Passus quindecimus finit dowel & incipit dobet

Bx.15.1-14: The lines have no parallel in C. Ac after my wakyngBx.15.1: wakyng: R's walkynge is an obvious error. · it was wonder longe
Ar I couth kyndely · knowe what was dowel
And so my witte wex and wanyed · til I a fole were
And somme lakked my lyf · allowed it fewe
And leten [me]Bx.15.5: me: Dropped by beta, though supplied on grounds of sense by CrW and inserted by the M corrector. for a lorel · and loth to reuerencen
Lordes or ladyes · or any lyf elles
As persones in pellure · with pendauntes of syluer
To seriauntz neBx.15.8: ne: The beta reading against and in alpha. to sucheBx.15.8: suche: R adds and; F reads swiche men followed by an erasure. · seydeBx.15.8: seyde: The M corrector inserts I in line with CrWHm. nouȝte ones
God loke ȝow lordes · ne louted faire
Þat folke helden me a fole · and in þat folye I raued
Tyl resoun hadde reuthe on me · and rokked me aslepe
Tyl I seigh as it sorceryeBx.15.12: sorcerye: R has of sorserie; F has a syght of sorseryȝe. were · a sotyl þinge with-al
One with-outen tonge and teeth · tolde me whyder I shulde
And wher-of I cam and of what kyndeBx.15.14: and of what kynde: Beta4 omits of, and F has simply kendely. R drops the whole phrase and rewrites as two lines. · I conIured hym atte laste
If he were crystes creature · for crystes loueBx.15.15: for crystes loue: Beta2 presumably lost the phrase. CrW patch with anoon, Hm with leue. Here comparison with Cx recommences (RK.16.166). me to tellen
Bx.15.16KD.15.16, 17
¶ I am crystes creature quod he · and crystene in many aBx.15.16: a: Dropped by R only, though it appears to be the Cx reading. place
In crystes courte I-knowe wel · and of his kynne a partye
Is noyther peter þe porter · ne poule with hisBx.15.18: his: The beta reading with which F agrees, supported by the P family of C. R's þe has the support of the X family, and could be right. fauchoune
Þa[t] wil defende me þe dore · dynge ich neure so late
At mydnyȝt at mydday · my voice [is so]Bx.15.20: is so: The reading of alpha, CrHm, and Cx. Other beta mss. reverse the word-order. yknowe
Þat eche a creature of his courte · welcometh me fayre
¶ What ar ȝe called quod I in þat courteBx.15.22: quod I in þat courte: The word-order is reversed in MHm and beta4. The line is not in Cx. · amonges crystes peple
Bx.15.23: WHmR have a paraph.Þe whiles I quykkeBx.15.23: quykke: CrW read quykne, but Cx has quyke (RK.16.183). Hm and beta4 have quyk was yn. þe corps quod he · called am I anima
And whan I wilne and wolde · animus ich hatte
And for þat I can and knowe · called am I mensBx.15.25: mens: R, presumably reproducing his exemplar as usual, adds thouȝt, set out as a gloss between punctus. Cx misunderstood it as part of the line, so that most mss. read mens thouhte or mannes þouȝte.
And whan I make mone to god · memoria is my name
And whan I deme domes · and do as treuthe techeth
Þanne is racio my riȝt name · resoun an englissh
And whan I fele þat folke telleth · my firste name is sensus
And þat is wytte and wisdome · þe welle of alle craftes
And whan I chalange or chalange nouȝte · chepe or refuse
Þanne am I conscience ycalde · goddis clerke and his notarie
And whan I loue lelly · owre lorde and alle other
Þanne is lele loue my name · and in latyn amor
And whan I fl[e]eBx.15.35: flee: L's flye may represent the beta reading, also in CO; M's flee is a correction. But Cx supports alpha and beta2. fro þe flesshe · and forsake þe caroigne
Þanne am I spirit specheles · andBx.15.36: and: L and alpha only, but supported by Cx. spiritus þanne ich hatte
Austyn and ysodorus [·] ayther of hem bothe
Nempned me þus to name · now þow myȝte chese
How þow coueitest to calle me · now þow knowest alleBx.15.39: alle: W adds for at the beginning of the b-verse and drops alle. G also drops alle, but it is in Cx. my names
Anima pro diuersis accionibus diuersa nomina sortitur · dum viuificat corpus
anima est · dum vult animus est · dum scit mens est · dum recolit memoria est ·
dum iudicat racio est · dum sentit sensus est · dum amat amor est · dum negat
vel consentit consciencia est · dum spirat spiritus est
Bx.15.40: L sets this as two lines, F as six and R as ten. Cf. Bx.15.124.
¶ Ȝe ben as a bisshop quod I · al bourdynge þat tyme
For bisshopes yblessed · þeiBx.15.42: þei: Dropped in MCGO, but supported by most C mss. bereth many names
Presul and pontifex · and metropolitanusBx.15.43: metropolitanus: Alpha has metropolanus, as in eight C mss., including X. It may, therefore, be an archetypal error.
And other names an hepe [·] episcopus & pastor
¶ Þat is soth seyde he · now I se þi wille
Þow woldest knowe and kunne · þe cause of alle her names
And of myne if þow myȝtest · me þinketh by þi speche
¶ Ȝe syre I seyde [·]Bx.15.48: With the short a-verse, the placing of the punctus causes scribes uncertainty. WR put it after seyde; F reads y for by and puts it after that. In HmO it follows so; in M it follows man. LC omit it. by so no man were greued
Alle þe sciencesBx.15.49: sciences: COR have the plural without ending. vnder sonne · and alle þe sotyle craftes
I wolde I knewe and couth · kyndely in myne herte
¶ Þanne artow inparfit quod he · and one of prydes knyȝtes
For such a luste and lykynge · lucifer fel fram heueneBx.15.52: F alone adds a line after this.
Ponam pedem meum in aquilone & similis ero altissimo
¶ It were aȝeynes kynde quod he · and alkynnes resoun
Þat any creature shulde kunneBx.15.55: kunne: Alpha and Cr have kenne in the sense "know" (MED kennen v.(1), 3), but Cx supports beta. al · excepte cryste one
Aȝein such salomon speketh · and dispiseth her wittes
And seith sicut qui mel comedit multum non est ei bonum
Sic qui scrutator est maiestatis opprim[a]turBx.15.58: opprimatur: R is supported by Cx in the present subjunctive, "let him be overwhelmed". Beta has the present indicative, while F corrects to the future as in the Clementine Vulgate (Prov. 25.27). See Schmidt (1995), 395. a gloria
Bx.15.59: WHmCF begin the line with a paraph, with a line-space in M.To englisch men þis is to mene · þat mowen speke & here
Þe man þat moche hony e[et]Bx.15.60: eet: Beta's eteth is indisputably present, but alpha's eet, which is supported by Cx, is probably past tense. Cf. Bx.5.386, 6.303, 13.66, etc. · his mawe it engleymethBx.15.60: it engleymeth: Most C mss. support beta against alpha's is/mote be englaymed.
And þe more þat a man · of good mater hereth
But he do þerafter · it doth hym double scathe
Beatus est seith seynt Bernard · qui scripturas legit
Et verba vertitBx.15.64: verba vertit: This order, which is reversed in Hm and alpha, is supported by Cx (RK.16.223). in opera · fullich to his powere
Coueytise to kunne [·] and to knowe scienceBx.15.65: science: WF understand this as plural, and write sciences as in Cx. Cf. l. 49 note.
PulteBx.15.66: Pulte: "thrust", the reading of LR and M before correction. As at Bx.1.128, 8.97, other scribes adopt easier Putte. But Cx has Potte. out of paradys · Adam and Eue
Sciencie appetitus hominem inmortalitatis gloriamBx.15.67: gloriam: The form cited by Alford (1992), 92-3. Beta 2, corrected O and some C scribes alter to gloria, taking it as the expected ablative. spoliauit
And riȝte as hony is yuel to defye · and engleymeth þe mawe
Riȝt so þat þorw resoun [·] wolde þe rote knowe
Of god and of his grete myȝtes · his gracesBx.15.70: graces: HmCGOF have the more obvious singular. The line is rewritten in C. it letteth
For in þe lykyng lith a pryde · and aBx.15.71: a (2): Lost by beta2 and F. lycames coueitise
Aȝein crystes conseille · and alle clerkes techyng
That is non plus sapere quam oportet sapere
[¶]Bx.15.74: : A paraph is warranted by the syntax and supported by MWHmC and alpha. Freres and fele otherBx.15.74: fele other: It is possible that beta (apart from G) has added fele (not in alpha) to "improve" the alliteration, but obscuring alliteration on /m/. But Cx has the word in a revised line (RK.16.231). maistres · þat to þeBx.15.74: þe: Omitted by WOF. lewed men prechen
Ȝe moeuen materes inmesurablesBx.15.75: inmesurables: Post-positional French adjectives may have a plural inflection, altered by CrWF. (Mustanoja (1960), 277.) MED citations suggest that the negative prefix is more commonly vn-, as in WG and alpha. Cx rewrites the line. · to tellen of þe Trinite
Þat ofte tymes þe lewed peple · of her bileue doutenBx.15.76: Alpha drops the line, perhaps as a result of the repeated bileue in l. 77. Cx revises (RK.16.233).
