Passus decimus de visione & secundus de dowel

Thanne hadde witte a wyf · was hoteBx.10.1: hote: Alpha has called (R) or klepid (F), but beta is supported by AC (K.11.1; RK.11.1). dame studye
Þat lene was of lere · and of liche bothe
She was wonderly wroth · þat witte me þus tauȝte
And al starynge dame studye · sternelich seyde
Wel artow wyse quod she to witte · any wysdomes to telle
To flatereres or to folis · þat frantyk ben of wittes
And blamed hym and banned hym · and badde hym be stylle
With suche wise wordes · to wissen any sottes
And seyde noli mittere man · margerye perlis
Amanges hogges þat han · hawes at wille
Þei don but dryuele þer-on [·] draffe were hem leuere
Þan al þe precious perre · þat in paradys wexeth
I sey it bi suche quod she [·] þat sheweth bi her werkes
Þat hem were leuer londe · and lordship on ertheBx.10.14: on erthe: Alpha reads here, but beta is supported by Ax. The line is rewritten in Cx.
Or ricchesse or rentis · and reste at her willeBx.10.15: In this passage F omits ll. 15 and 21-2, and supplies two spurious lines after l. 25.
Þan alle þe sothe sawes · þat salamon seyde euere
¶ Wisdome and witte now [·] is nouȝt worth a carse
But if it be carded with coueytise · as clotheres kemben hereBx.10.18: here: Omitted by alpha and CGO, perhaps to lighten a heavy b-verse. It is supported by Ax and the X family of C, though the P family also omit it. wolle
Who-so can contreue deceytes · anBx.10.19: an: "and". conspire wronges
And lede forth a loue-day · to latte withBx.10.20: to latte with: R's and letten þe may be right; Ax has to lette þe treuþe, and cf. K.3.146 & lettiþ þe treuþe. On the other hand, "to hinder truth with (the loveday)" makes excellent and slightly more difficult sense, and seems to be the basis of the revision in Cx: "And lette with a loueday treuthe and bigile" (RK.11.17). treuthe
He þat suche craftes can · to conseille is clepid
Þei lede lordes with lesynges · and bilyeth treuthe
¶ Iob þe gentel [·] in his gestes witnesseth
Þat wikked men þeiBx.10.24: þei: Omitted in HmCGOF, though Hm probably included it before erasure. The line is not in AC. welden · þe welthe of þis worlde
And þat þei ben lordes ofBx.10.25: of (1): Hm and R (= alpha?) have in; F rewrites. The line is not in AC. eche a londe · þat oute of lawe libbeth
Quare impij viuunt bene est omnibus qui preuaricantur & inique agunt
¶ Þe sauter seyth þe same · bi suche þat don ille
Ecce ipsi peccatores habundantes in seculo optinuerunt diuiciasBx.10.28: diuicias: Omitted in alpha. C mss. end with peccatores or habundantes.
Lo seith holy letterrure [·] whiche lordes beth þis shrewes
Þilke þat god mosteBx.10.30: god moste: So LG and alpha. M has moost good god; O has god most good which is the reading of Cx. See next note. gyuethBx.10.30: gyueth: Alpha and C have greueth, which loses the sharp contrast with the b-verse. There seems to have been some confusion in Bx since, in revising the line for Cx, the poet had a text with both verbs, and recast to Tho þat god most goed ȝeueth greueth most riht and treuthe (RK.11.25). Schmidt restores B by including both verbs, but the resultant a-verse seems impossibly heavy; see Schmidt (2008), 386-7. It may be that Bx wrote greueth, corrected to gyueth (in the margin?), with alpha following one and beta the other. · leste good þei deleth
And moste vnkynde to þe comune · þat moste catel weldeth
Que perfecisti destruxerunt · iustus autem &c ·
Harlotes for her harlotrye · may haue of her godis
And iaperes and iogeloures · and iangelers of gestes
¶ Ac he þat hath holy writte · ay in his mouth
And can telle of Tobye · and of þe twelue apostles
Or prechen of þe penaunce · þat pilat wrouȝt
To Ihesu þe gentil · þat Iewes to-drowe
Litel is he loued · þat suche a lessoun scheweth
Or daunted or drawe forth · I do it on god hym-self
¶ But þo þat feynen hem folis · and with faityng libbeth
Aȝein þe lawe of owre lorde · and lyen on hem-selue
Spitten and spewen · and speke foule wordes
Drynken and dryuelen · and do men for to gape
Lickne men and lye on hem · þat leneth hem no ȝiftes
Þei conne namore mynstralcye · ne musyke men to glade
Than Munde þe mylnere · of multa fecit deus
Ne were here vyle harlotrye · haue god my treuthe
Shulde neuere Kyng ne kniȝt · ne chanoun of seynt Poules
Ȝyue hem to her ȝeresȝiue · þe [worth]Bx.10.50: worth: Alpha is closer to the Ax reading value (whence perhaps GO), and the alliteration aaa/xx is satisfactory. Beta's ȝifte is prompted by alliterative attraction to ȝeresȝiue; for the collocation see Bx.3.101 and 13.195. The line is not in Cx. of a grote
¶ Ac murthe and mynstralcye · amonges men is nouthe
Leccherye [and]Bx.10.52: and (1): Supported by Ax, but lost in L and (coincidentally?) in CrW. losengerye · and loseles tales
Glotonye and grete othes · þis murtheBx.10.53: murthe: Secure for Bx. Both M and F alter for the alliteration. Ax has a different b-verse. þei louieth
Bx.10.54: : The paraph is in beta and F. Ac if þei carpen of cryst · þis clerkis and þis lewed
Atte mete in her murthesBx.10.55: murthes: The plural is secure for Bx, though beta2 shares the sg. with Ax. · whan mynstralles ben stille
Þanne telleth þei of þe trinite · a tale other tweyne
And bringen forth a balled resoun · and taken Bernard to witnesse
And putten forth a presumpsioun · to preue þe sothe
Þus þei dryuele at her deyse [·] þe deite to knowe
And gnawen god with þe gorge · whan her gutte is fulleBx.10.60: gutte is fulle: So LR, and probably M before correction. AC read guttis fullen, "are full", as do WHm.
¶ Ac þe careful may crye · and carpen atte ȝate
Bothe afyngred and a-thurstBx.10.62: a-thurst: CrW alter to a-furst for the alliteration; it is the dominant form in C mss., while A has a different a-verse. The collocation with afyngred is repeated at Bx.14.174, where most mss. have A-fyrst. · and for chele quake
Is none to nymen hym nereBx.10.63: nere: Presumably the meaningless Bx reading is a corruption of Ax in ne, which the M corrector adopts by conjecture or contamination as In nor. This and the next line are rewritten in C. · his noye amendeBx.10.63: amende: It is likely that F and beta supply to before amende in the b-verse to make some sense of the line, and that R's omission (as in Ax) represents Bx.
