Passus septimus decimus et secundus de dobet

I am spes [a spye] quod heBx.17.1: a spye quod he: Alpha's word-order is supported by Cx (RK.19.1). · andBx.17.1: and: Omitted by R, but supported by Cx. spire after a knyȝte
That toke me a maundement [·] vpon þe mounte of synay
To reule alle rewmes [þere-]withBx.17.3: þere-: Omitted by beta, but supported by Cx. · I bere þe writte here
[¶]Bx.17.4: : A paraph is indicated by MW and alpha. Is it asseledBx.17.4: asseled: The form is supported by Cx against CrWG enseled. I seyde · may men se þiBx.17.4: þi: Supported by LWHmR. MCrCGOF have þe. Cx is split. lettres
[¶]Bx.17.5: : The paraph is supported by WC and alpha. L misplaces it at the start of the following line. Nay he sayde I seke hym · þat hath þe sele to kepe
And þat is crosse and crystenedome · and cryst þere-on to hange
Bx.17.7-8: Beta's two lines are supported by the revised lines in Cx (RK.19.9-10). R reflects a corrupt alpha, conflating the two lines into one and adding a half-line for a smooth transition to l. 9: "And whan it is aseled so sathanas power schal last no lenger / And þus my lettre meneth". F typically fills out the orphan half-line: "& whan it ys a-selyd soo sathenas haþ lost his power / & þus myn lettre meneþ men mowe knowe yt alle". KD adopt F's expanded line. And whan it is asseledBx.17.7: asseled: Supported by Cx. CrWG again have enseled. so · I wote wel þe sothe
Þat Lucyferes lordeship · laste shal no lenger
[¶]Bx.17.9: : The paraph is supported by WHmC and alpha. Late se þi lettresBx.17.9: þi lettres: Beta is supported by Cx against alpha's þat lettre. quod I · we miȝte þe lawe knowe
¶ [A] plokkedBx.17.10: A plokked: So alpha. Beta begins Þanne plokked he, but is not supported by Cx. The form A, "He" (cf. F & he) is in C mss. and may represent Bx. See note to Bx.16.79. forth a patent · a pece of an harde roche
Wher-on wasBx.17.11: was: L and alpha, supported by Cx, but altered to were in other beta mss. as elsewhere. Cf. Bx.5.13, 13.368, 19.47, 19.96. writen two wordes · on þis wyse yglosed
Dilige deum & proximum tuum &c
Þis was þe tixte trewly · I toke ful gode [gome]Bx.17.13: gome: "heed" (MED gome n. (4)), with citations from Robert of Gloucester and elsewhere. The reading of R, with F substituting easier keepe and beta the cognate ȝeme. In C gome has strong support, with ȝeme, kepe and hede as easier variants. Cf. Bx.10.206.
Þe glose was gloriousely writen · with a gilte penne
In hijs duobus mandatis [pendet] tota lexBx.17.15: pendet tota lex: This is R's order, as in most C mss., with the other B mss. correcting to the Vulgate order. See next note. & prophetiaBx.17.15: prophetia: "prophesy"; so LWHmR. The other mss. correct to prophete, "prophets", as in Matt. 22.40.
¶ IsBx.17.16: Is: LRF supported by Cx (though note that F consequently alters lawes to sg.). Other scribes correct to Ben. here alle þi lordes lawes quod I · ȝe leue meBx.17.16: me: Beta adds wel, but CrG and alpha and Cx are without it. he seyde
And who-so worcheth after þis writte · I wil vndertaken
Shal neuere deuel hym dere · ne deth in soule greue
For þough I seye it my-self · I haue saued with þis charme
Of men & of wommen · many score þousandes
¶ HeBx.17.21: He: Supported by Cx against WHm Ye. seith soth seydeBx.17.21: seyde: As in Cx. MO repeat the present tense. þis heraud · I haue yfounde it ofte
Lo here in my lappe · þat leued on þat charme
Iosue and Iudith · and Iudas Macabeus
[A]ndBx.17.24: And: Beta begins Ȝe and, which is idiomatic but not supported by Cx. sexty þousande bisyde-forth · þat ben nouȝt seyen here
¶ Ȝowre wordes aren wonderful quod I thoBx.17.25: tho: Dropped by beta4 and F and by the majority of C mss. · which of ȝow is trewest
And lelest to leue on · for lyf and for soule
Abraham seith þat he seigh ·Bx.17.27: Puzzled by the alliterative pattern, CrWO punctuate after seiþ, with O having a second punctuation after seyȝ. holy þe Trinite
Thre persones in parcelles · departable fro other
And alle þre but o god · þus abraham me tauȝte
And hath saued þat bileuedBx.17.30: bileued: G and alpha have the present, but beta is supported by most C mss. so · and sory for her synnes
He can nouȝte segge þe somme · and some aren in his lappe
What neded it þanne · a newe lawe to b[rynge]Bx.17.32: brynge: Alpha is supported by Cx against beta's begynne.
