Passus octauus de visione & hic explicit & incipit inquisicio prima de dowel

Thus yrobed in russet · I rowmed aboute
Bx.8.2: F omits the line. Al a somer sesoun · for to seke dowel
And frayned ful oft · of folke þat I mette
If ani wiȝte wiste · where dowel wasBx.8.4: was: alpha's subjunctive were is not supported by AC. at Inne
And what man he miȝte be · of many man I axed
¶ WasBx.8.6: Was: LMWHm begin a paragraph here. Alpha instead begins And was (R) or But þere was (F), but beta is supported by AC. neuere wiȝte as I wentBx.8.6: as I went: R's in þis worlde is also the reading of Cx, and so could possibly represent a revision, but F has the beta reading. Schmidt (1995) conjectures that R's reading is contaminated from Cx or is "a coincidental substitution of a familiar phrase" (377). The latter seems likely. · þat me wisse couthe
Where þis lede lenged · lasse ne more
Bx.8.8: : The paraph is in LR (M has a line-space). Tyl it bifel on a fryday · two freres I mette
MaistresBx.8.9: Maistres: Alpha begins And maistres, without support from AC. of þe Menoures · men of grete witte
I hailsed hem hendely [·] as I hadde lerned
And preyed hem parBx.8.11: par: LMWG; HmOF have pur (though in fact abbreviated in all except WHm). MED treats various forms as the same word (s.v. par prep.), and all scribes in all versions vary freely. CrCR have for, but this is not supported by AC. Cf. Bx.6.260, 13.30. charitee · ar þei passed forther
If þei knewe any contreBx.8.12: contre: Alpha's courte is a misreading; beta is supported by AC. For the reverse error see Bx.P.149. · or costes asBx.8.12: as: Perhaps a little more pointed in its reference to friars than alpha's þer. AC have instead costes aboute. þei went
Where þat dowel dwelleth · doth me to wytene
Bx.8.14-17: These four lines omitted in alpha are not paralleled in Ax but are in Cx. Here the omission can be accounted for as a result of homeoarchy (dowel and dwelle 8.13, 17) and skipping a paraph.Bx.8.14: : In the absence of alpha, the paraph is only in LC, with a line-space in M. For þei ben men onBx.8.14: on: The LM reading (supported by G) generally secures beta and hence Bx (in the absence of alpha). However, of in beta2 and CO is also the reading of Cx. We retain copy-text. þis molde · þat moste wyde walken
And knowen contrees and courtes · and many kynnes places
Bothe prynces paleyses · and pore mennes cotes
And dowel and doyuel · where þei dwelle bothe
¶ Amonges vsBx.8.18: Amonges vs: F has the Ax reading Marye, and its b-verse is also from A. For other lines in this passus which suggest F's contamination from an A text, see notes to ll. 25, 28, 38, 43, 45, 49, 74, 76, 78, 79, 87, 100-05, 106, 109, 121, 124. quod þe Menours · þat man is dwellyng
And euere hath as I hope · and euere shal here-after
Contra quod I as a clerke · and comsed to disputen
And seide sothliBx.8.21: seide sothli: The reading of LM is supported by Cx. The other beta mss. add a pronoun object. R has no pronoun and loses the alliteration by omitting sothli. F drops the line. Since both LM place the punctuation after sepcies (R is without punctuation here), that is probably beta or archetypal error. sepcies · in die cadit iustus
Seuene sythes seith þe boke · synneth þe riȝtful
And who-so synneth I seyde · doth yuel as me þinketh
And dowel and do yuel · mow nouȝt dwelle togideres
Ergo he nysBx.8.25: nys: LMW against is in other mss. AC mss. vary similarly. We retain copy-text. nauȝt alwayBx.8.25: alway: F's alwey at hoom is the AC reading. · amonge ȝow freres
He is otherwhile ellis-where · to wisse þe peple
¶ I shal sey þe my sone · seide þe frere þanne
How seuene sithes þe sad man · on þeBx.8.28: on þe: LM and alpha, against on a in beta1. F's word-order is that of AC. day synneth
By a forbisene quod þe frere · I shal þe faire shewe
¶ Lat brynge a man in a bote · amydde aBx.8.30: a (3): LR supported by AC, against þe in other mss. brode water
Þe wynde and þe water · and þe bote waggynge
Maketh þe man many aBx.8.32: many a: CrOR have many, as do AC. tyme · to falle and to stonde
For stonde he neuere so styf · he stombleth ȝif he moeue
Ac ȝit is he sauf and sounde · and so hym bihoueth
For ȝif he ne arise þe rather · and rauȝte to þe stiereBx.8.35: stiere: The beta reading, vs. alpha (and Hm) sterne. Both words mean "rudder", and are used to translate "clavus" in Prov.23.34 from which the friar's example comes. Neither is used elsewhere in the poem. See MED ster(e n.(2) and stern(e n.(2). A mss. also vary.