But heonBx.10.64: heon: "shout out" (MED heuen v.(3)); the reading of L, beta4 and alpha. The commonplace variant hunten in Beta2 (CrWHm), with M corrected to that reading, is less appropriate. on hym as an hounde · and hoten hym go þennes
Litel loueth he þat lorde · þat lent hym al þat blisse
Þat þus parteth with þe pore · a parcel whan hym nedeth
Ne were mercy in mene men · more þan in riche
Mendinantz meteles · miȝte go to bedde
God is moche in þe gorgeBx.10.69: gorge: Alpha has the pl., but beta's sg. is supported by AC (K.11.44; RK.11.39) · of þise grete maystres
Ac amonges mene men · his mercy and his werkis
And so seith þe sauter · I haue yseyeBx.10.71: yseye: For the same b-verse see Bx.11.455. it ofte
Ecce audiuimus eamBx.10.72: eam (1 & 2): So AC against alpha's eum. At Bx.15.511 (R only), R again has eum. See Alford (1992), 64, and Schmidt (1995), 443. in effrata · inuenimus eam in campis silue
Clerkes and other kynnes menBx.10.73: other kynnes men: So beta, with alpha dropping kynnes. Ax has kete men, while Cx has knyhtes. Perhaps alpha reproduces Bx which has avoided the rare adjective kete, with beta then supplying the alliteration. · carpen of god faste
And haue [hym]Bx.10.74: hym: Not in LHm. Easily lost, of course, and four A mss. omit it, as does the X family of C. moche in þe mouthe · ac mene men in herte
¶ Freres and faitoures · han founde suche questiouns
To plese with proude men · sithen þe pestilence tymepestilenceBx.10.76: pestilence tyme / pestilence: Alpha omits tyme. Beta is supported by Ax; however Cx reads pestelences. Cf. l. 81 below.
And prechen at seint poules · for pure enuye of clerkis
Þat folke is nouȝte fermed in þe feith · ne fre of her goodes
Ne sori for her synnes · so is prydeBx.10.79: is pryde: Beta's word-order is supported by Cx. Lines 77-110 are not in A. waxen
In religioun and in alle þe rewme · amonges riche & pore
Þat preyeres haue no power · þ[is] pestilence[s]Bx.10.81: þis pestilences: Beta has þe pestilence, presumably understanding the noun as sg., although the form can also represent the plural (see MED pestilence). Alpha and Cx have the demonstrative article followed by an unambiguous plural. Cf. l. 76 and note. to lette
Bx.10.82-3: These two lines are in Cx. KD, p. 66, suggest that beta dropped them through eyeskip (Þat ... Þat); censorship is another possible explanation. [For god is def now-a-days . and deyneth not vs to hereBx.10.82: not vs to here: The readings diverge in the b-verse. Most unusually, F is supported by Cx, and so we adopt its reading. It must be observed, however, that R offers the less commonplace reading. In F deinen has the sense "condescend"; in R it means "disdain". See MED deinen v.(1) & (2) for these two related verbs, and cf. note to Bx.6.315. The most authoritative C mss. read deyneth nat vs to here (i.e. deinen (1)) but as many omit nat (i.e. deinen (2)), allowing for the possibility that Bx was also without not.
Þat gerlesBx.10.83: gerles: R only. F's gystys is probably a misreading. Cx has gode men instead. for here gyltes . he for-gryntBx.10.83: for-grynt: "grinds to pieces". The compound is not recorded in MED; Cx has togrynt. hem alle]
And ȝette þe wrecches of þis worlde · is none ywar bi other
Ne for drede of þe deth · withdrawe nouȝt her pryde
Ne beth plentyuous to þe pore · as pure charite wolde
But in gaynesse and inBx.10.87: in (2): LCrWHmR; others omit. C mss. divide similarly. glotonye · for-glotten her goode hem-selue
And breken nouȝte to þe beggar · as þe boke techeth
Frange esurienti panem tuum &c ·
And þe more he wynneth and welt · welthes & ricchesseBx.10.90: ricchesse: The form may be sg. or plural. For other examples see notes to Bx.3.23, 19.73.
AndBx.10.91: And: Beta is supported by Cx against alpha's Euere as he. lordeth in londes · þe lasse good he deleth
¶ Thobye te[ch]ethBx.10.92: techeth: Alpha is supported by Cx against beta's telleth. ȝow nouȝt so · take hede ȝe riche
How þe boke bibleBx.10.93: boke bible: For the expression, altered by CrHm, beta4 and F, see Bx.7.166 and note. · of hym bereth witnesse
Si tibi sit copia habundanter tribue · si autem exiguum illud impertir[e] [libenter stude]Bx.10.94: impertire libenter stude: Alpha's form of the infinitive verb is supported by most C mss., and the order of the last two words is that of Cx. Alford (1992), 64, quotes the last three words in the verse from Tob.4.9 in the form impertiri stude libenter, as in beta.
Who-so hath moche spene manliche · so meneth Thobie
And who-so litel weldeth · reule him þer-after
For we haue no lettre of owre lyf · how longe it shal dure
Suche lessounes lordes shulde ·Bx.10.98: LWCR punctuate after shulde; MHmO after lordes. F rewrites. Lines 95-110 are not in AC, and ll. 111-45 are not in C. louie to here
And how he myȝte moste meyne [·] manliche fynde
Bx.10.100: Beta has a paraph, but it interrupts the argument.Nouȝt to fare as a fitheler or a frere ·Bx.10.100: LMWOF punctuate the line before forto, with forto supplying the long dip in the b-verse. CrHmGR have to instead. forto seke festes
Homelich at other mennes house[s]Bx.10.101: houses: LF have house, probably in error, though possibly derived from the OE unchanged plural; see MED. Elsewhere both scribes use the marked plural. · and hatyen her owne
Elyng is þe halle [·] vche daye in þe wyke
Þere þe lorde ne þe lady [·] liketh nouȝte to sytte
Now hath vche riche a reule · to eten bi hym-selue
In a pryue pa[r]loure · for pore mennes sake
Or in a chambre with a chymneye · and leue þe chief halle
Þat was made for meles · men to eten Inne
And al to spare to spille · þat spende shal an other
¶ I haue yherde hiegh men [·] etyng atte table
Carpen as þei clerkes were · of cryste and of his miȝtes
And leyden fautes vppon þe fader · þat fourmed vs alle
And carpen aȝeine clerkes · crabbed wordes
Whi wolde owre saueoure suffre [·] suche a worme in his blisse
Þat bigyled þe womman · and þe man after
Þorw whiche wyles and wordes · þei went[en]Bx.10.115: wenten: Only LCr have went; WHmG have wente, the others wenten. The second syllable avoids a b-verse stressed x / x / x. See Introduction V.3.5. to helle
And al her sede for here synne · þe same deth suffred
¶ Here lyeth ȝowre lore · þise lordes gynneth dispute
Of þat ȝeBx.10.118: ȝe: So LMOR against þe in CrWHmCGF, which misses the switch back to reported speech. clerkes vs kenneth · of cryst by þe gospel
Filius non portabit iniquitatem patris &c ·
Whi shulde we þat now ben · for þe werkes of Adam
Roten and to-rendeBx.10.121: to-rende: LW (to-rent Hm); the most probable origin of the variants rende MCGOF, to reade Cr, and to-reue R. · resoun wolde it neuere
Vnusquisque portabit onus suumBx.10.122: portabit onus suum: Alpha has the order honus suum portabit cited by Alford (1992), 64, from Gal.6.5. &c
Suche motyues þei moeue · þis maistres in her glorie
And maken men in mysbileue · þat muse moche on her wordes
¶ Ymaginatyf her-after-ward · shal answere to ȝowre purpos
¶ AugustyneBx.10.126: Augustyne: The form of the name in Bx is not determinable. As at l. 485, LM (so beta?) have the full form, but alpha has the more usual Austyn. Ax has a quite different line with the short form. Cf. note to l. 485 below. to suche argueres · he telleth hemBx.10.126: he ... hem: The two words are omitted by WCGO. Cr omits hem. þis teme
Non plus sapere quam oportet
Wilneth neuere to wite · whi þat god wolde
Suffre sathan [·] his sede to bigyle
Ac bileue lelly · in þe lore of holicherche
And preye hym of pardoun · and penaunce in þi lyue
And for his moche mercye · to amende ȝow here
Bx.10.133: Hm and alpha have a paraph.For alle þat wilneth to wyte · þe weyesBx.10.133: weyes: The reading of LCrWHm and alpha, as well as the Ax reading. M, joined by GO and a 16th-century A ms., have the reading whyes (cf. whi in 135). The adoption of the latter reading by K (see K, pp. 163-4), KD and Schmidt is a classic case of modern sensibilities overcoming the logic of attestation. Contrast Bx.12.238, where the noun whyes is secure, despite variants. of god almiȝty
I wolde his eye were in his ers · and his fynger after
Þat euere wilneth to wite · whi þat god wolde
Suffre sathan · his sede to bigile
Or iudas þe iuweBx.10.137: þe iuwe: Alpha supported by Ax against beta's to þe iuwes. · ihesu bytraye
Al was as [he] woldeBx.10.138: he wolde: Alpha supported by Ax against L's þow wolde, which the other beta scribes correct to þow woldest. · lorde yworschiped be þow
And al worth as þow wolte · what-so we dispute
¶ And þo þat vseth þis hauelounes · to blendeBx.10.140: blende: "mislead". Cr, beta4 and F have the related verb blinde. mennes wittes
What is dowel fro dobet · now def mote he worthe
Sitthe he wilneth to wyte · whiche þei ben [alle]Bx.10.142: alle: Referring to the triad including dobest as in l. 145 below. Alpha is supported by Ax against beta's bothe, which does, however, logically follow from the previous line.