Sith þe fyrst sufficeth · to sauacioun & to blisse
¶ And now cometh spes and speketh · þat hath aspied þe lawe
And telleth nouȝte of þe Trinitee · þat toke hym his lettres
To byleue and louye · in o lorde almyȝty
And sitthe riȝt as my-self · so louye alleBx.17.37: alle: MCrF have alle þe. The C text is revised. peple
Bx.17.38-48: Eleven lines omitted by alpha, probably skipping a paraph. The C text is heavily revised, running parallel again from Bx.17.47. ¶ Þe gome þat goth with o staf · he semeth in gretter hele
Þan he þat goth with two staues · to syȝte of vs alle
And riȝte so by þe Rode · resoun me sheweth
It is lyȝter to lewed men · a lessoun to knowe
Þan for to techen hem two · and to harde to lerne þe leest
It is ful harde for any man · on abraham byleue
And welawey worse ȝit · for to loue a shrewe
It is liȝtor to leue · in þre louely persones
Þan for to louye and lene · as wel lorelles as lele
[¶]Bx.17.47: : The paraph is in WHmC, with a new line group in M. Alpha is not present. Go þi gate quod I toBx.17.47: to: Omitted by beta4, but supported by Cx. spes · soBx.17.47: so: MCr have for so, but this has no support from Cx. me god helpe
Þo þat lerneth þi lawe · wilBx.17.48: wil: Supported by Cx against MCrHm wel. litel while vsen it
[¶]Bx.17.49: : Alpha resumes. The paraph is in alpha. In LM it has been missed at the top of the page. See note to ll. 38-48 and see Burrow (2010), 26. And as we wenten þusBx.17.49: þus: This is presumably the placement of the word in Bx, though CrF and Cx postpone it to the start of the b-verse. in þe weye · wordyng togyderes
Þanne seye we a samaritan · sittendeBx.17.50: sittende: This form of the present ppl. is shared by LRF, and so is probably that of Bx. All mss. generally have -yng(e). L has -ende just three times, -enge once, -ande twice, and all these forms occur from Bx.16.269. R has -ende on the same three occasions, -ande once, and -ynde (a south-west midland form) once, in l. 52 below. M and W never have these forms. See variants at ll. 51 and 212 below. For distribution see LALME i, dot maps 345-9. on a mule
RydyngeBx.17.51: Rydynge: F's Rydende may represent alpha, giving rise to R's Ryden. See note to l. 50. ful rapely · þe riȝt weye we ȝeden
Comynge fro a cuntre · þat men called Ierico
id est cristusBx.17.53: id est cristus: This is written in the margin by the main hand in LM, and at the end of the line in R. Hm has it in the margin in another hand.
To a iustes in iherusalem · he chaced awey faste
Bothe þe heraud and hope · and he mette at ones
Where a man was wounded · and with þeues taken
He myȝte neither steppe ne stonde · ne stere fote ne handes
Ne helpe hym-self sothely · for semiuyf he semed
And as naked as a nedle · and none helpe abouteBx.17.58: aboute: Beta adds hym, as does the P family of C, but alpha is supported by the most reliable X family mss. It is easier to see why the word was added than how it might have been lost.
¶ Feith had first siȝte ofBx.17.59: of: Again the C mss. are divided, with the best of the X family supporting beta, while the others have alpha's on. hym · ac he flegh on syde
And nolde nouȝt neighen hym · by nyne londes lengthe
¶ Hope cam hippyng after · þat hadde so ybosted
How he with Moyses maundement · hadde many men yholpe
Ac whan he hadde siȝte of þat segge · a-syde he gan hym drawe
Dredfully by þis day as duk · doth fram þe faucoun
¶ Ac so sone so þe samaritan · hadde siȝte of þis lede
He liȝte adown of lyard · and ladde hym in his hande[s]Bx.17.66: handes: Alpha's rather more difficult plural is supported by Cx.
And to þe wye he went · his woundes to biholde
And parceyued bi his pous · he was in peril to deye
And but ifBx.17.69: if: Dropped by CrWGF and the P family of C, but supported by the best of the X family. he hadde recourereBx.17.69: recourere: L's form is supported by R. Both LR follow the word with a punctus. · þe rather · þat rise shulde he neure
[And breyde to his boteles . and bothe he atamede]Bx.17.70: The line, the last of a series beginning And, is lost in beta. R's wording is supported by Cx, with breyde to revised as vnbokelede.