Bettere byleue were monyBx.15.77: Bettere byleue were mony: "It would be better for many doctors to drop such teaching". This is the reading of LCrHm, and probably that of M before correction, but it caused considerable confusion. The lack of alliteration suggests the line is corrupt. If it is authorial, Langland is presumably punning on the noun bileue (l. 76) and MED bileven v. (1), "abandon", which some scribes take as MED bileven v. (2), "believe". The M corrector rearranged the words as Bettre were many doctours . bileu{..}, but subsequently alters the last word to leue, giving the reading "Bettre were many doctours leue suche techinge", which makes good sense. W hits on a similar reading. R (= alpha?) alters were to by and drops such in the b-verse. F revises in his usual uncompromising manner. The line is not in Cx. · doctoures such techyng
And tellen men of þe ten comaundementz · and touchen þe seuene synnes
And of þe braunches þat burgeouneth of hem · and bryngeth men to helle
And how þat folke in folyes · myspenden her fyue wittes
As wel freres as other folke · folilich spenenBx.15.81: spenen: LR (and CrC) agree against spenden in other mss., which is no doubt prompted by myspenden in the line above. However, Cx has spenden. The two verbs (MED spenden and spenen) have the same origin and mean the same thing.
In housyng in haterynge · in toBx.15.82: in to: Perhaps "in displaying too arrogant a learning". So alpha; beta has and in to. Cx has in. hiegh clergye shewynge
More for pompe þan for pure charite · þe poeple wote þe sothe
Þat I lye nouȝt loo · for lordes ȝe plesen
And reuerencen þe riche · þe rather for her syluer
Confundantur omnes qui adorant scul[p]tilia · & alibi
Vt quid diligitis vanitatem & queritis mendacium
Go to þe glose of þe verse · ȝe grete clerkes
If I lye on ȝow to my lewed witte · ledeth me to brennynge
nota de fratribusBx.15.90: nota de fratribus: In L this is in the scribal hand and boxed in red. Since it is also in M, it is probably at least beta.
For as it semeth ȝe forsaketh · no mannes almesse
Of vsureres of hores · ofBx.15.91: of (3): R has and; F has & of. The line is not in C. auarous chapmen
And louten to þis lordes · þat mowen lene ȝow nobles
Aȝeine ȝowre reule and Religioun · I take recorde at Ihesus
Þat seide to his disciples · ne sitis [acceptores personarum]Bx.15.94: acceptores personarum: Beta reverses the order, but alpha is supported by Cx.
¶ Of þis matere I myȝte · make a longeBx.15.95: longe: Alpha probably read grete, as R, with F increasing the alliteration by altering to mychil. There is no guidance from C. bible
Ac of curatoures of crystene peple · as clerkes bereth witnesse
I shal tellen it for treuth sake · take hede who-so lyketh
¶ As holynesse and honest[e] [·] oute of holicherche spredeth
Þorw lele libbyng men · þat goddes laweBx.15.99: lawe: Alpha has the plural. There is no parallel line in C. techen
Riȝt so out of holicherche · alle yueles spredeth
There inparfyt presthod is · prechouresBx.15.101: prechoures: Beta is supported by Cx (RK.16.247). Alpha reads and prechoures, perhaps anticipating l. 105. and techeres
AndBx.15.102: And: Beta2 has I, but this is not supported by Cx. se it by ensample [·] in somer tyme on trowes
Þere somme bowes ben leued · and somme bereth none
Þere is a myschief in þe more · of suche manere bowes
Riȝt so parsones and prestes · and prechoures of holy chercheBx.15.105: cherche: R's plural has no support from Cx.
[Is þe]Bx.15.106: Is þe: R is supported by Cx. Beta alters to Þat aren to correct the syntax; F rewrites. The form is can be used for the plural (as at Bx.16.241), but here presumably agrees with rote rather than the nouns in the previous line. rote of þe riȝte faith · to reule þe peple
AcBx.15.107: Ac: The common variation between Ac ~ But ~ And. The better C mss. support Ac. þere þe rote is roten · reson wote þe sothe
Shal neure floure ne frute · ne faire leef be grene
Bx.15.109: Alpha and Hm have a paraph, and in L the line is at the top of the page where it is sometimes missed.For-þi wolde ȝeBx.15.109: ȝe: Alpha has þe, as does the P group of C. Cf. l. 111 ȝowre, altered by F to here. lettred leue · þe leccherye of clothynge
And be kynde as bifel for clerkes · and curteise of crystes goodes
Trewe of ȝowre tonge · and of ȝowre taille bothe
And hatien to here harlotrye · and [a]uȝtBx.15.112: auȝt: R's b-verse depends on wolde ȝe ... hatien, so "hate under any circumstance to take tithes", and presents aaa/ax alliteration. Beta's nouȝt depends, perhaps less plausibly, directly on wolde ȝe: "if you would not take tithes" (to is used when the auxiliary is separated from the infinitive, as here; see Mustanoja (1960), 522). In beta the pattern is aaa/xx. F rewrites. Cx simplifies the line (RK.16.260), with a couple of scribes even so misunderstanding the syntax and adding a negative. to vnderfonge
Tythes of vntreweBx.15.113: of vntrewe: Obviously better than CrW but of trewe and G + alpha of trewe. Perhaps the mistake is prompted by l. 111 Trewe in the context of the syntactic difficulty shown by the readings in the line above. Cx revises (RK.16.261). þinge · ytilied or chaffared
Bx.15.114: : The paraph in LHm and alpha (line-break in M) evidently represents Bx, yet the sentence beginning at l. 109 with a series of conditionals must be completed here in the main clause. Lothe were lewed men · but þei ȝowre lore folwed
And amenden hem þat mysdonBx.15.115: mysdon: Bx means "(those) who do wrong amend themselves", but could be misunderstood to mean "amend those who do wrong". R's reading þei misdon makes it clearer that hem is reflexive, "amend themselves of what they do wrong". Cx clarifies with amenden (hem) of here mysdedes (RK.16.263). · more for ȝowre ensamples
Þan forto prechen & preue it nouȝt · ypocrysie it semeth
For ypocrysie in latyn · is lykned to a dongehulBx.15.117: dongehul: Cf. "a donghel besnewed" (Aȝenbit of Inwit, 81/9-10, translating Somme le Roi). Alpha's dongoun misses the allusion.
Þat were bysnewed with snowe · and snakes wyth-inne
Bx.15.119: The paraph in L and the line-space in M are clearly not appropriate, and may represent a beta error.Or to a wal þat were whitlymed · and were foule wyth-inneBx.15.119: The line is lost in HmCG, through eyeskip on wyth-inne.
Riȝt so many prestes · prechoures and prelates
Ȝe aren enblaunched with bele paroles · and with clothesBx.15.121: and with clothes: So R. Cx has and with bele clothes. To repair the archetypal loss of the repeated bele, beta lengthens the b-verse with also and F supplies alliteration.
Ac ȝowre werkes and ȝowre wordes þere-vnder · aren ful [wol]uelichBx.15.122: woluelich: Evidently R has the alpha reading, for which F substitutes foxly. Beta misreads as vnlouelich. Cx has an entirely different line, but it ends as wolues (RK.16.271).
Bx.15.123: : The paraph is recorded by LR only. Iohannes crysostomus · of clerkes speketh and prestes
Bx.15.124: Set as four lines in L, nine in R and three in F. Cf. l. 40. Sicut de templo omne bonum progrediturBx.15.124: progreditur: Alpha anticipates procedit. · sic de templo · omne malum procedit
Si sacerdocium integrum fuerit · tota floret ecclesia · si autem corupt[a]Bx.15.124: corupta: Since this is the form in alpha and most C mss., it is presumably archetypal. Beta corrects to coruptum, referring to sacerdocium rather than ecclesia, as in Alford (1992), 93. fuerit · omnium fides
marcida est · Si sacerdociumBx.15.124: sacerdocium (2): Alpha has sacerdos. fuerit in peccatis · totus populus co[n]uertitur ad peccandumBx.15.124: peccandum: Alpha has peccatum.
Sicut cum videris arborem pallidam & marcidam · inteligis quod vicium habet in radice
Ita cum videris populum indisciplinatum · & irreligiosum sine dubio sacerdocium eius non est sanum
¶ If lewed men wist · what þis latyn meneth
And who was myn auctor · moche wonder me þinketh
But if many aBx.15.127: many a: MR have the equally common construction without a. Cx has no parallel for ll. 125-32. prest bere · for here baselardes and here brochesBx.15.127: baselardes ... broches: Reversed in R (= alpha?).
A peyreBx.15.128: peyre: The idiom is supported by LCGR (cf. Bx.12.22). The others have peire of. bedes in her hande · andBx.15.128: and: Alpha has or. a boke vnder her arme
Sire Iohan & sire Geffray · hath a gerdel of syluer
A basellarde or a ballokknyf · with botones ouergylte
Ac a portous þat shulde be his plow · placebo to segge
Hadde he neure seruyse to saueBx.15.132: saue: R reads haue (which could be right), while F abbreviates the long a-verse. syluer þer-to · seith it with yvelBx.15.132: yvel: The reading of L and alpha, and so presumably Bx. Schmidt (1995) translates with yvel wille as "with a bad grace". The phrase occurs elsewhere in the sense "malice". KD adopt wyth ydel wylle in other beta mss., which Kane (2005) glosses "perfunctorily", though there are no parallels. O's for spendyng at ale is an inspired invention simplifying a puzzling line. As Skeat explains it, the priest expects to be paid for saying a mass in addition to (þer-to) the Placebo, so that Hadde he neure means "If he did not have". wille
Allas ȝe lewed men · moche lese ȝe on prestes
Ac þinge þat wykkedlich is wonne · and with false sleigthes
Wolde neuere witteBx.15.135: witte: Scribes are puzzled, with W substituting þe wit and Hm þe wylle. CGO revise further. For witte of witty god, "the wisdom of wise God", Cx reads oþerwyse god. Langland seems to mean that since good men should not benefit from goods obtained wickedly (ll. 112-13), wicked men must enjoy them. of witty god · but wikked men it haddeBx.15.135: hadde: Alpha reads maked, but beta is supported by Cx.