But if he lyue in þe lyf · þat longeth to dowel
For I dar ben his boldeBx.10.144: bolde: Dropped by alpha, but supported by Ax. borgh · þat dobet wil he neuere
Þeigh dobest drawe on hym [·] day after other
¶ And whan þat witte was ywar [·] whatBx.10.146: what: Beta's reading has support from Cx, what studie menede (RK.11.81). Alpha's reading, how dame studie tolde, loses the b-verse alliteration which in Ax how his wif tolde (K.11.93) is carried by the noun. dame studye tolde
He bicome so confus · he couth nouȝte loke
And as doumbe a[s] deth · and drowe hym arrere
¶ And for no carpyng I couth after · ne knelyng to þe grounde
I myȝte gete no greyne · of his grete wittis
But al laughyng he louted · and loked vppon studye
In signe þat I shulde · biseche hir of grace
¶ And whan I was war of his wille · to his wyf gan I loute
And seyde mercy madame [·] ȝowre man shal I worthe
As longe as I lyue · bothe late & rathe
FortoAnd fortoBx.10.156: Forto / And forto: Beta's reading is that of Ax (K.11.102) while alpha's And forto is that of Cx (RK.11.88) worche ȝowre wille · þe while my lyf dureth
With þat ȝe kenne me kyndely · to knowe what is dowel
¶ For þi mekenesse man quod she · and for þi mylde speche
I shal kenne þe to my cosyn · þat clergye is hoten
He hath wedded a wyf · with-Inne þis syx monethes
Is sybbe to þe seuene artz · scripture is hir name
Þei two as I hope · after my techyng
Shullen wissen þe to dowel · I dar [wel]Bx.10.163: wel: R's reading, which carries the alliteration, is that of Ax. That F agrees with beta in reading it probably indicates independent substitution, since the R scribe rarely corrects for alliteration. The line is not in C. vndertake
¶ Þanne was I also fayne · as foule of faire morwe
And gladder þan þe gleman · þat golde hath to ȝifte
And axed hir þe heighe weye · where þat clergye dwelte
And telle me some token quod I · for tyme is þat I wende
¶ Axe þe heighe waye quod she · hennes to suffre
Bothe wel & wo · ȝif þat þow wolt lerne
And ryde forth by ricchesse · ac rest þow nauȝt þerinne
For if þow couplest þe þer-with · to clergyeBx.10.171: clergye: R's odd cherche probably represents alpha, with F varying further. Beta is supported by AC. comestow neuere
¶ And also þe likerouse launde · þat leccherye hatteBx.10.172: hatte: Beta's reading is confirmed by Ax against is hote in alpha.
Leue hymBx.10.173: hym: So LMHmR and Ax; unsurprisingly altered to it in other B mss. on þi left halue · a large myle or more
Tyl þow come to a courte · kepe wel þi tonge
Fro lesynges and lither speche · and likerouse drynkes
Þanne shaltow se sobrete · and symplete of specheBx.10.176: speche: Beta is supported by Ax against alpha's berynge.
Þat eche wiȝte be in wille · his witte þe to shewe
And þus shaltow come to clergye · þat can many þinges
Bx.10.179: : The paraph is in beta only. In R the line is at the foot of the page. Saye hym þis signe · I sette hym to scole
And þat I gretteBx.10.180: grette: The unambiguously past tense form is supported for Bx by LMOR. Ax has grete as does the P family of C, but the X family has grette. wel his wyf · for I wrote hir many bokes
And sette hir to sapience · and to þe sauter gloseBx.10.181: glose: Hm (as well as BmBoCot) has the ppl. glosyd; this cannot be archetypal, even though AC both have sauter yglosid. Cf. Bx.5.284.
Logyke I lerned hir · and many other lawes
And alle þe musouns in mu[si]ke · I made hir to knowe
¶ Plato þe poete · I put hym fyrste to boke
Arestotle and other moootherBx.10.185: other moo / other: Beta has the former, alpha the latter. Beta's reading is that of Ax, while alpha's is that of Cx. · to argue I tauȝte
Grammer for gerles · I garte first wryteBx.10.186: wryte: M and Beta2(CrWHm) add to, as do a few mss. in all three versions.