Wyth wyn & with oyle · his woundes he wasshed
Enbawmed hym and bonde his hed · & in his lappe hym layde
And ladde hym so forth on lyard · to lex cristi a graunge
Wel six myle or seuene · biside þe newe market
Herberwed hym at an hostrye · and toBx.17.75: to: The beta reading; alpha is without it. The line is revised in Cx. þe hostellere called
And sayde haue kepe þis man · til I come fro þe iustes
And lo here syluer he seyde · for salue to his woundes
And he toke hym two pans · to lyflode as it were
And seide what he speneth more · I make þe good hereafter
For I may nouȝt lette quod þat leode · & lyarde he bistrydeth
And raped hym to iherusalem-ward · þe riȝte waye to ryde
¶ Faith folwethBx.17.82: folweth: The agreement of LR is generally sufficient to secure the Bx reading, and the alteration to the past tense in all other mss. is easily explained as influence of the surrounding verbs. Nevertheless, Cx in a revised line (RK.19.80) also has folewede. after faste · and fonded to mete hym
And spes spa[r]klichBx.17.83: sparklich: So alpha, a metathesised form of MED sprakli, and cf. sprak; a rare word, for which beta substitutes synonymous spaklich (MED spakli, and cf. spak and spake). Both are ON. See Bx.18.12 and note there. hym spedde · spede if he myȝte
To ouertake hym and talke to hym · ar þei to toun come
¶ And whan I seyȝ þis I soiourned nouȝte · but shope me to renne
And suwed þ[e]Bx.17.86: þe: So alpha, which is supported by the same a-verse in Cx against beta's þat. samaritan · þat was so ful of pite
And graunted hym to ben his gromeBx.17.87: grome: It would be logical to adopt alpha's gome as difficilior, and that might be right. And yet gome appears 18 times in Bx, and is not a word avoided by either alpha or beta, whereas grome is used only here, where the sense "servant, attendant" is particularly appropriate, especially in view of the contrast with "friend" and "fellow" in the next line. There is no Cx parallel. · gramercy he seyde
Ac þi frende and þi felawe quod he · þow fyndest me at nede
¶ And I thanked hym þo · and sithBx.17.89: sith: F adds þus, which KD adopt on metrical grounds (p. 173). But F lost elision alliteration on sith I by altering to sytthyn. The line is not in C. I hym tolde
How þat feith fleigh awey · and spes his felaw bothe
For siȝte of þe sorweful man · þat robbed was with þeues
[¶]Bx.17.92: : The paraph has been omitted from L at the top of the page, but is supported by MWHm and alpha. Haue hem excused quod he · her help may litel auaille
May no medcyn [vnder]Bx.17.93: vnder: Alpha's reading is supported by Cx against beta's on. The readings are discussed by KD, pp. 111-12. molde · þe man to hele brynge
Neither feith ne fyn hope · so festred ben his woundis
With-out þe blode of a barn · borne of a mayde
And be heBx.17.96: And be he: "And if he be"; supported by LWHm. The other beta mss. have And he be, where And means "If". Alpha loses he, necessary for the syntax. bathed in þat blode · baptised as it were
And þanne plastred with penaunce · and passiounBx.17.97: passioun: Alpha adds the definite article, creating a b-verse with two long dips. of þat babi
He shulde stonde and steppe · ac stalworth worth he neureBx.17.98: O has lost 17.98-354.
Tyl he haue eten al þe barn · and his blode ydronke
For went neuere wy in þis worlde [·] þorw þat wildernesse
Þat he ne was robbed or rifled · rode he þere or ȝede
Saue faith & his felaw · spes and my-selue
And þi-self nowBx.17.103: now: All mss. punctuate after now, rather than after such. Cx has no parallel up to l. 127. · and such as suwen owre werkis
¶ For outlaw[e is]Bx.17.104: outlawe is: Misled by the lack of an article, beta misreads as pl. outlawes and F adds an. It is, however, to be taken as a proper name. See notes to next line. in þe wode · and vnder banke lotyeth
And mayBx.17.105: may: The Bx reading is altered to pl. mowe(n) by MWHmCG following their misunderstanding of the previous line. Alpha naturally retains may, as does L, typically following his copy, and also Cr, for whom it was the standard sg. form. vch man se · and gode merke take[th]Bx.17.105: taketh: So alpha. Again it is likely that beta altered the sg. verb to pl. take, though it works very well as an infinitive.
Who is bihynde and who bifore · and who ben on hors
For he halt hym hardyer on horse · þan he þat is a-foteBx.17.107: a-fote: L's form is also that of R.
For he seighBx.17.108: seigh: G and alpha have seith, but it makes poor sense. me þat am samaritan · suwen feith & his felaw
On my caple þat hatte caro · of mankynde I toke it
He was vnhardy þat harlotBx.17.110: vnhardy þat harlot: Alpha, copied blindly by R, skips from -har to har-, hence vnharlot. F makes sense of this with but an harlot. · and hudde hym in inferno
Ac ar þis day þre dayes · I dar vndertaken
Þat he worth fettred þat feloune · fast with cheynes
And neure eft greue [g]omeBx.17.113: gome: In this case L's grome is shared only with C. The only other occurrence of grome in L is l. 87 above; see note there. · þat goth þis ilke gate
Bx.17.114-26: Line 114 is only in alpha and ll. 115-26 are only in beta. The whole passage, Bx.17.104-26, is without parallel in Cx, which runs parallel again from Bx.17.127. [O mors ero mors tua &c]Bx.17.114: The line is only in alpha, and possibly not Bx. Cf. Bx.18.37. F expands the quotation.
¶ And þanne shal feith be forester here · and in þis fritth walkeBx.17.115-26: Twelve lines only in beta: alpha has skipped from paraph to paraph.
And kennen outBx.17.116: out: Lost in beta4. For kennen out, "guide out", see MED kennen v. (1), 1b (c). comune men · þat knoweth nouȝte þe contre
Which is þe weye þat ich went · and wherforth to iherusalem
And hope þe hostelleres man shal be · þere þe man lith an helynge
And alle þat fieble and faynt be · þat faith may nouȝt teche
Hope shal lede hem forth with loue · as his lettre telleth
And hostel hem and hele · þorw holicherche bileue
Tyl I haue salue for alle syke · and þanne shal I retourneBx.17.122: retourne: WHm have synonymous turne.
