripe must · resureccio mortuorum
And þanne shal I come as a kynge · crouned with angeles
And han out of helle · alle mennes soules
¶ Fendes and fendekynes · bifore me shulle stande
And be at my biddynge · where-so-eure me lyketh
A[c]Bx.18.386: Ac: So R (= alpha), supported by Cx, with F altering to But as usual. to beBx.18.386: to be: Lost in alpha, with F repairing. Supported by Cx. merciable to man · þanneBx.18.386: þanne: R (= alpha?) postpones until after the noun (F has may not for þanne it). Beta is supported by Cx. my kynde itBx.18.386: it: Clearly Bx, though dropped in WO (F rewrites). It is also dropped in Cx. asketh
For we beth bretheren of blode · but nouȝte in baptesme alle
Ac alle þat beth myne hole bretheren · in blode & in baptesme
Shal nouȝte be dampned to þe deth · þat is with-outen ende
Tibi soli peccaui &c ·
It is nouȝt vsed inBx.18.391: in: The phrase in erthe, "on earth", is found in Bx.15.219 (but see variants) and 18.229. R alone has on and is probably a reversion to the usual phrase, but since Cx also has on it may be right. erthe · to hangen a feloun
Ofter þan ones · þough he were a tretour
And ȝif þe Kynge of þat kyngedome · come in þat tyme
There þe feloun thole sholde · deth or otherwyseBx.18.394: otherwyse: Beta3 (i.e. WHm) and C2 read ooþer Iuwise, "another judicial punishment", and G has a muddled and corrected Iovnesse. Beta3's reading is clearly superior and, crucially, it agrees with Cx, but it can hardly be Bx. It is too difficult to be coincidental, so it must be derived by contamination, as G's is likely to be. There is very little evidence of beta3 deriving readings from Cx, though see note to l. 97, and see Schmidt (1995), 403. Cr, evidently puzzled, reads els, and M is corrected to that reading.
Lawe wolde he ȝeue hym lyf · [and]Bx.18.395: and: Alpha is supported by Cx against beta's if. he loked on hym
Bx.18.396: : The paraph is in LHmF. And I þat am kynge of kynges · shal come suche a tyme
There dome to þe deth · dampneth al wikked
And ȝif lawe wil I loke on hem · it lithe in my grace
Whether þei deye or deye nouȝte · for þat þei deden ille
Be it any þinge abouȝte · þe boldenesse of her synnes
I mayBx.18.401: may: L and alpha are supported by Cx against omission in beta1. do mercy þorw riȝtwisnesse · & alle my wordes trewe
And þough holiwrit wil þatBx.18.402: þat (1): Dropped by alpha and G, but supported by Cx. I be wroke · of hem þat deden ille
Nullum malum inpunitum &c
Thei shul be clensed clereliche · & wasshen of her synnes
In my prisoun purgatorie · til parce it hote
And my mercy shal be shewed · to manye of my bretheren
For blode may suffre blode · bothe hungry & akale
Ac blode may nouȝt se blodeBx.18.408: blode (2): Alpha's his blode is not supported by Cx. · blede but hym rewe
Audiui archana verba que non licet homini loqui
Ac my riȝtwisnesse & riȝt [·] shal reulen al helle
And mercy al mankynde · bifor me in heuene
For I were an vnkynde Kynge · but I my ky[n]Bx.18.412: kyn: Beta repeats kynde from the a-verse. Alpha is supported by Cx. holpeBx.18.412: holpe: Cx supports the past subjunctive as in LG and alpha, against the present in others.
And namelich at such a nede · þer nedes helpe bihoueth
Non intres in iudicium cum seruo tuo
Bx.18.415: The paraph in WHmCF, with the line-space in M, is prompted by the Latin line above, but is not in LR.Þus bi lawe quod owreBx.18.415: owre: MCr have þis, but the others are supported by Cx. lorde · lede I wil fro hennes
Þo þat [I]Bx.18.416: I: Alpha supported by Cx. Beta with me harmonises the subjects of loued and leued. F goes about it in his inimitable way, with þei me be-leveden. loued · & leued in my comynge
And for þi lesynge lucifer · þat þow loweBx.18.417: lowe: "lied". This 2 sg. form is shared with alpha. tilBx.18.417: til: Beta supported by Cx against alpha's to. Eue
Thow shalt abye it bittre · & bonde hym with cheynes
Astaroth and al þe route · hidden hem in hernes
They dorste nouȝte loke on owre lorde · þe boldest of hem alle
But leten hym lede forth what hym lyked · and lete what hym liste
¶ Many hundreth of angeles · harpeden & songen
Culpat caro purgat caro · regnat deus dei caro
¶ Thanne piped pees · of poysye a note
Clarior est solito post maxima nebula phebus · post inimicitias &c ·Bx.18.425: The "proverbial" verses (Alford (1992), 113) are abbreviated by the more reliable beta mss. and set out as one line. Beta4 agrees with alpha in including clarior est et amor and setting over two lines. Cx does not offer clear guidance: the X family sets as one line and all but four C mss. abbreviate by dropping post maxima nebula phebus (RK.20.451a).