And bette hem with a baleis · but if þei wolde lerne
Of alkinnes craftes · I contreued toles
Of carpentrie ofBx.10.189: carpentrie of: The Bx reading is also that of Cx. GF have the reading of Ax, carpenteris &. kerueres [·] and compassed masouns
And lerned hem leuel and lyne · þough I loke dymme
Bx.10.191: : The paraph is in beta and F. Ac theologie hath tened me · ten score tymes
The more I muse þereInne · þe mistier it semeth
And þe depper I deuyne · þe derker me it þinketh
It is no science for-sothe · forto sotyleBx.10.194: sotyle: Beta's reading is that of Ax, while the b-verse is rewritten in Cx. Alpha's reading sauȝtele (MED saughtelen) means "become reconciled, settle". Inne
A ful lethy þinge it were · ȝif þat loue nere
Ac for it let best by loue · I loue it þe bettre
For þere þat loue is leder · ne lacked neuere grace
LokeBx.10.198: Loke: R's Love probably reflects an alpha error which F rewrites for sense. þow loue lelly · ȝif þe lykethBx.10.198: þe lyketh: Alpha's þow thenke is an easy error, but (coincidentally?) it is shared with Ax (K.11.144), which itself is deficient in alliteration. The line is revised in Cx as Lerne for to louie yf þe like dowel (RK.11.132). dowel
For dobet and dobest · ben of loues kynne
¶ In other science it seyth · I saye it in catoun
Qui similatBx.10.201: similat: The spelling of L and alpha is found also in mss. of A. Lines 200-31 are not in C. verbis velBx.10.201: vel: Alford (1992), 64, quotes the line from Cato with nec, the reading of M (corrected from vel) CrHmCGO and most A mss., but LWR and original M establish Bx (at the expense of Cato's meaning). corde est fidus amicus
Tu quoque fac simile · sic ars deluditur arte
Who-so gloseth as gylours don · go me to þe same
And so shaltow false folke [·] and faythlees bigyle
Þis is catounes kennyng · to clerkes þat he lereth
Ac theologye techeth nouȝt so · who-so taketh [gome]Bx.10.206: gome: "notice". R's rare word is a synonym of beta's ȝeme and F's heede (MED gome n.(4)). Cf. Bx.17.13, where R again has gome, supported in that case by C.
He kenneth vs þe contrarye [·] aȝein catones wordes
For he bit vs be as bretheren · and bidde for owre enemys
And louen hem þat lyen on vs · and lene hem whan hem nedeth
And do good aȝeines yuel · god hym-self it hoteth
Dum tempus [est]Bx.10.211: est: The alpha reading is supported by the majority of A mss. where the same quotation is given at a later point (K.11.245a). Alford (1992), 64 cites the Vulgate as habemus, to which beta corrects. operemur bonum ad omnes maxime autem ad domesticos fidei
¶ Poule preched þe peple [·] þat parfitnesse loued
To do good for goddes loue · and gyuen men þat askedBx.10.213: asked: Beta has the past tense, (though HmGO have the present); alpha has the present. The past is perhaps slightly less obvious, but it may have been prompted by the verbs of the previous line, just as the present might have been suggested by the next line. There is nothing in AC to correspond until l. 220. We follow copy-text.
And nameliche to suche · þat suethBx.10.214: sueth: "conform to"; cf. Bx.17.113, as suwen owre werkis. G and alpha less appropriately have scheweth. owre bileue
And alle þat lakketh vsBx.10.215: vs (1): Beta must have had vs twice in the a-verse, though beta2 (CrWHm) dropped the second. Alpha has the second but not the first. or lyeth vs · owre lorde techeth vs to louye
And nouȝt to greuen hem þat greueth vs · god hym-self for-badde it
Michi vindictam & ego retribuam
For-þi loke þow louye · as longe as þow durest
For is no science vnder sonne · so souereyne for þe soule
[¶]Bx.10.220: : The paraph is in WC and alpha. In L, which lacks the usual line-space, the scribe's paraph marker is unrubricated. Cf. ll. 260, 265. Ac astronomye is hardeBx.10.220: harde: Alpha's reading without an article is supported by Ax against beta. þynge · and yuel forto knowe
Geometrie and geomesye [·] isBx.10.221: is: Supported by Ax against beta2 (CrWHm) so. ginful of speche
Who-so thenketh werche with þo two · thryueth ful late
For sorcerye is þe souereyne boke · þat to þ[o] scienceBx.10.223: þo science: This is the R reading, in substance that of F also. The noun is an unmarked plural (see l. 227 below, and variants at Bx.13.132 and 15.49). It may also be the reading of beta; note that Hm alters it by adding -s, while other beta scribes, apart from W, probably take it as sg. and so misread the plural determiner as þe. Ax also has the demonstrative pronoun, but the noun is sg., þat science. The plural is more appropriate in context. longeth
¶ Ȝet ar þere fybicches in forceres · of fele mennes makyng
Experimentz of alkamyeBx.10.225: alkamye: We keep the form of copy-text, even though the form in Bx and Ax presumably had the extra syllable, as M's Alkenamye. See MED alkamie. · þe poeple to deceyue
If þow þinke to dowel · dele þer-with neuere
Alle þise scienceBx.10.227: science: Plural; see note to l. 223. I my-self · sotiled and ordeyned
And foundedBx.10.228: founded: Beta is supported by Ax against alpha's (by-)fond. hem formest · folke to deceyue
¶ Telle clergye þise tokenes · and [to]Bx.10.229: to: Alpha's rather awkward preposition is necessary to the alliteration, and was dropped by beta. There is no Ax parallel. scripture after
To conseille þe kyndely · to knowe what isBx.10.230: to knowe what is: Beta's wording of the b-verse is supported by the exact parallel of Bx.10.157. Cf. also Bx.15.2. dowel
¶ I seide graunt mercy madame · and mekeliche hir grette
And went wiȝtlich [my] weyBx.10.232: my wey: Beta has awey, but alpha (R only, since F misses the line) is supported by Ax And wente wiȝtly my wey, as well as Cx Tho wente y my way (RK.12.134). With miȝteliche for wiȝtliche, R creates alliteration on /m/, but without support from AC. · with-oute more lettynge
And til I come to clergye · I couthe neuere stynte
[I]Bx.10.234: I: Only R breaks the series of initial And, but it is supported by Ax and the X family of C; the P family reads And ich. gret þe good man · as [þe good wif]Bx.10.234: þe good wif: Again R is the only witness to the reading of Bx, supported both by alliteration and by Ax (Cx has a different b-verse). Probably F revised to avoid the repetition of both good and wif, and beta perhaps picked up studye from a gloss. me tauȝte
And afterwardes þe wyf · and worshiped hem bothe
And tolde hem þe tokenes · þat me tauȝte were
Was neuere gome vppon þis grounde · sith god made þe worlde
Fairer vnder-fongen · ne frendeloker at ese
Þan my-self sothly · sone so he wist
Þat I was of wittis hous · and with his wyf dame studye
I seyde to hemBx.10.241: hem: M and beta4 have hym, but cf. l. 236. The line is not in AC. Lines 241-313 have no parallel in A, and C is heavily revised. sothely · þat sent was I þider
Dowel and dobet · and dobest to lerne
¶ It is a comune lyf quod clergye · on holycherche to bileue
With alle þe artikles of þe feithe · þat falleth to be knowe
And þat is to bileue lelly · bothe lered and lewed
On þe grete god · þat gynnyng had neuere
And on þe sothfaste sone · þat saued mankynde
Fro þe dedly deth · and þe deueles power
Þorwgh þe helpe of þe holy goste · þe whiche goste is of bothe
Three [propre]Bx.10.250: propre: Yet again R is the only witness to the reading of Bx. All other mss. have dropped the alliterating adjective; F fills out the short a-verse in the usual manner. There is no parallel in AC. persones · ac nouȝt in plurel noumbre
For al is but on god · and eche is god hym-selue
Deus pater deus filius · deus spiritus sanctus
God þe fader god þe sone · god holigoste of bothe
Maker of mankynde · and of bestes bothe
¶ Austyn þe olde · here-of heBx.10.255: he: L is supported by alpha against omission in other beta mss. The passage is revised in C; the line without he appears at RK.11.146, but the b-verse, this time with he, is repeated at RK.11.152. See Adams (2000), 183. made bokes
And hym-self ordeyned · to sadde vs in bileue
Who was his autour · alle þe foure euangelistes
And cryst clepid hym-self so · þe ewangelistesBx.10.258: ewangelistes: R's euaungeliez is pl. of MED evangelie, "gospel". F has the sg. There is no AC parallel. bereth witnesse
Ego in patre & pater in meBx.10.259: me (1): So alpha, and also the P family of C. Beta and the X family correct this very familiar quotation from John 14.9-10 to me est. The line is dropped by beta2 (CrHmW). & qui [me viditBx.10.259: vidit (1 & 2): R's less classical spelling is actually that of the pre-Clementine Vulgate text edited by Wordsworth and White (1911), as well as most C mss. · patrem meum vidit]Bx.10.259: patrem meum vidit: Alpha's word-order is also that of Cx.