And come aȝein bi þis contree · and confort alle syke
Þat craueth it or coueiteth it · and cryeth þere-after
For þe barne was born in bethleem · þat with his blode shal saue
Alle þat lyueth in faith · and folweth his felawes techynge
¶ A swete syre I seydeBx.17.127: I seyde: Supported by Cx. CrHmGF reverse the word-order. þo · wher I shalBx.17.127: I shal: So LWR; the others reverse the word-order. Cx is different. byleue
As feith and his felawe · enfourmed me bothe
In þre persones departable · þat perpetuel were euere
And alle þre but o god · þus abraham me tauȝte
And hope afterwarde · he bad me to louye
O god wyth al my good · and alle gomes after
Louye hem lyke my-selue · ac owre lorde aboue alle
¶ After abraham quod he · þat heraud of armes
Sette fasteBx.17.135: faste: WHm read fully. þi faith · and ferme bileue
And as hope hiȝteBx.17.136: hiȝte: Alpha's behiȝt avoids the repetition of the verb in the b-verse, but its usual sense in the poem, "vow, promise", is not appropriate here (cf. l. 131). þe · I hote þat þow louye
Thyn euene-crystene euermore · euene-forth with þi-self
And if conscience carpe þere-aȝein · or kynde witte oyther
Or heretykes with argumentz · þin honde þow h[e]mBx.17.139: hem: So alpha supported by Cx, with beta presumably reading him, corrected by WHm. shewe
For god is after an hande · yhere now and knowe it
¶ Þe fader was fyrst as a fyst · with o fynger fold[en]Bx.17.141: folden: The past ppl. as in alpha is supported by the revised line in Cx (RK.19.115), and by Bx.17.171.
Tyl hym louedBx.17.142: hym loued: Clearly the beta reading, though Hm alters to hym lykede, which is also the reading of Cx. On impersonal uses of personal verbs see Mustanoja (1960), 436. MED does not record impersonal use of louen, but cf. Bx.16.209, hym lyked & loued; the WCr reading in 13.333, me loueþ as against I louye in others. Alpha may have had the same reading as beta, with R misreading as hym leued and F altering to he lyþed, perhaps (very oddly) influenced by the collocation lithe and lust (MED lithen v. (3)). and lest · to vnlosen his fynger
And profre[d]Bx.17.143: profred: Beta has the infinitive, but alpha's past tense is supported by Cx. it forth as with a paume · to what place it sholde
Þe paume is purely þe hande · and profreth forth þe fyngres
To mynystre and to make · þat myȝte of hande knoweth
And bitokneth trewly · telle who-so liketh
Þe holygost of heuene · he is as þe paume
Þe fyngres þat fre ben · to folde and to serue
Bitokneth sothly þe sone · þat sent was til erthe
ÞatBx.17.150: Þat: Alpha makes weaker sense with And (R) or & þorghȝ (F). The line in Cx is as beta's, but without Þat. toched and tasted · a[t]Bx.17.150: at: Beta is supported by Cx. Only L has atte, "at the". Alpha has and. techynge of þe paume
Seynt Marie a Mayde · and mankynde lauȝte
Qui conceptus est de spiritu sancto &c
Þe fader is þanne as a fust · with fynger to touche
Quia omnia traham ad me ipsum &c
Al þat þe paume parceyueth · profitable to fele
Thus ar þei alle but one · as it an handeBx.17.156: hande: Supported by Cx and by alliteration. Alpha repeats fust from l. 153. were
And þre sondry siȝtes · in one shewynge
Þe paume for heBx.17.158: he: WF have it; R repeats þe paume. There is no parallel in Cx until l. 171. putteth forth fyngres [·] and þe fust bothe
Riȝt so redily · reson it sheweth
How he þat is holygoste · sire & sone preueth
And as þe hande halt harde · and al þynge faste
Þorw foure fyngres and a thombe · forth with þe paume
Riȝte so þe fader and þe sone · & seynt spirit þe þridde
HaltBx.17.164: Halt: W moves the verb to the end of the line; Cr does the same, also reversing the a- and b-verses, and M is revised to match Cr. al þe wyde worlde · with-inBx.17.164: with-in: Alpha reads with, and F adds to-gydres at line-end to make up for the loss. hem thre
Bothe welkneBx.17.165: welkne: CrHmGF add the definite article. and þe wynde · water and erthe
Heuene & helle · and al þat þere is InneBx.17.166: þere is Inne: L's word-order is supported by alpha.
Þus it isBx.17.167: is: Dropped by Hm, beta4 and alpha. LW both clarify the syntax by punctuating after is. · nedeth no man · toBx.17.167: to: Attested by L and alpha, but dropped by others. trowe non other
That thre þinges bilongeth · in owre lorde of heuene
And aren serelepes by hem-self · asondry wereBx.17.169: were: All except L and alpha read were þei. The line is marked for correction in L, with the corrector perhaps supposing that a pronoun is missing. neure
Namore þan [may an hande]Bx.17.170: may an hande: So alpha. Beta's possessive pronoun, myn hande may, anticipates the next line. [·] meue with-outen fyngeresBx.17.170: fyngeres: Following on from the a-verse, beta mss. apart from LHm add my.