Þe which aren prestes inparfit · and prechoures after syluer
Sectoures and sudenes · somnoures and her lemmannes
Þis þat with gyle was geten · vngraciouslich is spendedBx.15.138: spended: R has spened, agreeing with the X family of C. Cf. l. 81 note.
So harlotes and hores · ar hulpen with such goodis
AndBx.15.140: And: R (= alpha) has Ac (with F reading But as usual). Cf. the variants at ll. 107, 131 etc. The line is not in Cx. goddes folke for defaute þer-of · forfaren and spillen
¶ Curatoures of holykirke · a[nd]Bx.15.141: and: Alpha is supported by Cx against beta's as, which, however, gives good sense. clerkes þat ben auerouse
Liȝtlich þat þey leuen · loselles it habbeth
Or dyeth intestate · and þanne þe bisshop entreth
And maketh murthe þere-with · and his menBx.15.144: men: Support for meyne comes from HmF alone. Lines 143-62 are rewritten in C. bothe
And seggen he was a nygarde · þat no good myȝte asspare
To frende ne to fremmed · þe fende haue his soule
For a wrecched hous he helde · al his lyf-tyme
And þat he spared and bispered · speneBx.15.148: spene: The form in LMR. For variation with spende, cf. ll. 81, 138, 149 and 340. we in murthe
¶ By lered by lewed · þat loth is to spendeBx.15.149: spende: Cf. the previous line. In this case only R has spene.
Þus gone her godes · be þe goste faren
Ac for good men god wote · gret dole men maken
And bymeneth good mete-ȝyueres · and in mynde hauethBx.15.152: haueth: Alpha has hem haueth, which may be right. There is no parallel in C.
quid est caritasBx.15.153: quid est caritas: Written in the right-hand margin in the main hand in LM, so probably beta.
In prayers and in penauncesBx.15.153: penaunces: For variation of the plural with and without <-s>, see note to Bx.14.211. · and in parfyt charite
¶ What is charite quod I þo · a childissh þinge he seide
Nisi efficiamini sicut paruuli · non intrabitis in regnum celorum
With-outen fauntelte or foly · a fre liberal wille
Bx.15.157: : The paraph in LW (with a new line-group in M) marks the start of Will's speech. Where shulde men fynde such a frende · with so fre an herte
Bx.15.158: Alpha and Hm mistake this as the beginning of Will's speech, with a paraph here rather than at l. 157. But the line is certainly notable. A later annotator in L writes: "nota the name of thaucto[r]". R has "Longe Wylle" in display script in red in the right margin; in M a later annotator has scribbled "longe will". I haue lyued in londe quod IBx.15.158: I (2): Beta2 reads he. · my name is longe wille
And fonde I neuere ful charite · bifore ne bihynde
Men beth mercyable · to mendynantz & to pore
And wolen lene þere þei leue · lelly to ben payed
Bx.15.162: : The paraph is in LM only and may be spurious. WHmCF have a paraph at l. 164 instead. Ac charite þat poule preyseth best · and most plesaunte to owre saueoureBx.15.162: owre saueoure: Evidently beta, despite WCr's oure lord. Alpha presumably had R's god.
AsBx.15.163: As: Beta2 has Is, and M is altered to that reading. The word is dropped by CG and is not in Cx. non inflatu[r]Bx.15.163: inflatur: Perhaps beta had the error inflatus, retained by L and corrected in M. non [est]Bx.15.163: est: Not in L and added in M and Hm, again suggesting that beta was perhaps in error. ambiciosa non querit que sua sunt
I seigh neuere such a man · so me god helpe
That he ne wolde aske after his · and otherwhile coueyte
Þinge þat neded hymBx.15.166: neded hym: Supported by Cx against alpha's reversal and the present tense in CGO. nouȝt · and nyme it if he myȝte
¶ Clerkis kenne me þat cryst · is in alle places
Ac I seygh hym neuere sothly · but as my-self in aBx.15.168: a: Alpha omits. The line is not in Cx. miroure
[Hic]Bx.15.169: Hic: M and alpha are supported by Cx against It in L, Ita in CGO, and omission in beta2. In 1 Cor. 13.12 the word is nunc. in enigmate tunc facie ad faciem
And so I trowe trewly · by þat men telleth of charite
It is nouȝt championes fyȝte · ne chaffare as I trowe
¶ Charite quod he ne chaffareth nouȝte · ne chalengeth ne craueth
As proude of a peny · as of a pounde of golde
And is as gladde of a goune · of a graye russet
As of a tunicle of tarse · or of trye scarlet
He is gladde with alle gladde · and good ty[l] alle wykked
AndBx.15.177: And: Alpha has He. Lines 177-87 are rewritten in C. leuethBx.15.177: leueth: R clearly reads leueth (though not recorded by KD), and F's beleviþ supports this as alpha's reading. Cr has leueth and in G lenithe is altered to levithe, as is to be expected in these late texts. In all other beta mss. it is impossible to determine whether the reading is u or n (though it looks more like u in O). Our transcriptions followed KD in reading leneth (though with a note of caution in W). We should probably have followed Skeat, who read L as leueth, with a note glossing it "believes; answering to let it soth" (l. 180). and loueth alle · þat owre lorde made
Curseth he no creature · ne he can bere no wratthe
Ne no lykynge hath to lye · ne laughe men to scorne
Al þat men seith he let it soth · and in solace taketh
And alle manere meschiefs · in myldenesse he suffreth
Coueiteth he none erthly goodBx.15.182: good: Alpha has godes. · but heuene-riche blisse
¶ Hath he any rentes or ricchesse · or any riche frendes
¶ Of rentes ne of ricchesse · ne reccheth he neuere
For a frende þat fyndethBx.15.185: fyndeth: The evidence supports this as the Bx form in this line against R's monosyllabic fynt, whereas Bx evidently had fynt in the next line. hym · failled hym neuere at nede
Fiat voluntas tua [·] fynt hym euer-more
And if he soupethBx.15.187: soupeth: Only MCGO have subjunctive soupe. et[eth]Bx.15.187: eteth: The present tense is required by the sense. L's ette must be past, and R's eet (= alpha?) may be. See note to l. 60 above. Hm and beta4 have he eteþ. but a soppe [·] of spera in deo
He can purtreye wel þe pater noster · and peynte it with auesBx.15.188: aues: Beta's plural is supported by Cx (RK.16.323).
And other-while is his woneBx.15.189: is his wone: LMHm (R drops his). CrW, beta4 and F have he is woned, but Cx has his wone is. · to wende in pilgrymageBx.15.189: in pilgrymage: Only LM have in, though this is the Cx reading. Bx clearly had sg. pilgrymage, though WCF have the plural, as does Cx. See Bx.14.211 and 19.387 for a similar situation.
Þere pore men and prisonesBx.15.190: prisones: The form has good support for both Bx and Cx. See note to Bx.3.138. liggeth · her pardoun to haue
Þough he bere hem no bred · he bereth hem swetter lyflode
Loueth hem as owre lorde biddeth · and loketh how þei fare
¶ And whan he is wery of þat werke · þanne wil he some-tyme
Labory in aBx.15.194: a (1): In LR only, though Cx has þe. lauendrye · wel þe lengthe of a myle
And ȝerne in-to ȝouthe · and ȝepliche s[eche]Bx.15.195: seche: Alpha is supported by Cx (as well as sense) against beta's speke.