Þe wynde wolde wythBx.8.36: wyth: R's and is probably alpha, altered for sense to on by F. Beta is supported by Ax. þe water · þe bote ouerthrowe
And þanne were his lyf loste · þourgh lacchesse of hym-self
¶ AndBx.8.38: And: F's Ryght is from Ax. þus it fallethBx.8.38: falleth: GF's fareþ is the AC reading. quod þe frere · bi folke here on erthe
Þe water is likned to þe worlde · þat wanyeth and wexeth
Þe godis of þis grounde aren like ·Bx.8.40: Scribes vary in their placement of the punctus before or after aren like, responding to the awkwardness of the line. The hesitation is visibly expressed in M, with a punctus elevatus erased before the phrase and inserted after it. to þe grete wawes
Þat as wyndes and wederes · walwethBx.8.41: walweth: The LM reading, which is therefore likely to represent beta. It is supported by Ax and the better C mss. against walketh in alpha and four mss. of C. KD, 154 and n. 73, argue that in context walweth is "an easier reading"; nevertheless it is a rarer word. The primary sense of walken is "roll about" (MED walken v.(1), 1) rather than "go on foot" (3a). For the same variation see Bx.9.56. aboute
Þe bote is likned to owre body · þat brutel is of kynde
Þat þorugh þe fende and þiBx.8.43: þi: LR, and so presumptively Bx. But choice is difficult. F has oure, perhaps from the previous line but also the reading of Cx, while the other beta mss. have þe, the reading of Ax. We follow copy-text. flessh · and þe freleBx.8.43: þe frele: The beta reading. F has þe false, which is the Ax reading. R has þis frele, the reading also of Cx. Possibly R's reading is a revision. We follow copy-text. worlde
Synneth þe sadman · a day seuene sythes
¶ Ac dedly synne doth he nouȝt · for dowel hym kepithBx.8.45: kepith: F has the AC reading helpiþ.
And þat is charite þe champioun · chief help aȝein synne
For he strengtheth man to stonde · and stereth mannes soule
[Þat]Bx.8.48: Þat: The alpha reading is also that of Ax. Lines 46-56 are rewritten in Cx. þowgh þiBx.8.48: þi: LMCO and alpha, supported by Ax, against þe in WHmG. body bow · as bote doth in þe water
Ay is þi soule sauf · butBx.8.49: but: LMR are supported by Ax against but if in the others. þi-selfBx.8.49: þi-self: M reads þou þi-seluen as does Ax; WCr alter the word-order to þow wole þi-selue to the detriment of the alliteration. woleBx.8.49: Following this line, F introduces a line from A (K.9.45).
Do a dedly synne · and drenche so þi souleBx.8.50: soule: R alone has selue, perhaps from the previous line, though it is the reading of all but three A mss.