¶ And as my fust is ful honde · yfolde togideres
So is þe fader a ful god · formeour and shepper
Tu fabricator omnium &c
And al þe myȝte myd hym is [·]Bx.17.174: L omits the punctus, MCrHm punctuate after hym, but WC agree with alpha in putting it after is. in makyng of þynges
¶ The fyngres fourmen a ful hande · to purtreye or peynten
Keruynge andBx.17.176: and: Alpha reads or, probably following the construction of the previous b-verse. The line is not in Cx. compassynge · asBx.17.176: as: Alpha (together with Cr) reads is, adopted by both KD and Schmidt without comment. crafte of þe fyngres
Riȝt so is þe sone · þe science of þe fader
And ful god as is þe fader · no febler ne no better
Þe paume is purelich þe hande · hath power bi hym-selue
Otherwyse þan þe wrythenBx.17.180: wrythen: Alpha's misunderstanding writen is shared with three C mss. (RK.19.142). fuste [·] or werkmanschip of fyngres
For þe paume hath powere [·] to pu[l]tBx.17.181: pult: MED pilten, 3 "extend". R is supported by the X family of C, though as elsewhere most mss. alter to putte as beta does here. Cf. notes to Bx.1.128, 8.97, 11.167, 15.66. oute þeBx.17.181: þe (2): Beta reads alle þe, but alpha is supported by Cx. ioyntes
And to vnfolde þe fusteBx.17.182: fuste: Beta has folden fuste, but Cx supports alpha. Beta, skipping from fuste to fuste, then drops the b-verse of l. 182, l. 183, and the a-verse of l. 184. [· for hym it bilongethBx.17.182: for hym it bilongeth: R's form of the b-verse (lost in beta) is supported by Cx.
And receyue þat þe fyngres recheth · and refuse botheBx.17.183: bothe: Cx reads yf hym liketh.
Whan he feleth þe fuste · andBx.17.184: and: So alpha. Beta's at (as in beta4) links 182a with 184b. The line is revised in Cx.] þe fyngres wille
So is þe holygoste god · nother gretter ne lasse
Þan is þe sire [or]Bx.17.186: or: Alpha is supported by Cx against beta's and. þe sone · & in þe same myȝte
And alle ar þei but o god · as is myn hande & my fyngres
Vnfolden or folden · my fuste & myn paume
Al is [it]Bx.17.189: it (1): Lost in beta. Alpha is supported by Cx, though several C mss. also omit it. but an hande · how-so I torne itBx.17.189: how-so I torne it: 189b and 190a are lost in beta mss. apart from LCr, skipping from hande to hande. The M corrector adds the missing words, which are in Cx.
Ac who is herte in þe hande · euene in þe myddes
Bx.17.191: Beta4 drops this line, and F loses 191b-196a through eyeskip. He may receyue riȝt nouȝte · resoun it sheweth
For þe fyngres þat folde shulde · and þe fuste make
For peyne of þe paume · powere hem failleth
To clicche or to clawe · to clyppe or to holde
¶ Were þe myddel of myn honde · ymaymed or ypersshedBx.17.195: ypersshed: "pierced" (R has ypersed). The other beta mss. have perisshed etc., which MED percen lists as a variant spelling, though it seems more probable that scribes took it to be perishen. Lines 195b-8a are not in Cx.
I shulde receyue riȝte nouȝte · of þat I reche myȝte
Ac þough my thombe & my fyngres [·] bothe were to-shullenBx.17.197: to-shullen: This is evidently the beta reading, with M altering to the easier to-swollen in agreement with Hm and alpha. MED ?toshellen, "shatter", cites no other instances.
And þe myddel of myn hande · with-oute male-ese
In many kynnes maneres · I myȝte my-self helpe
Bothe meue and amende · þough alle my fyngres oke
Bi þis skil [he seide]Bx.17.201: he seide: Alpha is supported by alliteration and the reading of Cx against beta's me þynketh. · I se an euydence
Þat who-so synneth in þe seynt spirit [·] assoilled worth he neure
Noither here ne elles-where · as I herde telle
Qui peccat in spiritu sanctoBx.17.204: in spiritu sancto: Bx has ablatives here and in l. 205, as does the X family of C, which other C mss. "correct" to accusative. See Schmidt (1995), 401, and cf. Bx.16.49. &c
For he prikketh god as in þe paume · þat peccat in spiritu sancto
For god þe fader is as a fuste [·] þe sone is as a fynger
The holy goste of heuene · is as it were þe pawme
So who-so synneth [aȝeins þe]Bx.17.208: aȝeins þe: Beta's in (with MWC adding þe) is a literal translation of ll. 204-05. Alpha is supported by Cx. seynt spirit · it semeth þat he greueth
God þat he grypeth with · and wolde his grace quenche