[¶]Bx.10.260: : The paraph is in WC and alpha. In L, which lacks the usual line-space, the scribe's paraph marker is unrubricated. Cf. ll. 220, 265. Alle þe clerkes vnder cryst · ne couthe þis assoille
But þus it bilongethBx.10.261: bilongeth: Beta is supported by Cx against longeth in GO and alpha. to bileue · to lewed þat willen dowel
For had neuere freke fyne wytte · þe feyth to dispute
Ne man had no meriteBx.10.263: merite: Beta is supported by Cx and by the Latin quotation in the following line. Alpha has mercy. · myȝte it ben yproued
Fides non habet meritum vbi humana racio prebet experimentumBx.10.264: prebet experimentum: R omits the last two words from Gregory's Homily. C mss. break off at different points. After this line B is without parallel in AC until Bx.10.314.
[¶]Bx.10.265: : L has an unrubricated paraph marker, MW have a line-space but no paraph. HmC and alpha have paraphs. Cf. ll. 220, 260. Þanne is dobet to suffre · for þi soules helth
Al þat þe boke bit · by holycherche techyng
And þat is man bi þi miȝte · for mercies sake
Loke þow worche it in werke · þat þiBx.10.268: þi: So beta; R's þis points to the ensuing quotation. F has þe. worde sheweth
Suche as þow semest in syȝte · be in assay yfounde
Appare quod es velBx.10.270: vel: Alford (1992), 65, quotes this commonplace with the alpha reading aut. esto quod appares
And lat no-body be · bi þi beryng bygyledBx.10.271: bygyled: Hm and alpha have be bygiled.
But be suche in þi soule · as þow semest with-oute
¶ Þanne is dobest to be bolde · to blame þe gylty
Sithenes þow seest þi-self · as in soule clene
Ac blame þow neuere body · and þow be blame-worthy
Si culpare velis · culpabilis esse cauebis
Dogma tuum sordet · cum te tua culpa remordet
God in þe gospel · grymlyBx.10.278: grymly: Beta2 and F share the reading greuously. repreueth
Alle þat lakken any lyf · and lakkes han hem-selue
Quid consideras festucam in oculo fratris tui trabem in oculo tuo &cBx.10.280: Beta breaks off the quotation (Luke 6.41) which alpha completes. The wording is something between Matt. 7.3 and Luke 6.41.
Why meuestow þi mode for a mote · in þi brotheres eye
Sithen a beem in þine owne · ablyndeth þi-selue
Eice primo trabem de oculo tuo &c
Whiche letteth þe to loke · lasse other more
¶ I rede eche a blynde bosarde · do bote to hym-selue
For abbotes and for prioures · and for alle manere prelates
As parsones and parissh prestes · þat preche shulde and teche
Alle manereBx.10.288: manere: So LCrWGR. The M corrector adds of to come into line with HmCOF. Cf. ll. 286 and 299. men · to amenden by here myȝte
This tixte was tolde ȝow · to ben war ar ȝe tauȝte
Þat ȝe were suche as ȝe seyde · to salue with othere
For goddis worde wolde nouȝt be bosteBx.10.291: boste: Though nonsensical, LR share the reading, indicating a corruption in Bx. The L scribe subsequently made the obvious correction to loste, thereby bringing his text into agreement with all other mss. See Introduction V.3.6. · for þat worcheth euere
If it auailled nouȝt þe comune · it myȝte auaille ȝow-seluen
¶ Ac it semeth nowBx.10.293: now: Probably R represents alpha's no, which F unreflectingly expanded to not. That M originally wrote not is presumably coincidental. sothly · to þe worldes syght
Þat goddes wordeBx.10.294: worde: R has the plural; F omits. worcheth nauȝte · on lered ne on lewede
But in suche a manere as Marke ·Bx.10.295: Beta (or possibly Bx) misplaced the punctuation to follow manere, as in LWC. In OR punctuation correctly precedes meneth, while MF have it twice. meneth in þe gospel
Dum cecus ducit cecum ambo in foueam cadunt
¶ Lewed men may likne ȝow þus · þat þe beem lithe in ȝowre eyghen
And þe festu is fallen · for ȝowre defaute
In alle manere men · þourgh mansed prestes
Þe bible bereth witnesse [·] þat alle þe folke of israel
Byttere abouȝte þe gultes · of two badde prestes
Offyn and Fynes · for her coueytise
Archa dei myshapped · and ely brake his nekke
¶ For-þi ȝe corectoures claweth her-on · and corecteth fyrst ȝow-seluen
And þanne mowe ȝe [man]lyBx.10.305: manly: Beta's saufly alliterates rather unconvincingly on /s/, and F improves on this with soþly in the a-verse and seiþ in (for made) in the b-verse. Both avoid R's difficult adverb, which Kane (2005) glosses "boldly, w. confidence". MED manli adv.(1), gives no instance of this sense, though "strongly" is close. Possibly MED mainli, which seems to have been used as a loose intensifier, is relevant. seye · as dauid made þe sauter
Existimasti inique quod ero tui similis · arguam te & statuam contra faciem tuam ·
¶ And þanne shal borel clerkes ben abasched · to blame ȝow or to greueBx.10.307: or to greue: Alpha has lost the last three words of the line.
And carpen nouȝte as þei carpen now · and calle ȝow doumbe houndes
Canes non valentes latrare
And drede to wratthe ȝow in any worde · ȝowre werkemanship to lette
And be prestiore at ȝowre prayere · þan for a pounde of nobles
And al for ȝowre holynesse · haue ȝe þis in herte
Bx.10.313-25: These thirteen lines are in alpha only. Lines 314-21 are in Ax (K.11.204-10); ll. 314-15, 317-24, revised in places, are moved to a different context in Cx (RK.5.146-55). Eyeskip from the paraph recorded by R at l. 313 to that at l. 326 is the most likely explanation. See Burrow (2010): 25-6. KD, p. 66, point to homeoteleuton (al...-nesse...herte, al...-nesse...lerne). We have altered R's spelling to that of L. [¶ Amonges riȝtful religiouse · þis reule shulde be holde
GregorieBx.10.314: Gregorie: F begins Seynt Gregory, but R is supported by AC. þe grete clerke · and þe good pope
Of religioun þe reule · [he]Bx.10.315: he: F is supported by Ax against omission in R. reherceth in his moralesBx.10.315: morales: Moralia. R is supported by Ax against F's bookis, though Cx also refers to them as bokes (RK.5.146).