God wole suffre wel þi sleutheBx.8.51: sleuthe: Alpha and Hm read soule, perhaps picked up from 49-50. F revises to make sense of this. The line is revised from Ax. · ȝif þi-self lyketh
For he ȝaf þe to ȝeresȝyue · to ȝeme wel þi-selue
And þat is witte aBx.8.53: a (1): "and" (LM). See note to Bx.P.227. KD, pp. 193-4, take Bx And þat is to be an interpolation, and their emendation makes much clearer sense of to ȝeresȝyue "(wit and free will) as a gift". Hence the variants two ȝeresȝevis in CrF and a yeresȝyue in WG in l. 52. In M, wit is a correction, possibly of with a fre wille. fre wille · to euery wyȝte a porcioun
To fleghyng foules · to fissches & to bestes
Ac man hath moste þerof · and moste is to blame
But if he worche wel þer-with · as dowel hym techeth
¶ I haue no kynde knowyng quod I · to conceyue alle [þi]Bx.8.57: þi: Alpha agrees with Ax against beta ȝowre. Cx has this speche. wordes
Ac if I may lyue and loke · I shal go lerne bettere
Bx.8.59: W and alpha here supply a paraph, and also (see next note) have quod he, recognising that the speaker has changed. It may be, therefore, that the paraph was added to Bx to make this clear.I bikenne þe crystcryst quod heBx.8.59: cryst / cryst quod he: Alpha and WHm are supported by quod he in Cx, making clear that the friar is the speaker rather than Will. However, most beta mss. are supported by Ax. R's plural pronoun is presumably an error, though indeed there are two friars. · þat on þe crosse deyde
And I seyde þe same · saue ȝow fro myschaunce
And ȝiue ȝow grace on þis grounde · good men to worthe
¶ And þus I went wide-where [·] walkyng myne one
By a wilde wildernesse · and bi a wode-syde
Blisse of þ[e]Bx.8.64: þe: Though this is the reading of most mss., LHmR give strong support to þo. However the birds have not been previously mentioned, and þe is supported by AC (but see next note). briddes · [abide] me [made]Bx.8.64: abide me made: Alpha's reading is obviously correct, since beta's brouȝte me aslepe sends the dreamer to sleep too early. Alpha is supported by Ax (made me abide) and Cx (RK.10.63). Beta's reading, anticipating l. 67, is puzzling, since the line is identical to K.9.58. The passage in A reads: Blisse of þe briddes made me abide
And vndir a lynde vpon a launde lenide I me a stounde
To lerne þe laies þat [var. þat þe] louely briddes [var. foulis] maden
Blisse of þe [var. þise] briddis brouȝte me a slepe (K.9.55-8).
And vnder a lynde vppon a launde · lened I a stounde
To lythe þe layes · þ[e]Bx.8.66: þe (2): The reading of alpha. The beta reading is uncertain, since LCrWGO have þo against þe in MHmC. The latter has some support from A mss. (see previous note); Cx is revised. louelyBx.8.66: louely: Lost in alpha, but supported by AC and necessary for the alliteration. foules made
Murthe of her mouthes · made me þere to slepe
Þe merueillousest meteles · mette me þanne
Þat euer dremed wyȝte · in worlde as I wene
¶ A moche man as me þouȝteBx.8.70: me þouȝte: R drops me, anticipating the identification as Thought. F replaces the phrase with he was. Beta is supported by AC. · and lyke to my-selue
Come and called me · by my kynde name
Bx.8.72: WHmC and alpha have a paraph to mark Will's question. Cf. ll. 59, 73.What artow quod I þoBx.8.72: þo: Omitted only by R, though Cx and many A mss. also omit, so it is perhaps added by beta and F. · þat þow my name knowest
Bx.8.73: W and alpha have a paraph to mark Thought's answer.Þat þow wost wel quod he · and no wyȝte bettere
¶ Wote I what þow art  Bx.8.74: what þow art: F's who art þou is the AC reading. ·Bx.8.74: The punctus elevatus after art in LMOR and F (rather than his usual virgule) must be archetypal, perhaps to indicate the question. LMO also have a punctus following þought. On Hoccleve's use of the punctus elevatus to mark this sort of question, see Burrow (2002), 184-5. þought seyde he þanne
I haue suwed þe þis seuene ȝere · sey þow me no rather
¶ Art þow thought quod I þo · þow couthest me wisseBx.8.76: wisse: F's telle is the reading of Ax.