¶ [For]Bx.17.210: For: Beta has And, but alpha is supported by Cx. to a torche or [to]Bx.17.210: to (2): Omitted by beta, but supported by Cx. a tapre · þe trinitee is lykned
As wex and a weke · were twyned togideres
And þanne a fyre flaumendeBx.17.212: flaumende: The unusual present ppl. form is shared by LR. See note to l. 50 above. · forth oute of bothe
And as wex and weyke · and [warme]Bx.17.213: warme: Alpha's reading, supported by alliteration and by Cx. fyre togyderes
Fostren forth a flaumbe · and a feyre leye
So doth þe sire & þe sone · & also spiritus sanctus
Bx.17.216: The line is omitted by WHm. Fostren forth amonges folke · loue & bileue
Þat alkyn crystene [·] clenseth of synnes
And as þow seest some-tyme [·] sodeynliche a torche
The blase þere-of yblowe out · ȝet brenneth þe weyke
With-oute leye or liȝte · þat þe macche brenneth
So is þe holygost god · & grace with-oute mercy
To alle vnkynde creatures · þat coueite to destruye
Lele loue other lyf · þat owre lorde shapte
Bx.17.224-50: These 27 lines are omitted by alpha, skipping from paraph to paraph. The passage as in beta is almost identical in Cx. ¶ And as glowandeBx.17.224: glowande: The -ande form of the present ppl. is used only once elsewhere in L, pleyande Bx.16.269. See note to l. 50 above. gledes · gladieth nouȝte þis werkmen
Þat worchen & waken [·] in wyntres niȝtes
As doth a kex or a candel · þat cauȝte hath fyre & blaseth
Namore doth sire ne sone · ne seynt spirit togyderes
GraunteBx.17.228: Graunte: L has the -eth ending of the present plural, but the infinitive (as in all other mss. and Cx) is required after doth. no grace · ne forȝifnesse of synnes
Til þe holi goste gynne · to glowe and to blase
So þat þe holygoste · gloweth but as a glede
Tyl þat lele loue · ligge on hym & blowe
And þanne flaumbeth he as fyre [·] on fader & on filius
And melteth her myȝte in-to mercy · as men may se in wyntre
Ysekeles in euesesBx.17.234: eueses: The form is supported by LMCrHm. WCG have euesynges, which is the form in C mss. [·] þorw hete of þe sonne
Melteth in a mynut-while · to myst & to watre
So grace of þe holygoste · þe grete myȝte of þe trinite
Melteth toBx.17.237: to (1): L has in-to, picked up from l. 233. Cx supports to. mercy · to mercyable & to non other
And as wex with-outen more · on a warme glede
Wil brennen & blasen · be þeiBx.17.239: be þei: Supported by Cx against all in MCr. to-gyderes
And solacen hem þat mayBx.17.240: may: Clearly an error for may not as in Cx (RK.19.203). In the absence of alpha, it is impossible to determine whether beta or Bx is responsible for the mistake. se · þat sitten in derkenesse
So wole þe fader forȝif [·] folke of mylde hertes
Þat reufulliche repenten · & restitucioun make
In as moche as þei mowen · amenden & payen
And if it suffice nouȝte for assetzBx.17.244: assetz: "reparation" (sg.). The form in CrHmC ending -eth is a variant spelling. · þat in suche a wille deyeth
Mercy for his mekenesse · wil make good þe remenaunte
And as þe weyke and fyre · wil make a warme flaumbe
For to myrthe men withBx.17.247: with: Supported by Cx. CrW have myd. W alone has myd at Bx.P.147, 1.117, 15.261. · þat in merke sitten
So wil cryst of his curteisye · and men crye hym mercy
Bothe forȝiue & forȝete · & ȝet bidde for vs
To þe fader of heuene · forȝyuenesse to haue
¶ Ac hew fyre at aBx.17.251: at a: Beta is supported by the X family of C, while the P family has of a. flynte · fowre hundreth wyntre
Bot þow haue [tacche]Bx.17.252: tacche: Alpha is supported by Cx, with confusion among some scribes. MED tach(e n. (2), "tinder", has no other citations of the word. to take it with · tondre or broches
Al þi laboure is loste · and al þi longe trauaille
For may no fyre flaumbe make · faille it his kynde
So is þe holy gost god · & grace with-outen mercy
To alle vnkynde creatures · cryst hym-self witnesseth
Amen dico vobis nescio vos &c ·
¶ Be vnkynde to þin euene-cristene · and al þat þow canst bidden
Delen & do penaunce · day & nyȝte euere
And purchace al þe pardoun [·] of Pampiloun & Rome
And indulgences ynowe · & be ingratusBx.17.261: ingratus: The X family of C generally supports this beta reading, while the P family supports alpha's ingrat. to þi kyndeBx.17.261: kynde: Beta is supported by Cx against alpha's kynne.