Pryde with al þe appurtenaunceBx.15.196: appurtenaunce: The choice is between this and alpha's purtenaunce. This could represent the plural, as MCrWGF unambiguously do. C mss. have the same variation. · and pakken hem togyderes
And bouken hem at his brest · and beten hem clene
And leggen on longe · with laboraui in gemitu meo
And with warme water at his eyghen · wasshen hem after
AndBx.15.200: And: Beta is supported by the X family of C, but alpha's omission has support from the P family. þanne he syngeth whan he doth so · & some-tyme seith wepyng
Cor contritum & humiliatum deus non despicies
¶ By cryst I wolde þat I knewe hym quod I · no creature leuere
¶ With-outen helpe of Piers plowmanBx.15.203: plowman: MR have þe plowman; F drops the two words. Cf. l. 206. Lines 202-24 are heavily revised in C, with few parallels. quod he · his persone seestow neuere
¶ Where clerkes knowen hym quod I · þat kepen holykirke
¶ Clerkes haue no knowyng quod he · but by werkes and bi wordes
Ac piers þe plowman · parceyueth more depper
ÞatBx.15.207: Þat: This odd reading, supported by L and alpha, evidently puzzled the scribes. M is altered to What, the reading of beta2, while CGO have Where. There is no parallel in C. is þeBx.15.207: þe: Lost in alpha, prompting F to alter wil to why. wille and wherfore · þat many wyȝte suffreth
Et vidit deus cogitaciones eorum
For þere ar ful proude-herted men · paciente of tonge
And boxome as of berynge · to burgeys and to lordes
And to pore peple · han peper in þe nose
And as a lyoun he loketh · þere men lakketh his werkes
¶ For þere ar beggeres and bidderes · bedmen as it were
Loketh as lambren · and semen lyf-holy
Ac it is more to haue her mete · [on]Bx.15.215: on: Alpha's reading gives the required sense. LMCrW suggest that beta had with, although Hm and beta4 have in. such an esy manere
Þan for penaunce and parfitnesse · þe pouerte þat such taketh
¶ Þere-fore by coloure ne by clergye · knowe shaltow hym neuere
Noyther þorw wordes ne werkes · but þorw wille one
And þat knoweth no clerke · ne creature inBx.15.219: in: Beta probably had in, altered by beta2 (the line is omitted by Hm) to the more usual on. F also reads on, though R has the unusual form an. erthe
But piers þe plowman · petrus id est cristus
For he ne isBx.15.221: ne is: LM. In practice there is no distinction between this and nys in WHmR. We follow copy-text. nouȝte in lolleres · ne in lande-leperes hermytes
Ne at ancres þere a box hangeth · alle suche þei faiten
Fy on faitoures · and in fautores suos
Bx.15.224: Alpha has a paraph.For charyte is goddis champioun · and as a good chylde hende
And þe meryest of mouth · at mete where he sitteth
Þe loue þat lith in his herte · maketh hym lyȝte of speche
And is compenable and confortatyf · as cryst bit hym-selue
Nolite fieri sicut ypocrite tristes &cBx.15.228: R alone has the word-order as in Cx. Perhaps beta and F reverted to the Vulgate order, since it was a well-known quotation used as an antiphon on Ash Wednesday. See Alford (1992), 94.
Bx.15.229: Hm and alpha have a paraph. In L the line is at the top of the page where a paraph is sometimes missed.For I haue seyn hym in sylke · and somme-tyme in russet
Bothe in grey and in grys · and in gulte herneys
And as gladlich he it gaf · to gomes þat it neded
¶ Edmonde and Edwarde · eyther were kynges
And seyntes ysette · [so]Bx.15.233: so: Alpha's alliterating reading means "so much did they practice charity". Beta's tyl makes no sense, prompting the reading for in CrW, and the alteration to that reading in MHm. KD and Schmidt (1995), 396, oddly conjecture stille, though the latter has an elaborate explanation. charite hem folwed
¶ I haue seyne charite also · syngen and reden
Ryden and rennen · in ragged wedes
Ac biddyng as beggeres · bihelde I hym neuere
Ac in riche robes · rathest he walketh
Ycalled and ycrimiled · and his crowne shaueBx.15.238: Following this beta4 has an additional line. It is not in C.
And in a freres frokke · he was yfounde ones
Ac it is ferreBx.15.240: ferre: Though beta2 and F have fern, which might be considered difficilior (it occurs nowhere else in any version), Cx has fer in a revised a-verse. agoo · in seynt Fraunceys tyme
In þat secte sitthe · to selde hath he be knowenBx.15.247: knowen: Clearly the Bx reading. Unusually, W's founde is shared with Cx, presumably by coincidence.
¶ Riche men he recomendeth · and of her robes taketh
Þat with-outen wyles · leden her lyues
Beatus est diues · qui &c
¶ In kynges courte he cometh ofte · þere þe conseille is trewe
Ac if coueityse be of þe conseille · he wil nouȝt come þer-Inne
In courte amonge iaperes · he cometh butBx.15.247: but: LMGR are supported by Cx against noȝt but. selde
For braulyng and bakbytyng · and beryng of fals witnesse
¶ In þe constorie bifor þe comissarie · he cometh nouȝt ful ofte
For her lawe dureth ouer-longe · but if þei lacchen syluer
And matrimoigne for monye · maken & vnmaken
And þat conscience and cryst · hath yknitte faste
Þei vndon it vnworthily · þo doctours of lawe
[¶ Amonges erchebisshopes and oþer bisshopes · and prelates of holy chercheBx.15.254-8: These five lines are lost by beta, skipping from one paraph to the next. Lines 254 and 257 are distantly related to RK.16.366-7. We follow R, with spellings altered to those of L. Comparison with Cx begins again with l. 290 and then l. 297.
Forto wonye with hem · his wone was sum-tyme
And cristes patrimoigne to þe pore · parcel-mele dele
Ac auarice hath þe keyes now · and kepeth for his kynnesmen
And for his sectoures & his seruantz · & somme for hereBx.15.258: here: The kinsmen's. F's hise weakens the point. children]
Bx.15.259: : The paraph is in beta, following its loss of text. See note to ll. 254-8. Ac I ne lakke no lyf · but lorde amende vs alle
And gyue vs grace good god · charite to folwe
For who-so myȝte mete with hym · such maneres hym eyleth
Noyther he blameth ne banneth · bosteth ne prayseth
Lakketh ne loseth · ne loketh vp sterneBx.15.263: This is transposed with the following line in beta4.
Craueth ne coueiteth · ne crieth after more
In pace in idipsum dormiam &c ·Bx.15.265: The Latin line is lost in alpha. CrHmG extend the verse. It is repeated at Bx.18.191-2.
Þe moste lyflode þatBx.15.266: þat: Supported by LWHmR. he lyueth by · is loue in goddis passioun
Noyther he biddeth ne beggeth · ne borweth to ȝelde
Misdoth he no man · ne with his mouth greueth
¶ Amonges cristene men · þis myldnesse shulde laste
In alle manere angres · haue þis at herte
Þat þough þei suffred al þis · god suffred for vs more
In ensample we shulde do so · and take no veniaunce
Of owre foes þat doth vs falsenesse · þat is owre fadres wille
For wel may euery manBx.15.274: wel may euery man: Beta's word-order gives a better alliterative pattern than alpha's. wite [·] if god haddeBx.15.274: hadde: Dropped by G and alpha. The b-verse means "if God had followed his own wishes". wolde hym-selue
Sholde neuere Iudas neBx.15.275: ne: Alpha, reading þe (R) or þat (F), takes no account of the following line. iuwe · haue Ihesu don on Rode
Ne han martired peter ne Poule · ne in prisoun holden
Ac he suffred in ensample · þat we shulde suffre also
And seide to suche þat suffre wolde · þat pacientes vincunt
Verbi gratia quod he · and verrey ensamples manye
In legenda sanctorum · þe lyf of holy seyntes
What penaunce and pouerte · and passioun þei suffred
In hunger in hete · in al manere angres
Antony and Egidie · and other holi fadres
Woneden in wildernesse · amonge wilde bestes
Monkes and mendynauntz · men bi hem-selue
In spekes anBx.15.286: an: "and". The attestation of MCr and R (as well as beta4) favours omitting LWHmF in. spelonkes · selden speken togideres
Ac noyther antony ne Egidy · ne hermite þat tyme
Of liouns ne of leoperdes · no lyflode ne toke
But of foulesBx.15.289: foules: Alpha includes the definite article, perhaps rightly. We follow copy-text. þat fleeth · þus fynt men in bokes
Excepte þat Egydie · after an hynde cryede
And þorw þe mylke of þat myldeBx.15.291: mylde: F omits, while R has meke, perhaps prompted by its spelling melke for "milk". best · þe man was susteyned
A[c]Bx.15.292: Ac: The sense seems to call for R's reading, against beta's And. F omits. day by day had he hir nouȝt · his hunger forto slake
But selden and sondrie tymesBx.15.293: tymes: See Bx.12.36. Alpha's form is possible. Discussed by KD, p. 143. · as seith þe boke and techeth
¶ Antony adayesBx.15.294: adayes: The form does not occur elsewhere in the poem. Alpha has on a day. We follow copy-text. · aboute none-tyme
Had a bridde þat brouȝte hym bredBx.15.295: bred: R probably represents alpha, with punctuation after hym and the addition of his before bred (F has his later in the line). Either could be right, though b-verse alliteration on by is perfectly good. · þat he by lyued
And þough þe gome hadde a geste · god fondeBx.15.296: fonde: "provided for". Alpha's fedde is likely to be scribal. Cf. l. 299. hem bothe
¶ Poule primus heremita · had parrokedBx.15.297: parroked: Cx (RK.17.13) does not support alpha's addition of in. hym-selue
Þat no man miȝte hym se · for mosse and for leues
Foules hym fedde · fele wynteres with-alle
Til he founded freres · of austinesBx.15.300: of austines: There is liaison alliteration on /f/ which F improves by altering to of fraunces. ordre
Poule after his prechyng · panyers he made
And wan with his hondes · þat his wombe neded
Peter fisched for his fode · and his felawe andrewe
Some þei solde and some þei sotheBx.15.304: sothe: Past tense, from MED sethen v. (1). W sode is merely a variant spelling. Alpha has the easier eeten, but beta is supported by Cx. · and so þei lyued bothe
And also Marie Magdeleyne · by mores lyued andBx.15.305: lyued and: Alpha's omission of the verb is attractive following lyued in l. 304, but beta has support from Cx. dewes
Ac moste þorw deuocioun · and mynde of god almiȝty
I shulde nouȝt þis seuene dayes · seggen hem alle
Þat lyueden þus for owre lordes loue · manye longe ȝeresBx.15.308: manye longe ȝeres: Beta and Cx. Alpha's b-verse is repeated from l. 284.