After sharpe[st]Bx.18.426: sharpest: Alpha's superlative is supported by Cx and translates maxima. shoures quod pees · moste shene is þe sonne
Is no weder warmer · þan after watery cloudes
Ne no loue leuere · ne leuer frendesBx.18.428: From this point R is defective until Bx.20.27. We do not always comment on an F variant if it has no support from Cx.
Þan after werre & wo · whan loue & pees be maistres
Was neuere werre in þis worlde · ne wykkednesse so kene
ÞatBx.18.431: Þat: Most beta mss. have Þat ne, though CrC omit ne and it is erased in M. In the absence of R the alpha reading is uncertain, though F omission has the support of Cx (RK.20.457). See Schmidt (2008), 453. loue & hym luste [·] to laughynge neBx.18.431: ne: F reads he and Hm has it, but perhaps these may be supplied to fill out a short b-verse since Cx omits. See previous note. brouȝte
And pees þorw pacience · alle perilles stoppedBx.18.432: stopped: M alters to the present, bringing it into agreement with WF. There is the same variation in C mss., but the majority have the past. F's addition of he has no support from Cx.
Trewes quod treuth · þow tellest vs soth bi ihesus
Clippe we in couenaunt [·] & vch of vs cusse other
AndBx.18.435: And: Beta is supported by Cx against F's Ȝee. lete no peple quod pees · perceyue þat we chyddeBx.18.435: chydde: Only LCrW have the past tense. C mss. are divided: XYJ of the X family have the past, the others have the present.
For inpossible is no þyng · to hym þat is almyȝty
¶ Thow seist soth seydeBx.18.437: seyde: LM against quod in the others. Choice is difficult. Is alliteration on /s/ (aaa/xx) or /r/ (xa/ax)? Most C mss. have quod, but XJ have saide. For other examples of such variation see Bx.4.190, 13.216 (seyde LMCrHmR, quod WCGOF), 16.63 (seide LRF, quod others), etc. In a-verses seith sothe quod occurs at Bx.11.107 and 11.453, seith soth seyde at 17.21. ryȝtwisnesse · & reuerentlich hir kyste
Pees & pees here · perBx.18.438: per: CrG add omnia to the formula, as do a few C scribes. Since F is missing, the line is only in beta. secula seculorum
Misericordia & veritas obuiauerunt sibi iusticia & pax osculate suntBx.18.439: F truncates the verse, but Cx has it in full.
Treuth tromped þo & songeBx.18.440: songe: F adds to the alliteration with treblide. It has no support from Cx. · te deum laudamus
And thanne luted loue · in a loude note
Ecce quam bonum & quam iocundum · &c
¶ Tyl þe daye dawed · þis damaiseles [carol]edBx.18.443: caroled: F's carolden is the reading of the X family of C; the P family agrees with beta's daunced. The latter is easier, and perhaps motivated by the alliteration.
That men rongen to þe resurexioun · & riȝt with þat I waked
And called kitte my wyf · and kalote my douȝter
Ariseth & [go] reuerencethBx.18.446: go reuerenceth: Beta drops go, but F is supported by Cx. Most C mss. have reuerence, the infinitive or uninflected imperative plural. Imperative go may be followed by either (Mustanoja (1960), 476, 535). · goddes ressurrexioun
And crepeth to þeBx.18.447: þe: L has þe the in error. crosse on kneesBx.18.447: to þe crosse on knees: Beta is supported by the X family of C. F (= alpha?) and the P family reverse the order. · & kisseth it for a iuwel
For goddes blissed body · it bar for owre bote
And it afereth þe fende · for suche is þe myȝte
May no grysly gost · glyde þere it shadweth