Þe holy goste hereth þe nouȝt · ne helpe may þe by resoun
For vnkyndenesse quencheth hym · þat he can nouȝte shyne
Ne brenne ne blase clere · for blowynge of vnkyndenesse
Poule þe apostle [·] preueth wherBx.17.265: wher: "whether". I lye
Si linguis hominum loquar &c
For-thy beth war ȝe wyse men · þat with þe wo[r]ldeBx.17.267: worlde: The corrector has noted the error in L. deleth
That riche ben & resoun knoweth · reuleth wel ȝowre soule
Beth nouȝte vnkynde I conseille ȝow · to ȝowre euene-crystene
For many of ȝow riche men · bi my soule men telleth
Ȝe brenne but ȝe blaseth nouȝte · [&]Bx.17.271: &: Alpha is supported by Cx against beta's omission of the word. þat is a blynde bekene
Non omnis qui dicit domine domine intrabit &c ·
¶ Diues deyed dampned · for his vnkyndenesse
Of his mete & hisBx.17.274: & his: So LMC. The reading is uncertain. The other beta copies have and of his, R has and, and F rewrites. C mss. are split between the two beta versions. moneye [·] to men that it neded
Vch a riche I rede · rewarde at hym take
And gyueth ȝowre good to þat god · þat grace of ariseth
For þatBx.17.277: þat: WHmCG have þei þat (F þo þat). The P family of C also add a pronoun, with ȝe þat (RK.19.253). ben vnkynde to his · hope I none other
But þei dwelle þere diues is · dayes with-outen ende
Þus is vnkyndenesse þe contrarie · þat quencheth as it were
Þe grace of þe holy gooste · goddes owne kynde
For þat kynde dothe vnkynde fordoth ·Bx.17.281: LWHmCG punctuate after fordoth, R after deth, while MF punctuate at both points. as þese cursed theues
Vnkynde cristene men · for coueityse & enuye
Sleeth a man for his moebles · wyth mouth or wyth handes
For þat þe holygoste hath to kepe · þo harlotes destroyeth
Þe which is lyf & loue · þe leye of mannes bodye
For euery manere good man · may be likned to a torche
Or elles to a tapre · to reuerence þe Trinitee
And who-[so]Bx.17.288: who-so: LW have who, perhaps representing the beta reading, with MCr reading who þat. However HmCG and alpha and Cx agree on who-so. morthereth a good man · me thynketh by myn Inwyt
He fordoth þe leuest lyȝte · þat owre lorde loueth
¶ Ac ȝut in many mo maneres · men offenden þe holygoste
Ac þis is þe worste wyse · þat any wiȝte myȝte
Synnen aȝein þe seynt spirit · assenten to destruye
For coueityse of any kynnes þinge · þat cryst dere bouȝte
Bx.17.294: The line is omitted in beta3 and beta4. How myȝte he axe mercy · or any mercy hym helpe
Þat wykkedlich & willefullich · wolde mercy anynte
Innocence is nexte god · & nyȝte and day it crieth
Veniaunce veniaunce · forȝiue be it neuere
That shent vsBx.17.298: vs (1): Dropped by alpha, but attested in Cx. & shadde owre blode · forshapte vs as it [semed]Bx.17.298: semed: Beta has were, but R is supported by most C mss., with a few reading semeth as in F.
Vindica sanguinem iustorum
Thus veniaunce veniaunce [·] verrey charite asketh
And sith holicherche & charite [·] chargeth þis so sore
Leue I neure that owre lorde [·] wil loue þat charite lakketh
Ne haue pite for any preyere · þere þat he pleyneth
¶ I pose I hadde synned so · and shulde now deye
And nowBx.17.305: now: Alpha's nouȝt is an obvious misreading, perhaps of archetypal nouthe. am sory þat [I]Bx.17.305: I: The placement of the pronoun is supported by Cx. However, it may not represent Bx. L omits it entirely, R postpones it to the b-verse, MWHm have it twice in the a-verse. It is possible that Bx omitted it, as in L. so · þe seint spirit agulte
Confesse me & crye his grace · god þat al made
And myldliche his mercy axe · myȝte I nouȝte be saued
¶ Ȝus seide þe Samaritan · so þow myȝte[st]Bx.17.308: so þow myȝtest: Construed with Þat in the next line: "in such a way that". Alpha is supported by Cx. Beta has so wel þow myȝte (subjunctive). repente
Þat riȝtwisnesse þorwBx.17.309: þorw: Beta is supported by Cx against alpha's to. repentance · to reuthe myȝte torne
Ac it is but selden yseye · þere sothenesse bereth witnesse
Any creature [be]Bx.17.311: be: Alpha supported by Cx. Beta is presumably trying to smooth a difficult construction. coupable · aforBx.17.311: afor: This is apparently the beta reading, with MCr and alpha regressing to the commonplace bifore as elsewhere. See note to Bx.5.12 for other examples. Nevertheless the reading of Bx is doubtful, since Cx has bifore. a kynges iustice
Be raunsoned for his repentaunceBx.17.312: repentaunce: Beta, as in Cx. Lost by R (= alpha), with F repairing. · þere alle resoun hym dampneth
For þere þat partye pursueth · þe peleBx.17.313: pele: "accusation". So L + alpha, supported by Cx's apele. Cr has plee, with M altered to that reading; the other beta mss. have nonsensical peple. is so huge
Þat þe kynge may do no mercy · til bothe men acorde
And eyther haue equite · as holywrit telleth
Numquam dimittitur peccatum &c
Þus it fareth bi suche folke · þat falsely al her lyuesBx.17.317: lyues: Alpha has the distributive sg., perhaps rightly. The b-verse is rewritten in Cx.