Ac þere ne was lyoun ne leopart · þat on laundes wenten
Noyther bere ne bor · ne other best wilde
Þat ne fel to her feet · and fauned with þe taillesBx.15.311: tailles: R's singular has no support from Cx.
And if þei couth han ycarped · by cryst as I trowe
Þei wolde haue fedde þat folke · bifor wilde foules
Bx.15.314-15: Two lines lost by beta. The whole passage is heavily revised in C, and there is no trace of these lines. We follow R, with spellings altered to those of L. [For alle þe curteisye þat bestes kunne · þei kidde þat folke ofte
In likkyng and in lowynge · þere þei on laundes ȝede]
Ac god sent hem fode bi foules · and by no fierse bestes
In menynge þat meke þinge · mylde þinge shulde fede
As who seith religious · ryȝtful men shulde fyndeBx.15.318: fynde: WF pick up fede from the previous line.
And lawful men to lyfholy men · lyflode bryngeBx.15.319: brynge: WF have sholde brynge, repeating the construction of the previous two lines.
And þanne wolde lordes and ladyes be · loth to agulte
And to take of her tenauntz · more þan treuth wolde
Fonde þei þat Freres · wolde forsake her almessesBx.15.322: almesses: LWHm mark the plural form. The form of the other scribes can also be understood as plural. There is similar variation in the parallel line in C (RK.17.47), though most scribes have the unmarked form.
And bidden hem bere it · þere it was yborwed
For we ben goddes foules · and abiden alwey
Tyl briddes brynge vs · þat we shulde lyue by
For had ȝe potage and payn ynough · and peny-ale to drynke
And aBx.15.327: a: i.e. "one", as is clearer in alpha. "And one main dish of just one kind". messe þere-mydde · of o manere kynde
Ȝe had riȝt ynough ȝe Religious · and so ȝowre reuleBx.15.328: reule: Alpha substitutes non-alliterating ordre. me tolde
NunquamBx.15.329: Nunquam: Supported by Cx. F's Numquid, which makes much better sense, is a correction in line with the Vulgate (Job 6.5). dicit Iob rugi[e]tBx.15.329: rugiet: The Vulgate's future tense is supported by alpha and Cx. on[a]ger cum [habuerit herbam]Bx.15.329: habuerit herbam: Beta reverses the word-order, but alpha's order, which is that of the Vulgate, is supported by Cx. · aut mugiet boscum ante plenum presepe steterit · brutorum animalium natura te condempnat ·quia cum eis pabulum comune sufficiatBx.15.329: brutorum ... sufficiat: Alpha omits but it is in Cx. · ex adipe prodijt iniquitas tua
¶ If lewed men knewe þis latyn · þei wolde loke whom þei ȝeue
And auyse hem bifore · aBx.15.331: a: "a period of". Alpha and GO omit. Lines 331-71 offer few parallels with C. fyue dayes or sexe
Or þei amortesed to monkes · or chanouns her rentes
Allas lordes and ladyes · lewed conseille haue ȝe
To ȝyue fram ȝowre eyres · þat ȝowre ayeles ȝow lefte
And ȝiuethBx.15.335: ȝiueth: CrWF supply the object it. to bidde for ȝow · to such þatBx.15.335: such þat: MCr and alpha have (slightly easier?) such as. ben riche
And ben founded and feffed eke · to bidde for other
¶ Who perfourneth þis prophecye · of þe peple þat now lybbeth
Dispersit dedit pauperibus &c
If any peple perfourme þat texte · it ar þis pore freres
For þat þei beggen abouten · in buildynge þei speneBx.15.340: spene: The form in LMO, but alpha and others have spende. See notes to ll. 81, 148. Beta2 and CF add it.
And on hem-self sum · and such as ben her laboreres
And of hem þat habbeth þei taken · and ȝyue hem þat neBx.15.342: ne: Beta2 omits, puzzled by the irony. habbeth
¶ Ac clerkes & knyȝtes · and comuneres þat ben riche
Fele of ȝow fareth · as if I a forest hadde
Þat were ful of faire trees · and I fonded and caste
How I myȝte mo þer-inne · amonges hem sette
Riȝt so ȝe riche · ȝe robethBx.15.347: robeth: "provide robes for" (as in L, corrected M, WC) but with a pun on the phrase "rob the rich". Already puzzled by the ironic tone earlier in the passage, other scribes write robbeth, leading F to alter ryche to not ryche. See l. 351. þat ben riche
And helpeth hem þat helpeth ȝow · and ȝiueth þere no nede is
As who-so filled a tonne [ful]Bx.15.349: ful: Called for by the alliteration, though preserved only in R. Alpha also has ful in the b-verse, replacing fressh in beta. · of a fressh ryuer
And went forth with þat water · to woke with themese
Riȝt so ȝe riche · ȝe robethBx.15.351: robeth: See note to l. 347. and fedeth
Hem þat han as ȝe han · hem ȝe make at ese
Bx.15.353: : The paraph is in beta only. Ac Religious þat riche ben · shulde rather festeBx.15.353: feste: Alpha picks up the weaker fede from l. 351. beggeres
Þan burgeys þat riche ben · as þe boke techeth
Quia sacrilegium est res pauperum non pauperibus dare
Item [idem]Bx.15.356: idem: i.e. "from the same source again" (viz. Peter Cantor; see Alford (1992), 96). It is omitted by beta. peccatoribus dare · est demonibus immolare
Item monache si indiges et accipis pocius das quam accipisBx.15.357-8: These lines are omitted in alpha.
Si autem non eges & accipis · rapis
Porro non indiget Monachus · si habeat quod nature sufficit
For-þi I conseille alle cristene · to confourmen hem to charite
For charite with-oute chalengynge · vnchargeth þe souleBx.15.361: þe soule: R omits.
And many a prisoneBx.15.362: prisone: For the variation with prisoner see note to l. 190. fram purgatorie · þorw his preyeres he delyurethBx.15.362: he delyureth: Alpha has instead is deliuered, which could be right.
Bx.15.363: A paraph as in Hm and alpha would be appropriate.Ac þere is a defaute in þe folke · þat þe faith kepeth
Wherfore folke is þe feblere · and nouȝt ferme of bilieue
As in lussheborwes is a lyther alay · and ȝet loketh he lyke a sterlynge
Þe merke of þat mone is good · ac þe metal is fieble
And so it fareth by some folke now · þei han a faire speche
Croune and crystendome · þe kynges merke of heuene
Ac þe metal þat is mannes soule · with synne is foule alayed
Bothe lettred and lewede · beth allayed now with synneBx.15.370: The line is dropped by CGF.
That no lyf loueth other · ne owre lorde as it semeth
For [what]Bx.15.372: what: Omitted by beta, but alpha is supported by Cx (RK.17.86). þorw werre and wykked werkes · and wederes vnresonable
Wederwise shipmen · and witti clerkes also
Han no bilieue to þe lifte · ne to þe lore of philosofres
¶ AstrymyanesBx.15.375: Astrymyanes: L has the same spelling in l. 386, but in Bx.19.250 has astronomyenes. The forms probably reflect Bx; cf. R's spellings. C mss. have similar variation. alday · in her arte faillen
Þat whilum warned bifore · what shulde [bi]falleBx.15.376: bifalle: R's unique reading is supported by Cx. All other B mss omit the prefix, but it should be noted that F shows a tendency to alter bifalle to falle: Bx.7.179, 8.8, 11.309. after
Shipmen and sheperdes · þat with shipp & shepe wenten
Wisten by þe walkene · what shulde bityde
As of wederes andBx.15.379: and: Alpha has and of. The line is not in C. wyndes · þei warned men ofte
Bx.15.380: A paraph as in WHm and alpha would be appropriate.Tilieres þat tiled þe erthe · tolden her maistres
By þe sede þat þei sewe · what þei selle miȝte
And what to leue and toBx.15.382: to (2): The reading of LM and alpha supported by Cx. Beta1 has what to. lyue by · þe londe was so trewe
Now failleth þe folke of þe flode · and of þe londe bothe
Sheperdes and shipmen · and so do þis tilieres
Noither þei kunneth ne knoweth · one cours bi-for an other
Astrymyanes also · aren at her wittes ende
Of þat was calculed of þe [c]lementBx.15.387: þe clement: Alpha drops the article; beta reads þe element. The right reading is certainly that of Cx (RK.17.107), þe clymat (MED climat, "a region of the earth"). Beta replaced the corrupt Bx with much easier and non-alliterating þe element, "the weather". Alpha drops the definite article to make some sense: "calculated by [Pope?] Clement". At this date clement can only be a proper name; cf. Bx.5.344, 365 (in both cases R has small <c> but F a capital). It is possible, too, that Bx itself read þe clemet correctly and was differently misinterpreted by alpha and beta. · þe contrarie þei fynde
Gramer þe grounde of al · bigyleth now children
For is none of þis newe clerkes · who-so nymeth hede
Þat can versifye faire · ne formalich enditenBx.15.390: The line is omitted by beta2. Cx has it.