Where þat dowel dwelleth · and do me þatBx.8.77: þat (2): The beta reading, where alpha has hym. AC have neither pronoun. We follow copy-text. to knowe
¶ Dowel and dobet · and dobest þe thridde quod heBx.8.78: quod he: F's placement of this after Dowel is that of Ax.
Aren three faire vertues · and beth nauȝte fer to fyndeBx.8.79: The line that follows in F only is from A (K.9.71).
Who-so is trewe of his tonge · and of his two handes
And þorugh his laboure or þorughBx.8.81: þorugh (2): Clear support for Bx from LMWHmR. It is not in Ax. Cx rewrites. his londe · his lyflode wynneth
And is trusti of his tailende · taketh but his owne
And is nouȝt dronkenlew ne dedeignousBx.8.83: dedeignous: CF have the aphetic form deygnous, and R subpuncts initial de-. The best X family mss. of C have dedeynus, but the P family and Ax have deynous. · dowel hym folweth
¶ Dobet doth ryȝt þus · ac he doth moche more
He is as low as a lombe · and loueliche of speche
And helpeth alle men · after þat hem nedeth
Þe bagges and þe bigurdeles · he hath to-brokenBx.8.87: to-broken: WCO have to-broke which improves the metre of the b-verse. There is the same variation in C mss. HmGF have broke(n), as do A mss. hem alle
Þat þe Erl auarous · helde and his heires
AndBx.8.89: And: Beta's And þus is not supported by AC. with Mammonaes mone · he hath made hym frendes
And is ronne in-toBx.8.90: in-to: The reading of LM and alpha, with support from some A mss. and the best C mss. of both families. Religioun · and hath rendred þe bible
And prechethBx.8.91: precheth: Beta4 and R have the past tense, but AC support the present. to þe poeple · seynt Poules wordes
Libenter suffertis insipientesBx.8.92: insipientes: Several C mss. share with alpha the spelling incipientes (as if from incipio). · cum sitis ipsiBx.8.92: sitis ipsi: Reversed in alpha. Ax quotes only the first two words of the verse; many C mss. omit the second clause. sapientes
And suffreth þe vnwise · with ȝow forto libbe
And with gladde wille doth hem gode · for so god ȝow hoteth
¶ Dobest is aboue bothe · and bereth a bisschopes cro[c]eBx.8.95: croce: "crosier", the reading of MO and alpha (OFr croce), to be distinguished from cross (OE and ON from Irish) in other mss. The description is clearly that of a crosier rather than a cross. In Bx.15.598, however, the bishop's crosse is presumably a pectoral cross, unless a pun is intended on crosse in 15.608.