And seyth itBx.10.316: it: R is supported by Ax. in ensaumple · [þat]Bx.10.316: þat: F receives some support from Ax, þat þei shulde do þe betere. R has for. þei shulde do þere-after
Whanne fisshes failen þe flode · orBx.10.317: or: R is supported by Ax; Cx revises. þe fressh water
þei deyen for drouthe · whanne þei drie ligge
Riȝt so quod Gregori · religioun rollethBx.10.319: rolleth: This seems to be alpha's reading, replaced in F by the partly synonymous trollyþ, "wander" (cf. Bx.18.305). It is, however, an error for roileth, "totter, flop" (so Kane (2005)) in either Bx or alpha, and the line is suspiciously short. This and the following line in alpha expand one line in the other versions. Ax has: Riȝt so be religioun it roileþ (one ms. rolleþ) and steruiþ; Cx has Ryht so religioun roteth and sterueth (RK.5.150).
Sterueth and stynketh · and steleth lordes almesses
þat oute of couent and cloystre · coueyten to libbe
For if heuene be on þisBx.10.322: on þis: R is supported by Cx against F's in. erthe · and ese to anyBx.10.322: ese to any: C mss. have eny ese to þe (or for) (RK.5.152). soule
It is in cloistre or in scole · be manyBx.10.323: many: R is supported by Cx. F alters to fele to increase alliteration. skilles I fynde
For in cloistre cometh [no]Bx.10.324: no: R's obvious omission is confirmed by Cx. man · to chide ne to fiȝteBx.10.324: chide ne to fiȝte: R's b-verse word-order is supported by Cx.
But alle is buxomnesse þereBx.10.325: þere: F omits. The line is not in AC. and bokes · to rede and to lerne]
¶ In scole þere is [skile · and] scorne but if [he]Bx.10.326: skile and scorne but if he: R evidently represents alpha, mangled by F. If right, the reading involves a play on skilles three lines above in l. 323. Beta, on this argument, having lost skile and, added a clerke in place of he. The alliteration is weaker, though KD p. 132 n. 9 cite l. 323 as evidence that /sk/ can alliterate with /k/. Cx revises this and the next line to In scole is loue and louhnesse and lykyng to lerne (RK.5.155). lerne
And grete loue and lykynge · for eche of hem loueth other
Ac now is religioun a ryder · a rowmerBx.10.328: rowmer: F's rennere is the A reading. bi stretes
A leder of louedayes · and a londe-bugger
A priker on a palfray · fro manere to manerBx.10.330: manere to maner: Cf. Ax toune to toune (K.11.213), Cx places to maneres (RK.5.159).
An heep of houndes at his ers · as he a lorde were
And but if his knaue knele · þat shal his cuppe brynge
He loureth on hym and axethBx.10.333: axeth: Both F and Hm supply alliteration; the line is not in Ax and rewritten in Cx. hym · who tauȝte hym curteisye
Litel had lordes to donn · to ȝyue londe fram her heires
To Religious þat haue no reuthe · þough it reyne on here auteres
¶ In many places þer hij persones ben · be hem-self at ese
Of þe pore haue þei no pite · and þat is her [pure]Bx.10.337: pure: Beta omits, but alpha is supported by Cx and the b-verse alliteration. charite
Ac þei leten hem as lordes · her londe lith so brode
¶ Ac þere shal come a kyng · and confesse ȝow religiouses
And bete ȝow as þe bible telleth · for brekynge of ȝowre reule
And amende monyales · monkes and chanouns
And putten hem to her penaunce · ad pristinum statum ire
And Barounes with Erles beten hem · þorugh beatus virres techynge
Þat here barnes claymen · and blame ȝow foule
Hij in curribus [et]Bx.10.345: et: Omitted by LM, so perhaps supplied by other beta scribes on the basis of the Psalm. hij in equis ipsi obligati sunt &c
¶ And þanne Freres in here freitoure [·] shal fynden a keye
Of costantynes coffres · in which is þe catel
Þat Gregories god-children · han yuel dispended
¶ And þanne shal þe abbot of Abyndoun · and alle [his]Bx.10.349: his: Dropped in L. issu for euere
Haue a knokke of a kynge · and incurable þe wounde
¶ That þis worth soth seke ȝe · þat oft ouer-se þe bible
Quomodo cessauit exactor · quieuit tributum · contriuit dominus baculum impiorum et virgam dominancium cedencium plaga insanabili &c
¶ Ac ar þat kynge come · cayme shal awake
AcBx.10.354: Ac: The common Ac/And/But variation, with LMHmR attesting to Ac. Lines 354-401 are not in C. dowel shal dyngen hym adoune · and destruyen his myȝte
Þanne is dowel and dobet quod I · dominus and kniȝthode
¶ I nel nouȝt scorne quod scripture · but if scryueynes lye
Kynghod ne knyȝthod · by nauȝt I can awayte
Helpeth nouȝt to heueneward · one heres ende
Ne ricchesse riȝt nouȝt · ne reaute of lordes
¶ Poule preueth it inpossible · riche men haue heuene
Salamon seith also · þat syluer is worst to louye
Nichil iniquius quam amare peccuniam
And caton kenneth vs to coueiten it ·Bx.10.363: In MCF the punctuation follows nauȝt. nauȝt but as nede techethBx.10.363: as nede techeth: LMCrWHm represent beta, with CO reading as it nedes and G corrupting further to vs nedithe. Beta's phrase receives some support from Bx.20.9. KD reject R (= alpha?) at pure nede on the grounds that it is "more emphatic" (p. 144). The line is not in AC.
Dilige denarium set parce dilige formam
And patriarkes and prophetes · and poetes bothe
Wryten to wissen vs · to wilne no ricchesse
And preyseden pouerte with pacience · þe apostles bereth witnesse
Þat þei han heritage in heuene · and bi trewe riȝte
Þere riche men no riȝte may clayme · but of reuthe and grace
Contra quod I bi cryste · þat can I repreue
And preue it bi Peter · and bi poule bothe
Þat is baptized beth sauf · be heBx.10.372: he: MGOF have the plural following the plural ben for is in their a-verse. riche or pore
¶ Þat is in extremis quod scripture · amonges saracenes and iewes
Þei mowen be saued so · and þat is owre byleue
Þat an vncristene in þat cas · may crysten an hethen
And for his lele byleue · whan he þe lyf tyneth
Haue þe heritage of heuene · as any man crystene
¶ Ac crysten men with-oute more · may nouȝt come to heuene
For þat cryst for cristen men deyde ·Bx.10.379: The position of the line-break causes uncertainty, so that L has a punctus after men and a punctus elevatus after deyde. WHm have the former punctuation, MCrCO and alpha the latter, which we follow. and confermed þe lawe
Þat who-so wolde and wylneth · with cryste to aryse
Si cum cristo surrexistis &c ·
He shulde louye & lene · and þe lawe fulfille
Þat is loue þi lorde godBx.10.383: þi lorde god: For a precise parallel see Bx.5.583. Since F omits the line, R's word-order may represent alpha. Lines 378-89 have no parallel in AC. · leuest aboue alleBx.10.383: alle: Cr and beta4 have al thyng.