Ne nouȝt on amonge an hundreth · þat an auctour can construe
Ne rede a lettre in any langage · but in latyn or in englissh
Go now to any degre · and but if gyle be mayster
And flaterere his felawe · vnder hym to fourmen
MocheBx.15.395: Moche: Alpha adds And, but the sense is better without it: "It will surprise me greatly if Guile isn't in command and Flatterer working under him amongst everyone". wonder me thynketh · amonges vs alle
Doctoures of decres · and of diuinite Maistres
Þat shulde konne and knowe · alkynnes clergye
And answere to argumentz · and also to a quodlibet
I dar nouȝt seggen it for shame · if suche weren apposed
Þei shulde faillen inBx.15.400: faillen in: LMG and alpha, supported by Cx against faillen of in beta2 and CO. her philosofye · and in phisyk bothe
Wher-fore I am afered · of folke of holikirke
Lest þei ouerhuppen as other don · in officesBx.15.402: offices: The form without ending in MWGF may also be plural. Cf. note to Bx.3.101. & in houres
AcBx.15.403: Ac: Good support from LMR, with the usual variants And and But. ifBx.15.403: if: R has þouȝ, which may be alpha and may be right. It probably lies behind F's þey oon hippe ... (þey is F's usual form of "though") and is included in C which reworks as two lines (RK.17.118-19). þei ouerhuppe as I hope nouȝte · owre byleue suffisethBx.15.403: suffiseth: Either beta englishes the Latin or alpha supplies the Latin equivalent in anticipation of l. 405. Cx in a reworked line has the English form, altered by one scribe to sufficit.
As clerkes in corpus cristi feste · singen & reden
Þat sola fides sufficit · to saue with lewed peple
¶ And so may sarasenes be saued · scribes and iewes
Allas þanne but owre loresmen · lyuen as þei leren vs
And for her lyuynge þat lewed men beBx.15.408: be: L and alpha punctuate after be, the others after men. · þe lother god agulten
For sarasenes han somwhat · semynge to owre bileue
For þei loue and bileue · in o parsone almiȝty
And we lered and lewede · in on god bileueth
Bx.15.412: The line is omitted by beta as a result of eyeskip from the identical b-verse of l. 411. We follow R as usual. F begins the line And so, which is perhaps scribal emphasis. For R's on, F has in, as in the previous b-verse. The repetition might be an argument for or against. Lines 406-15 have no parallel in C. [Cristene and vncristene . on one god bileueth]
AcBx.15.413: Ac: LR only. Cf. note to l. 403. one Makometh · a man in mysbileue
Brouȝte sarasenes of surre · and se in what manere
Þis Makometh was a crystene manBx.15.415: a crystene man: The alliterating noun is supported by L and alpha, but alpha is without the article, perhaps rightly. Beta1 seems to have read a cristene, as MWHm, though CrGO drop the article and C has pa. ppl. cristend. Cx, in a different line, has a man ycristened (RK.17.165). · and for he moste nouȝte be aBx.15.415: a (2): The variation is unpatterned: LWCOR have the article, but the others are without it. pope
In-to surre he souȝte · and þorw his sotil wittes
Daunted a dowue · and day and nyȝte hir fedde
Þe corne þat she cropped · he caste it in his ere
Bx.15.419-20: Two lines omitted by alpha, through eyeskip on ere. The lines form the basis of RK.17.174-5. And if he amonge þe poeple preched · or in places come
Þanne wolde þe coluer come · to þe clerkes ere
Menynge as after meet · þus Makometh hir enchauntedBx.15.421: enchaunted: Beta is supported by Cx against alpha's chaunted.
ABx.15.422: A: "And". See note to Bx.P.227. dide folke þanne falle on knees · for he swore in his prechynge
Þat þe coluer þat come so · come fram god of heuene
AsBx.15.424: As: Supported by the syntax over alpha's And. messager to Makometh · men forto teche
And þus þorw wyles of his witte [·] and a whyte dowue
Makometh in mysbileue · men and wommen brouȝte
Þat lered þere and lewedBx.15.427: lered þere and lewed: The reading of LR, and possibly M's original version. F revises lered þere to leernede men; Hm (corrected) reverses the adjectives; beta4 drops þere, and CrW have lyued þo þere and lyue, with M altered to that reading. A further difference is that alpha punctuates after lewed. In Cx the line reads: And on his lore thei lyuen [or leuen] ȝut, as wel lered as lewed (RK.17.182). ȝit · l[e]uenBx.15.427: leuen: Only L has lyuen. There is some evidence that beta used the form leuen also for "live", causing some scribes to hypercorrect; cf. notes to ll. 571 and 615. on his lawes
¶ And sitth owre saueoure suffred · þe sarasenes so bigiled
Þorw a crystene clerke · acursed in his soule
AcBx.15.430: Ac: LR (F has but as usual). See note to l. 413. Lines 429-513 are not paralleled in C. for drede of þe deth · I dar nouȝt telle treuthe
How englissh clerkes a coluer feden · þat coueityse hatte
And ben manered after Makometh · þat no man vseth treuth
¶ Ancres and hermytes · and monkes and freres
PerenBx.15.434: Peren: "become equals with". Alpha takes this as a noun, upsetting the syntax. to apostles · þorw her parfit lyuynge
Wolde neuere þe faithful fader · þat his ministres sholde
Of tyrauntz þat teneth trewe men · taken any almesse
But done as Antony did · dominik andBx.15.437: and: Alpha has or. Fraunceys
Benet &Bx.15.438: &: Alpha again has or. Bernarde · þe which hem firste tauȝte
To lyue bi litel & in lowe houses · by lele mennes almesseBx.15.439: almesse: Beta's reading may be prompted by the same word at the end of l. 436. On the other hand, alpha's synonym fyndynge may have its origin in visual similarity with lyuynge at the end of l. 440, together with fynde in l. 441 (so KD, p. 143). KD opts for beta's reading, Schmidt (1995) for alpha's.
Grace sholde growe & be grene · þorw her goodBx.15.440: good: Alpha picks up lele from the previous line, thus losing alliteration. lyuynge
And folkesBx.15.441: folkes: HmC and alpha have the sg. sholde fynde · þat ben in dyuerse sykenesse
Þe better for her byddynges · in body and in soule
Her preyeres and her penaunces · to pees shulde bryngeBx.15.443: brynge: Alpha has hem brynge, anticipating the object of l. 444.
Alle þat ben at debate · and bedemen were trewe
Petite & accipietis &c
Bx.15.446: Hm and alpha record a paraph.Salt saueth catelBx.15.446: catel: Beta2 and F add the definite article or personal pronoun. · seggen þis wyues
Bx.15.447-514: These lines are omitted by F. Vos estis sal terre &c ·
Þe heuedes of holicherche · and þei holy were
Cryst callethBx.15.449: calleth: R's past tense is both easier and less appropriate. hem salt · for crystene soules
Et si sal euanuerit · in quo salietur
AcBx.15.451: Ac: So LMHmOR. See note to l. 413. fressh flessh other fissh · whan it salt failleth
It is vnsauory for soth · ysothe or ybake
So is mannes soule sothly · þat seeth no good ensaumpleBx.15.453: ensaumple: R has the aphetic form saumple.
Of hem of holycherche · þat þe heigh weye shulde teche
And be gyde and go bifore · as aBx.15.455: a: Omitted by R. good baneoure
And hardy hem þat bihynde ben · and ȝiue hem good euydence
¶ Elleuene holy men · al þe worlde torned
In-to lele byleue · þe liȝtloker me thynketh
Shulde al maner men · we han so manye Maistres
Prestes and prechoures · and a pope aboue
Þat goddes salt shulde be · to saue mannes soule
¶ Al was hethenesse some-tyme · Ingelond and wales
Til Gregory gerteBx.15.463: gerte: R's and grete is much inferior. clerkes · to go here andBx.15.463: here and: Beta4 and R have and to, losing the emphasis on England and Wales. preche
Austyn at Caunterbury · crystened þe kyngeBx.15.464: kynge: R's addition of þere may be a consequence of the loss of here in the previous line.
And þorw myracles as men may rede · al þat marche he torned
To cryst and to crystendome · and crosse to honoure
And fulled folke fasteBx.15.467: faste: Possibly a beta addition, since R omits it. · and þe faith tauȝte
More þorw miracles · þan þorw moche prechynge
As wel þorw his werkes · as withBx.15.469: with: MCrHm repeat þoruȝ from the a-verse. his holy wordes
And seyde hem what fullynge · and faith was to mene
¶ Cloth þat cometh fro þe weuyng · is nouȝt comly to were
Tyl it isBx.15.472: is: So LMR. Others have the subjunctive as all copies have at l. 476. fulled vnder fote · or in fullyng stokkes
Wasshen wel with water · and with taseles cracched
Ytouked and ytented · & vnder tailloures handeBx.15.474: hande: R and corrected Hm have the plural, less appropriately.
And so it fareth by a barne · þat borne is ofBx.15.475: of: M and beta2 have of a. wombe
Til it be crystened in crystes name · and confermed of þe bisshop
It is hethene as to heueneward · and helpelees to þe soule
¶ Hethene is to mene after heth · and vntiled erthe
As in wilde wildernesse · wexeth wilde bestes
Rude and vnresonable · rennenge with-out [k]eperesBx.15.480: keperes: The reading of R. Beta probably read creperes, as LGO, altered to cropers in M, beta2 and C, in order to make some sort of sense. Of course animals are not restrained by "cruppers". It is difficult to see how beta's reading could have derived from the commonplace "keeper". It may be that crepere has some technical sense not recorded; for example, in Morte Arthure 3667 it seems to refer to a grapnel. KD p. 146 rather implausibly suggest that "the r was induced by the alliteration".