Euel lyuen & leten nouȝte · til lyf hem forsake
Bx.17.319-20: These two lines omitted by beta are supported by Cx (RK.19.293-4). [Drede of desperacioun · þanneBx.17.319: þanne: F's placement at the start of the b-verse is supported by Cx. dryueth aweyBx.17.319: awey: Supported by the P family of Cx; the X family is without it. grace
Þat mercy in her mynde · may nauȝt þanne falle]
Good hope þat helpe shulde · to wanhope torneth
Nouȝt of þe nounpowereBx.17.322: nounpowere: "impotence", beta as Cx. Alpha mistakes it for nounper, "umpire". of god · þat he ne is myȝtful
To amende al þat amys is · and his mercy grettere
Þan alle owre wykked werkes · as holiwrit telleth
Misericordia eiusBx.17.325: eius (1): So beta, supported by Cx and its source, Psalm 114.9. This may, however, be a correction, since alpha has domini, as previously in Bx.5.293 (where F is lacking). See that note. super omnia opera eius
Ac ar his riȝtwisnesse to reuthe tourne · some restitucioun bihoueth
Bx.17.327: The line is in beta only. It lacks b-verse alliteration. The revised line in Cx has suche as or suche þat for beta's hym þat. His sorwe is satisfaccioun [·] for hym þat may nouȝte paye
¶ Thre þinges þere ben · þat doth a man by strengthe
Forto fleen his owne hous · as holy wryt sheweth
Þat one is a wikked wyf · þat wil nouȝt be chastedBx.17.330: chasted: So LCR, supported by Cx. See again l. 341. The form (MED chasten) appears earlier than MED chastisen.
Her fiere fleethBx.17.331: fleeth: Beta has fleeth fro. Alpha, with the transitive verb as two lines above, is supported by the X family of C, while beta shares the reading with the P family. hyr · for fere of her tonge
And if his hous be vnhiled · and reyne on his bedde
He seketh and seketh · til he slepe drye
And whan smoke & smolder [·] smyt in his syȝte
It doth hym worse þan his wyf · or wete to slepe
For smoke & smolder · sm[er]tethBx.17.336: smerteth: Beta repeats smyteth from l. 334, or anticipates l. 355. Alpha is supported by Cx. his eyen
Til he be blerenyedBx.17.337: blerenyed: The form (though misdivided in L) is supported by R's blereneyed. See MED blere-eied. or blynde · and [þe borre]Bx.17.337: þe borre: This is clearly the authorial reading, attested by Cx. MED burre n.(1), 2(b), "hoarsness", cites only this instance of the phrase. Beta's hors and alpha's cowȝhe avoid a difficult phrase, and F restores alliteration by adding a bold. in þe throte
CoughethBx.17.338: Cougheth: R begins He, and F rewrites, but Cx supports beta. and curseth · þat cryst gyf h[y]mBx.17.338: hym: Beta probably read hem, corrected by MCG, but alpha is supported by Cx. sorwe
Þat sholde brynge in better wode · or blowe it til it brende
¶ Þise thre þat I telle of · [þus ben]Bx.17.340: þus ben: So R. Beta has ben þus to, and F has þus ben to, with vnderstonde therefore infinitive rather than past ppl. In C the X family supports R, the P family supports F. vnderstonde
The wyf is owre wikked flesshe · wilBx.17.341: wil: Only R omits the relative þat, which is partly prompted by the same b-verse in l. 330. Although a number of C mss. have þat, the best do not. nouȝt be chastedBx.17.341: chasted: LMCrCR supported by Cx. See note to l. 330.
For kynde cleueth on hym euere · to contrarie þe soule
And þowgh it falle it fynt skiles · þ[at]Bx.17.343: þat: LHm read þe, but sense requires þat, which is the reading of Cx. frelete it made
And þat is liȝtly forȝeuen · and forȝeten bothe
To man þat mercy asketh · and amende þenketh
¶ The reyne þat reyneth · þere we reste sholde
Ben sikenessesBx.17.347: sikenesses: The form without -es in CrWCG may also be plural. & [other]Bx.17.347: other: The reading depends on R alone, with the support of Cx. sorwes · þat we suffren [ouȝte]Bx.17.347: ouȝte: Alpha is supported by the more reliable C mss., though many have beta's easier reading oft. Confusion is likely, since oft is a possible spelling of "ought" in south-western texts. See Jordan (1974), para. 196, remark, and para. 294.
As Powle þe Apostle · to þe peple tauȝte
Virtus in infirmitate perficitur &c ·
And þowgh þat men make · moche deol in her angre
And [be]Bx.17.351: be: So alpha and Cx, but apparently lost by beta, and added on grounds of sense by beta2. inpacient in here penaunce · pure resoun knoweth
Þat þei han causeBx.17.352: cause: Alpha repeats resoun from the previous line and loses the alliteration. to contrarie · by kynde of her sykenesse
And liȝtlich owre lorde · at her lyues ende
Hath mercy on suche men · þat so yuel may suffre
¶ Ac þe smoke and þe smolder [·] þat smyt in owre eyghenBx.17.355: Here O resumes.
Þat isBx.17.356: is: R drops the verb and consequently drops the relative in the b-verse. Beta4 has Is for Þat is. LMF and beta2 are supported by Cx. coueityse and vnkyndenesse · þat quencheth goddes mercy
For vnkyndenesse is þe contrarie · of alkynnes resoun
For þere nys syke ne sori · ne non so moche wrecche
Þat he ne may louye & hym lyke · and leneBx.17.359: lene: Cr has leue; the others are ambiguous. of his herte
Goed willeBx.17.360: wille: Beta reads wille &, but alpha is supported by Cx. good worde · bothe wisshen and wil[n]enBx.17.360: wilnen: Alpha is supported by Cx against beta's willen.
Alle manere menBx.17.361: men: Lost in MCr, which read of. · mercy & forȝifnesse
And louye hemBx.17.362: hem: MCr have hym. liche hym-self · and his lyf amende
I may no lenger lette quod he · and lyarde he pryked
And went away as wynde · and þere-with I awaked