And after alle crystene creatures · in comune eche man other
And þus bilongeth to louye · þat leueth to be saued
And but we do þus in dede · ar þe daye of dome
I[t]Bx.10.387: It: A corrector has noted the omission of <t> in L. shal bisitten vs ful soure · þe siluer þat we kepen
And owre bakkesBx.10.388: bakkes: "clothes", as observed by the L scribe who writes above it id est panni. M has a different gloss: id est vestes. þat mothBx.10.388: moth: Alpha has mote which F makes sense of with great imagination.-eten be · and sen beggers go naked
Or delyte in wyn and wylde foule · and wote any in defaute
For euery cristene creature [·] shulde be kynde til other
And sithen hethen to helpe · in hope of amendement
God hoteth bothe heigh and lowe [·] þat no man hurte other
And seith slee nouȝt þat semblable is · to myne owen liknesse
But if I sende þe sum tokne · and seith non [m]ecaberisBx.10.394: mecaberis: WHmCG and alpha, supported by Ax (K.11.254). L and G have been altered to necaberis (and CrO more grammatically to necabis); M is altered to occides. See Luke 18.20: "non occides, non moechaberis", i.e. "Thou shalt not kill, thou shalt not commit adultery". Langland has confused moechari with necare, "to slay". See Skeat (1886), 2.160; Alford (1992), 68-9.
IsBx.10.395: Is: CO have I, and M is altered to that reading. slee nouȝt but suffre · and al for þe beste
[For Michi vindictam & ego retribuam]Bx.10.396: The quotation from Rom. 12.19 is omitted in beta but supported by Ax (K.11.255).
For I shal punysshenBx.10.397: punysshen: Alpha's omission of hem is supported by Ax. in purgatorie · or in þe putte of helle
Vche man for his mysdedes · but mercy it lette
¶ Þis is a longe lessoun quod I · and litel am I þe wyser
Where dowel is or dobet · derkelich ȝe shewen
Many tales ȝe tellen · þat theologye lerneth
And þat I man made was · and my name yentred
In þe legende of lyf · longe er I were
Or elles vnwritenBx.10.404: vnwriten: "not recorded", as in AC (K.11.263; RK.11.207). MGOF have writen. for somme wikkednesse [·] as holywrit wytnessethBx.10.404: wytnesseth: So beta; alpha has telleth, probably picked up from l. 410 below. Ax has as witnessiþ þe gospel; Cx has as holy writ shewith (RK.11.207). For the same b-verse as in beta, see Bx.11.416; for that as in alpha, see Bx.1.130, 3.342, etc.
Nemo ascendit ad celum nisi qui de celo decendit
¶ [And]Bx.10.406: And: R only, since F substitutes For and beta omits. Ax and the X group of C support And, but the P group omits it. I leue it welBx.10.406: wel: Beta adds quod I (in CGO it follows lord), but there is no support from AC. bi owre lorde [·] and on no letterure bettere
For salamon þe sage · þat sapience tauȝte
God gaf hym grace of witte · and alle hisBx.10.408: his: Alpha omits, perhaps rightly. The b-verse is rewritten from Ax. In Cx it is instead and of goed aftur (cf. F's & of alle goodis after). godes after
[To reule þe reume · and riche to make]Bx.10.409: Beta omits the line. In Ax the line reads For to reule his reaum riȝt at his wille (K11267); Cx has To reule alle reumes and ryche to make (RK.11.212). F may therefore be right with his rewme, or it may be contamination from the A tradition.
He demed wel & wysely [·] as holy writte telleth
Aristotle & he · who wissed men bettere
Maistres þat of goddis mercy · techen men and prechen
Of here wordes þei wissen vs · for wisest inBx.10.413: in: Beta reads as in, possibly rightly, but Cx, with a different a-verse, has and wisest in here tyme. This use of as in is not well exemplified in the poem; perhaps the closest is Bx.15.609: ferme as in þe faith. here tyme
And al holicherche · holdeth hem bothe ydampned
¶ And if I shulde worke bi here werkes [·] to wynne me heuene
Þat for her werkes and witteBx.10.416: witte: Alpha reads here witt, supported by a majority of A mss.; beta is however supported by Cx. We follow copy-text. · now wonyeth in pyne
Þanne wrouȝte I vnwysely · what-so-euere ȝe preche
¶ Ac of fele witty in feith · litel ferly I haue
Þough her goste be vngraciouse · god for to plese
For many men on þis molde · more sette here hert[e]Bx.10.420: Cx supports beta's men in the a-verse and alpha's herte in the b-verse, which may be regarded as generic sg. or as an unchanged pl. of part of the body. Cf. Bx.7.68. Even so, alpha's unmarked form needs to be seen in the context of its sg. man in the a-verse. Lines 418-43 are not in A.
In good þan in god · for-þi hem grace failleth
At here moste myschief · whan þei shal lyf lete
As salamon dede and such otherBx.10.423: dede and such other: Alpha reads and other dede, losing the alliteration. There is no parallel in AC. · þat shewed gret wittes
Ac her werkes as holy wrytte seyth · was euere þe contrarye
For-þi wyse witted men · and wel ylettred clerkes
As þei seyen hem-self · selden done þer-after
Super cathedraBx.10.427: cathedra: C mss. split between abl. cathedra (in the X family) and acc. cathedram (in the P family). The Vulgate has the latter (Matt. 23.3), although the former is more "correct" (with abl. denoting rest). moysy &c ·
¶ Ac I wene it worth of many · as was in Noes tyme
Þo he shope þat shippe · of shides andBx.10.429: and: This is probably the beta reading, with CrW and alpha reading and of. C mss. also split, with the X family having the beta reading, while the P family has that of alpha. We follow copy-text. bordes
Was neuere wriȝte saued þat wrouȝt þer-on · ne oþer werkman elles
But briddes and bestes · and þe blissed Noe
And his wyf with his sones · and also here wyues
Of wriȝtesBx.10.433: wriȝtes: The line is lost (presumably by eyeskip from l. 430) by beta4 and added in M. Beta2 has wightes. þat it wrouȝte [·] was none of hem ysaued
¶ God leneBx.10.434: lene: As usual, this is indistinguishable in L and other mss. from the easier leue, as recorded in CrF. G alters to leve. Cf. Bx.5.265. it fare nouȝt so bi folke · þat þe feith techen
Of holicherche þat he[r]berwe is · and goddes hous to saue
And shelden vs fram shame þer-inne · as noes shippe did bestes
And men þat maden it · amydde þe flode adreynten
Bx.10.438: Alpha has a paraph.Þe culorum of þis clause · curatoures isBx.10.438: curatoures is: The b-verse as in beta is the reading of Cx. to mene
Þat ben carpenteres holykirkeBx.10.439: kirke: R's non-alliterating form cherche may represent alpha, as at Bx.5.106, 271, etc., inspiring F to rewrite. See Introduction IV.1. to make · for crystes owne bestes
Homines & iumenta saluabis domine · &c ·
Bx.10.441-3: These three lines are preserved in alpha only. The first is in Cx, and ll. 442-3 are revised as RK.11.250, with a new line added. We have revised R's spellings to those of L. [At domes-day þe deluuye worth · of deth and fyreBx.10.441: fyre: R's line is supported by Cx against F's revisions. R has feer as a spelling for "fire" at Bx.3.99. at ones
For-þi I conseille ȝow clerkes · of holy chercheBx.10.442: cherche: It may seem obvious that, as at l. 439, Bx had kirke for the alliteration. However, Cx has churche in a line alliterating on /w/, suggesting that Langland revised the line to improve the alliteration of Bx. þe wriȝtes
Worcheth ȝe asBx.10.443: as: R's line is verbose and clumsy throughout, here reading werkes as. We take werkes to be an addition to strengthen alliteration and follow F, while recognising the slightness of the evidence. In Cx the line reads: Worcheth ȝe wrihtus of holy churche as holy writ techeth (RK.11.250). ȝe se writen · lest ȝe worth nauȝt þerinneBx.10.443: worth nought þerinne: F's worth ydrenkled, "are drowned", is more emphatic. Cf. F's reading at l. 437, suggesting that Bx might have read worth adreynte or similar. Again it is impossible to be confident of either reading.]