¶ Ȝe [mynnen]Bx.15.481: mynnen: Only MW preserve the Bx reading, with other scribes avoiding or misreading a word that was mainly northern by this time. It never occurs in L nor elsewhere in Bx, though KD conjecture it four times. It is used twice in C (RK.17.210, 19.233) with similar variants. wel howBx.15.481: how (1): GR have whate, avoiding the repetition. matheu seith · how a man made a feste
He fedde hem with no venysoun · ne fesauntes ybake
But with foules þat fram hym nolde · but folwed his whistellynge
Ecce altilia mea & omnia parata sunt &c
And wyth calues flesshe he fedde · þe folke þat he loued
Þe calfe bytokeneth clennesse · in hem þat kepeth lawes
Bx.15.487: : The paraph is in LC, with a new line-group in M. For as þe cow þorw kynde mylke · þe calf norissheth til an oxe
So loue and lewte · leleBx.15.488: loue ... lele: R's version of the line, doth loue & lewte and lele, is equally probable. men susteyneth
And maydenes and mylde men mercy desiren
Riȝt as þe cow calf · coueyteth swete mylke
So don riȝtful men · mercy & treuthe
Bx.15.492-505: These 14 lines are omitted by beta, jumping to the next paraph. Since F omits ll. 447-514, and furthermore there is no parallel in Cx, we are here entirely dependent upon R. [And by þe hande-fedde foules · [i]sBx.15.492: is: R has his, probably as a spelling for is rather than an error. folk vnderstonde
Þat loth ben to louye · with-outen lernynge of ensaumples
Riȝt as capones in a court · cometh to mennes whistlynge
In menynge after mete · folweth men þat whistlen
Riȝt so rude men · þat litel reson conneth
Louen and byleuen · by lettred mennes doynges
And by here wordes and werkes · wenen and trowen
And as tho foules to fynde · fode after whistlynge
So hope þei to haue · heuene þoruȝ her whistlynge
And by þe man þat made þe feste · þe maieste bymeneth
Þat is god of his grace · gyueth al men blisse
With wederes and with wondres · he warneth vs with a whistlere
Where þat his wille is · to worschipen vs alle
And feden vs and festen vs · for euere-more at ones]
¶ Ac who beth þat excuseth hem · arenBx.15.506: aren: Beta has þat aren, but the syntax is much better without, as in R: "those who excuse themselves are parsons". persounes and prestes
Þat heuedes of holychercheBx.15.507: holycherche: R's plural is less appropriate. ben · þat han her wille here
With-oute trauaille þe tithe del · þat trewe men biswynkyn
Þei wil be wroth for I write þus · ac to witnesse I take
Bothe Mathew and Marke · and Memento domine dauid
[Ecce audiuimus e[a]mBx.15.511: eam: The line is lost in beta, so R, reading eum, is the sole authority for citing the Psalm "Memento Domini" (131.6). It was previously cited at Bx.10.72, where alpha again has eum for beta's eam as in the Vulgate. See note there, and for explanation of the reference in that line see Schmidt (1995), 443. in effrata &c ·]
What Pope or prelate now · perfourneth þat cryst hiȝte
Ite in vniuersum mundum & predicate & c ·
¶ Allas þat men so longe · on Makometh shulde byleue
So many prelates to preche · as þe Pope maketh
Of Nazareth of Nynyue · of Neptalim and damaske
Þat þei ne went as cryst wisseth · sithen þei wil aBx.15.517: a: A good example of the superiority of LR. The other beta scribes took this to be a reduced form of "have". F realised it was the article, clarifying the sense by altering to þe. In Cx (RK.17.191) it is also revised to þe, perhaps again for the sake of clarity. name
Bx.15.518: L, starting a new leaf, begins with an inappropriate paraph.To be pastours and preche · þe passioun of Ihesus
And as hym-self seyde · soBx.15.519: so: Omitted by WGF preceding to. Hm omits the line. to lyue and deye
Bonus pastor animam suam ponit & c
And seyde it in sauacioun · of sarasenes & other
ForBx.15.522: For: As KD point out (p. 146), the alpha variant To cristene and to vncristene makes poor sense. crystene & vncristene · cryst seide to prechoures
Ite vos in vineam meam ·
And sith þat þis sarasenes · scribes & Iuwes
Han a lippe of owre byleue · þe liȝtloker me thynkethBx.15.525: me thynketh: Supported by Cx (RK.17.253) against alpha's it semeth.
Þei shulde torne who-so trauaille woldeBx.15.526: trauaille wolde: Beta2 have trauailed, and M is altered to that reading, but Cx agrees with LCGO and alpha. · to teche hem of þe Trinite
Querite & inuenietis &c
Bx.15.528-67: These forty lines are in beta only. Adams (2002), 118-22, discusses alpha's omission here and beta's loss of ll. 575-92, positing that the passages were on opposite sides of an inserted leaf in Bx, and the alpha and beta scribes each failed to incorporate one side of the leaf. KD argue that distinct from this is a major dislocation of text that antedated the losses in alpha and beta, and they move Bx.15.568-97 to precede 528 (pp. 176-8). ¶ It is reuth to rede · how riȝtwis men lyued
How þei defouled her flessh · forsoke her owne wille
Fer fro kitth and fro kynne · yuel yclothed ȝeden
Badly ybedded · no boke but conscience
Ne no richchesse but þe Rode · to reioyse hem Inne
Absit nobis gloriari nisi in cruce domini nostri &c ·
¶ And þo was plente & pees · amonges pore & riche
AndBx.15.535: And: The reading Ac in Hm, though tempting, is in the hand of the reviser, who has erased one line to write in this line and the next. In any case, Cx has And (RK.17.200). now is routhe to rede · how þe red noble
Is reuerenced or þe Rode · receyued for þe worthier
Þan crystes crosse þat ouer-cam · deþ and dedly synne
¶ And now is werre and wo · and who-so why axeth
For coueityse after crosse · þe croune stant in golde
Bothe riche and religious · þat Rode þei honoure
Þat in grotes is ygraue · and in golde nobles
For coueityse of þat crosse · men of holykirke
Shul tourne as templeres did · þe tyme approcheth faste
¶ Wyte ȝe nouȝt wyseBx.15.544: wyse: Beta2 and G have ye wise, but Cx is without the pronoun (RK.17.210), though in a revised a-verse. men · how þo men honoured
More tresore þan treuthe · I dar nouȝt telle þe sothe
Resoun & riȝtful dome · þoBx.15.546: þo: Supported by most C mss. against þe in beta2. Religious demed
Riȝt so ȝe clerkes · for ȝowre coueityse ar longe
Shal þei demen dos ecclesie · and ȝowre pryde depose
Deposuit potentes de sede &c ·
¶ Ȝif knyȝthod & kynde wytte · and comune conscienceBx.15.550: comune conscience: This must be the beta reading; the line is not in alpha. Cr and W, understanding the knighthood / commons pairing, take comune as a noun, so following it with by conscience, and M is altered to that reading. Presumably beta is a corruption of the reading of Cx, Ȝif knyhthoed and kynde wit and þe comune and conscience (RK.17.216) which adds a kind-wit / conscience pairing.
Togideres loue lelly · leueth it wel ȝe bisshopes
Þe lordeship of londesBx.15.552: londes: W adds youre here and drops ȝow in the next line. · for euere shal ȝeBx.15.552: shal ȝe: Reversed by beta4. Cx has lese ȝe shal for euer (RF.17.218). lese
And lyuen as leuitici [·] as owre lorde ȝow techeth
Per primicias & decimas
¶ Whan costantyn of curteysye · holykirke dowed
With londes and ledes · lordeshipes and rentes
An Angel men herde · an heigh at Rome crye
Dos ecclesie þis day · hath ydronke venym
And þo þat han petres powere · arn apoysoned alle
¶ A medecyne mote þer-to · þat may amende prelates
Þat sholden preye for þe pees · possessioun hem letteth
Take her landes ȝe lordes · and let hem lyue by dymes
If possessioun be poysoun · & inparfit hem make
Good were to dischargen hem · for holicherche sake
And purgen hem of poysoun · or more perile falle
¶ Ȝif presthod were parfit · þe peple s[h]olde amende
Þat contrarien crystes lawe · and crystendome dispise
For al paynymBx.15.568: paynym: Only L has the distributive sg., but it is supported by the X family of C (RK.17.255). Alpha is now present. prayeth · and parfitly bileuethBx.15.568: and parfitly bileueth: Beta's b-verse is supported by Cx. Alpha's to on persone to helpe looks like censorship, as in the next line.
In þe holy grete godBx.15.569: In þe holy grete god: Cx has In þe grete god. Again alpha objects to allowing so much to pagan beliefs. · and his grace askenBx.15.569: asken: Beta's pronoun is not supported by Cx.
And make her mone to makometh · her message to shewe
Þus in a faith lyuethBx.15.571: lyueth: So LCr and alpha, with HmG both altering to leue-, the reading of MWCO. Cx supports lyueth. Schmidt (1995), 397, considers that there is a pun with leueth implied in the b-verse: "believe in a false intercessor". Cf. note to l. 427. þat folke · and in a false mene
And þat is routhe for [þe]Bx.15.572: þe (1): Although only in R, C mss. have either þe or þo. riȝtful men · þat in þe Rewme wonyen
And a peril to þe pope · and prelatisBx.15.573: prelatis: R has to prelates. F omits the line and Cx rewrites it. þat he maketh
Þat bere bisshopes names · of Bedleem & [of]Bx.15.574: of (2): This was perhaps not in beta since LMW lack it, but alpha has support from the revised line in Cx, of Ninue and of damaske (the X family omits and). babiloigne
Bx.15.575-92: These 18 lines are lost in beta, probably (as KD suggest, p. 66) through eyeskip (bere bisshopes names 574, bisshopes ... bereth þe name 591-2). The lines are in Cx (RK.17.262-78). See note to Bx.15.528-67. The text is based on R, with spellings altered to L's forms. [Whan þe hieȝe kynge of heuene · sent his sone to erthe
Many miracles he wrouȝte · man for to turne
In ensaumple þat men shulde se · þat by sadde resoun
Men miȝt nouȝt be saued · but þorw mercy and grace
And þorw penaunce and passion · and parfit byle[ue]Bx.15.579: byleue: R's byle is an obvious miswriting.