Is hoked on þat one ende · to halie men fro helle
A pyke is on þat potente · to pulteBx.8.97: pulte: The reading in LOR (MED pilten), the source of putte or pul in other mss. There is the same variation in C mss. (RK.10.95). adown þe wikked
Þat wayten any wikkednesse · dowel to tene
Bx.8.99: R has a paraph (F drops the line).And dowel and dobet [·] amonges hem ordeigned
Bx.8.100: to reule hem bothe: The b-verse (beta only) is defective in alliteration and metre, and is presumably corrupted from K.9.98-9, Corounid on to be kyng & be here counseil werche / And rewele þe reaum. Bx has reversed the positions of the parallel lines 100 and 105 (= K98 and 91). The reversal is retained in Cx, which however repairs the alliteration by completing this line to kull withoute synne (RK.10.101).Bx.8.100-05: Alpha as represented by R is here deficient, omitting through eyeskip from kynge to kynge five lines present in beta, so omitting 100b-105a. The lines in beta are a revised version of Ax, K.9.91-8, omitting 9.93 and 95, and replacing 9.98 with 91. F repairs the gap from his A text, thus: F.6.96 And þus dowel . & dobet . & dobest þe thrydde. (K.9.97)
F.6.97 Haue crowne oon to be kyng / & be here conseyl wirche (K.9.98)
F.6.98 & to rewle al þe rewhme / be reed of hem alle. (K.9.99)
F.6.99 & be non oþir-wyse / but as þey þre wille assente. (K.9.100)
F.6.100 For if þat dowel or dobet / dyden a-geyn dobest. (K.9.92)
F.6.101 & weryn vn-buxum to don his byddyngge / & bown to do Ille. (K.9.93)
F.6.102 Þanne sholde þe kyng come / & comawnde hem to presoun. (K.9.94)
F.6.103 & pitte hem þere in penawnce / with-oute pite or grace. (K.9.95)
The lines are rewritten in Cx.
To croune one to be kynge [·] to reule hem bothe
Þat ȝif dowel or dobet [·] did aȝein dobest
Þanne shal þe kynge come · and casten hem in yrensBx.8.102: yrens: Ax has presoun, which is also F's reading. See note to ll. 100-05.
And but if dobest bede for hem · þei to be þere for euere
¶ Thus dowel and dobet · and dobest þe thridde
Crouned one to be kynge · to kepin hem alle
And to reule þe Reume · bi her thre wittesBx.8.106: bi her thre wittes: F again follows Ax (K.9.99). Cx follows Bx, despite the defective alliteration.
And none other wise · but as þei thre assented
¶ I thonked thouȝt þo · þat he me þus tauȝte
Ac ȝeteBx.8.109: ȝete: Lost in R, but supported by AC. sauoureth me nouȝt þi seggyng · I coueite to lerneBx.8.109: I coueite to lerne: Bx has evidently conflated two lines in A, which F restores (K.9.102-3).
How dowel dobet and dobest · don amonges þe peple
¶ But witte conne wisse þe quod þouȝt · where þo thre dwelle
Ellis wote I none þat can · þat now is alyue
¶ Þouȝte and I thus · thre days we ȝeden
Disputyng vppon dowel · day after other
And ar we were ywarBx.8.115: were ywar: R 's order war were may be right, since it is that of Ax as well as the X family of C. Beta and F are in line with the P family. We follow copy-text. · with witte gan we mete
He was longe and lene · liche to none other
Was no pruyde on his apparaille · ne pouerte noyther
Sadde of his semblaunt · and of soft chiere
I dorste meue no matere · to make hym to iangle
But as I bad þouȝt þo · be mene bitwene
AndBx.8.121: And: Also the reading of Cx. F's To follows Ax. put forth sommeBx.8.121: somme: Supported by AC against R's his. purpos · to prouen his wittes
What was dowel fro dobet · and dobest fram hem bothe
¶ Þanne þouȝt in þat tyme [·] seide þise wordes
WhereBx.8.124: Where: R interprets this as Whether, which, in this case, it is not. dowelBx.8.124: dowel: F's dowel & may be from Ax, but it is also the Cx reading. dobet [·] and dobest benBx.8.124: ben: Lost in alpha, with F recasting to make sense. It is added above the line in M, suggesting the possibility that the omission was a Bx error, with beta scribes making the obvious correction. in londe
Here isBx.8.125: is: R (= alpha?) loses this, and F rewrites. wille wolde ywyte · ȝif witte couthe teche hym
And whether he be man or [no] manBx.8.126: no man: L's man is obviously an error, though it may represent confusion in beta or Bx, with other scribes repairing. Alpha and C have no man; most beta mss. have womman. The line is not in AC. · þis man fayneBx.8.126: fayne: Dropped in Hm and beta4, and erased in M. wolde aspye
And worchen as þei thre wolde · þis is his entente