And bycam man of a mayde · and metropolitanusBx.15.580: metropolitanus: F adds after, but it is not in Cx.
And baptised and bishinedBx.15.581: bishined: "illuminated". Not especially uncommon, but evidently C scribes were confused, perhaps because of the weak form of the past tense. Most have bisshoped. · with þe blode of his herte
Alle þat wilned and wolde · with InwitteBx.15.582: Inwitte: R is supported by Cx against F's wit. byleue it
Many a seint sithen · hath suffred to deyeBx.15.583: to deye: So alpha, but Cx has deth also.
Al for to enf[e]rmeBx.15.584: enferme: A few C mss. have enforme, "teach", as in R, but the best have enferme, "strengthen" (RK.17.271), lending support to F's ferme. þe faith · in fele contreyes deyedenBx.15.584: deyeden: R's past tense is obviously right, and confirmed by Cx.
In ynde and inBx.15.585: and in: F is without and, and may be right. Most C mss. have it, but a few do not. See next note. alisaundre · in ermonye inBx.15.585: in (4): So F, supported by most (and the most reliable) C mss. Yet others have and or and in, as R does. See previous note. spayne
In delfol deth deyeden · for hire faith sakeBx.15.586: The line is entirely rewritten in Cx.
In sauacioun of þe faith · seynt [thomas]Bx.15.587: thomas: The name has been erased in R, as in several C mss. was martired
Amonges vnkynde cristene · for cristes loue he deyede
And for þe riȝt of al þis reume · and al reumes cristene
Holy cherche is honoured · hieȝliche þorw his deyinge
He is a forbiseneBx.15.591: forbisene: R is supported by Cx. to alle bisshopes · and a briȝt myroure
And souereyneliche to suche · þat of surrye bereth þe name]
[And nauȝt to]Bx.15.593: And nauȝt to: Here beta resumes, but alpha's start of the a-verse is supported by Cx (RK.17.279). Beta's Þat represents smoothing after the omission. hippe abouteBx.15.593: aboute: Alpha adds here, but beta is supported by Cx. in Engelonde · to halwe mennesBx.15.593: mennes: Omitted by Hm and alpha, but supported by Cx. auteres
And crepe [in]Bx.15.594: in: Beta omits, but alpha is supported by Cx. amonges curatoures · [and]Bx.15.594: and: Beta omits, though W adds it for the sense. Alpha is supported by Cx. confessen ageyne þe lawe
Nolite mittere falcem in messem alienam &c
[¶]Bx.15.596: : L omits an appropriate paraph here, recorded by WHm and alpha. Many manBx.15.596: man: The majority of C mss. support beta, but three have a man as alpha. for crystes loue · was martired [amonges Romaynes]Bx.15.596: amonges Romaynes: The reading of R alone, but supported by Cx. F revises to in grete roome, and beta has in Romanye.
ErBx.15.597: Er: The beta reading was probably the nonsensical Er ar any LC, giving rise to Er any MCrWG, Er þan Hm and Er þan any O. Alpha is supported by Cx (RK.17.282). crystendome [were]Bx.15.597: were: The subjunctive as in alpha is supported by Cx. knowe þere · or any crosseBx.15.597: crosse: R's repetition of þere is not supported by Cx. honoured
¶ Euery bisshop þat bereth crosse · by þat heBx.15.598: he: R omits. Cx has a different b-verse. is holden
Thorw his prouynce to passe · and to his peple to shewe hym
Tellen hem and techenBx.15.600: techen: Alpha picks up non-alliterating schewen from the previous line. hem · on þe Trinite to bileue
And feden hem with gostly fode · and [nedy folke to fyndenBx.15.601-04: Beta drops ll. 601b-604a, by eyeskip on gostly fode. We follow R, altering the forms to those of L. Up to l. 614 Cx is heavily revised.
Ac ysaie of ȝow speketh · and ozias bothe
Þat no man shuld be bisshope · but if he hadde bothe
Bodily fode and gostly fode · to] gyue þere it nedeth
In domo mea non est panis neque vestimentum et ideo nolite constituere me regem · ysaie 3Bx.15.605: ysaie 3: The reference was in Bx, since it is preserved in L and alpha in the hands of the main scribes.
Ozias seith for such · þat syke ben and fieble
Inferte omnes decimas in oreum meum vtBx.15.607: vt: CrO add sit, as in Malachi 3.10. See Alford (1992), 99. cibus in domo mea
Bx.15.608: : The paraph, following the Latin line, is in LWHmF. Ac we crystene creatures · þat on þe crosse byleuen
Aren fermeBx.15.609: ferme: Alpha has for me (R) or formed (F). as in þe faith · goddes forbode elles
And han clerkes to kepen vs þer-Inne · and hem þat shal come after vsBx.15.610: vs (2): Preserved in LMWR, but lost elsewhere.
¶ And iewes lyuen in lele lawe · owre lorde wrote it hym-selue
In stone for it stydfast was · and stonde sholde eure
Dilige deum & proximum · is parfit iewen lawe
And toke it moyses to teche menBx.15.614: men: Alpha has non-alliterating it hem. · til Messye come
And on þat lawe þei l[e]uenBx.15.615: leuen: LW and original Hm have lyuen, perhaps a beta error picked up from l. 611. The better C mss. have leue, though a number have lyue, some altering on to in to make better sense (RK.17.297). Cf. also ll. 427, 571. Beta adds ȝit, which makes very good sense (the Jews still live under mosaic law), but it is not in alpha or Cx. · and leten it þe beste
Bx.15.616: L has a paraph and M a line-space, perhaps a beta error since a paraph is not appropriate.And ȝit knewe þei cryst · þat crystendome tauȝte
[And]Bx.15.617: And: Dropped by beta, but included in Cx. for a parfit prophete · þat moche peple saued
Of selcouth sores · þei seyne it ofte
Bothe of myracles & meruailles · and how he men fested
With two fisshes anBx.15.620: an: "and". fyve loues · fyue thousande peple
And bi þat maungerye [þei]Bx.15.621: þei: More satisfactory as referring specifically to the Jews. Beta perhaps picks up men from l. 619. Cf. variants at l. 614. The a-verse is rewritten in C. miȝte welBx.15.621: wel: Dropped by CrGOF. se · þat Messye he semed
And whan he luft vp lazar · þat layde was in graue
And vnder stone ded & stankeBx.15.623: ded & stanke: Presumably R's reversal represents alpha, which F revises. Lines 623-32 are rewritten in C. · with styf voys hym called
Lazare veni foras ·
Dede hym rise and rowme [·] riȝt bifor þe iuwes
Ac þei seiden and sworen · with sorcerye he wrouȝte
And studyeden to stroyen hym · and stroyden hem-self
And þorw his pacyence her powere · to pure nouȝt he brouȝte
Pacientes vincunt
¶ Danyel of her vndoynge · deuyned and seyde
Cum [veniat sanctus sanctorum &c.]Bx.15.631: Cum veniat sanctus sanctorum & c.: Beta reverses the verb and subject and completes the familiar quotation used as a lesson in Advent. In Bx.18.113 where the prophecy is repeated, there is the same alpha/beta variation, except that beta has veniat sanctus. At RK.20.112a, despite considerable variation, it seems that Cx had this same form of the quotation.
And ȝet wenen þo wrecches · þat he were pseudo-propheta
And þat his lore be lesynges · and lakken it alle
And hopen þat he be to come · þat shal hem releue
Moyses eft or Messye · here maisteres ȝetBx.15.635: ȝet: Alpha has this at the beginning of the b-verse. Cx omits it. deuyneth
¶ Ac pharesewes and sarasenes · Scribes & GrekisBx.15.636: Grekis: WHm read Iewes, perhaps recalling ll. 406 and 524. Cf. Schmidt (1995), 398.
Aren folke of on faith · þe fader god þei honouren
And sitthen þat þe sarasenes · and also þe iewes
Konne þe firste clause of owre bileue · credo in deum patrem omnipotentemBx.15.639: omnipotentem: Omitted by CrCGO (Cr also omits patrem), and by Cx, but it seems secure for Bx.
Prelates of crystene prouynces · shulde preue if þei myȝte
LereBx.15.641: Lere: CrW begin To lere, and M is altered to that reading. hem litlum & lytlum [·] & in ihesum cristum filium
Tyl þei couthe speke and spelle · et in spiritum sanctum
And re[d]enBx.15.643: reden: This seems undoubtedly the Bx reading, despite L's rendren, "recite". The reading of Cx is less certain: the X family has Recorden hit and reden hit, where the P family has rendren for reden, which does make good sense in this order, "remember and recite". Schmidt (1995), lxvii, 398, follows KD in adopting L's rendren, though has difficulty in explaining how it arose. it & recorden it · with remissionem peccatorum
Carnis resurreccionem · et vitam eternam amen ·