¶ OnBx.10.444: On: Alpha begins For a (R) or for on (F), but beta is supported by AC. gode fridaye I fynde · a feloun was ysaued
Þat had lyued al his lyf [·] with lesynges and with thefte
And for he biknewe on þe crosse · and to cryste s[h]rof hym
He was sonnere saued · þan seynt Iohan [þe]Bx.10.447: þe: Lost in LHm, but supported by AC. Baptiste
And orBx.10.448: or (1): "before". See spelling variants. Adam or ysaye · or eny of þe prophetes
Þat hadde yleine with Lucyfer · many longe ȝeres
A robbere was yraunceouned · rather þan þei alle
With-outen any penaunce of purgatorie · to perpetuel blisse
¶ Þanne Marye Magdaleyne · what womman dede worse
Or who worse [dede]Bx.10.453: worse dede: R (and cf. F) is supported by alliteration and by Ax dede wers. C rewrites. þan dauid · þat vries deth conspired
Or Poule þe apostle · þat no pitee hadde
Moche crystene kynde · to kylle to dethBx.10.455: Alpha omits the line. AC have it without Moche (K.11.290; RK.11.268). C mss. vary, incorporating an abbreviated version of the line into the previous line, as in X: Poul þe apostel no pite ne hadde cristene peple to culle to dethe.
And benBx.10.456: Hm begins with rewritten And ȝit been; all others have And now ben except LR that omit the adverb, and F which reverses the order. The omission is almost certainly an error, since the adverb is in Cx, but the combined testimony of LR implies that it was an omission in Bx, with other scribes correcting by conjecture or contamination. See Adams (2000), 184. þise as souereynes · wyth seyntes in heuene
Þo þat wrouȝte wikkedlokest · in worlde þo þei were
¶ And þo þat wisely wordeden · and wryten many bokes
Of witte and of wisdome · with dampned soules wonye
Þat salamon seith I trowe be soth · and certeyne of vs alle
S[unt]Bx.10.461: Sunt: Beta's Sine or Siue is an obvious misreading. Alpha is supported by Cx and the source (Ecclesiastes 9.1). Lines 462-71 have no parallel in AC. iusti atque sapientes · & opera eorum in manu dei sunt &c
Bx.10.462: : The paraph is in beta and F. Þere aren witty and wel libbyng [·] ac her werkes ben yhudde
In þe hondes of almiȝty god · and he wote þe sothe
Wher forBx.10.464: Wher for: "whether for". Beta2 and G mistake this as Wherefore, and CrW drop loue. loue a man worth allowed þere · and his lele werkes
Or elles for his yuel wille · &Bx.10.465: &: L initially read or, corrected to &. Beta2 has and for. enuye of herte
And be allowed asBx.10.466: as: R has for; F rewrites the line. he lyued soBx.10.466: so: Dropped by Cr and beta4 (O has þere). · for bi lyther men knoweth þe gode
¶ And wherby woteBx.10.467: wote: So LR, and probably M before correction to conform to CrW wiste. Hm may also have had wote before revision. men whiche is whyte · if alle þinge blake were
AndBx.10.468: And: Alpha probably read Or, altered by F to For. who were a gode man · but if þere were some shrewe
For-þi lyue we forth with litherBx.10.469: lither: Beta2 reads other and loses alliteration. men · I leue fewe ben gode
For qant oportet vyent en place · yl nyad que pati
And he þat may al amende · haue mercy on vs alle
For sothest worde þat euere god seyde · was þo he seyde nemo bonus
[¶]Bx.10.473: : The paraph is in WHmR, with a new line-group in M. In L, which lacks the usual line-space, the scribe's paraph marker is unrubricated. Clergye þo of crystes mouth · commended was it litel
For he seyde to seynt Peter · and to suche as he loued
DumBx.10.475: Dum: Beta2 alters to Cum, but Cx supports the others. steteritis ante Reges et presides &c ·
Þough ȝe come bifor kynges · and clerkes of þe lawe
Beth nouȝte abasched · for I shal be in ȝoure mouthes
And ȝyue ȝow witte atBx.10.478: at: L is supported by alpha; all others have and. The line is revised in Cx. wille · and kunnynge to conclude
Hem alle þat aȝeines ȝow · ofBx.10.479: of: Alpha omits, though F has a different object for alliteration's sake. Though this is attractive, it might be noted that the verb disputen is elsewhere used transitively only at Bx.10.260; it is usually ~ with. crystenedome disputen
¶ Dauyd maketh mencioun · he spake amonges kynges
AndBx.10.481: And: Cx supports beta against R Al and F Þere. miȝte no kynge ouercome hym · as bi kunnyng of speche
But witte ne wisdome · wan neuere þe maystrye
Whan man was at myschief · with-oute þe more grace
¶ Þe doughtiest doctour · and deuynoure of þe trinitee
Was augustynBx.10.485: augustyn: As at l. 126 above, the form of the name in Bx is not determinable. LMG (so beta?) have the full form, but alpha has the more usual Austyn. Both AC have the abbreviated form. We follow copy-text. þe olde · and heighest of þeBx.10.485: þe (2): AC do not support R's hem. foure
Sayde þus in a sarmoun · I seigh it writen ones
Ecce ipsi idiotiBx.10.487: idioti: Bx and most A mss. make the fools masculine, though CrCGOF correct to feminine. rapiunt celum · vbi nos sapientes in inferno mergimur ·
And is to mene to englissh men · more ne lasse
Aren none rather yrauysshed · fro þe riȝte byleue
Þan ar þis cunnynge clerkes · þat conneBx.10.490: conne: Beta has the support of Ax against alpha's knowe. many bokes
Bx.10.491: : The paraph is in LW (in M the line is at the top of the page). Ne none sonner saued · ne sadder of bileue
Þan plowmen and pastoures · & poreBx.10.492: pore: W and beta4 read oþere and lose the alliteration. comune laboreres
Souteres and sheperdes · sucheBx.10.493: suche: So LR and Cr, as well as the majority of A mss. Others have added and. lewed iottesBx.10.493: iottes: A nonce word, variously recorded as iottes and iuttes by A and B scribes. It may be the same word as modern jot, "small amount".
Percen with a pater noster [·] þe paleys of heuene
And passen purgatorie penaunceles · at her hennes-partyng
In-to þe blisse of paradys · for her pure byleueBx.10.496: Here ends comparison with A.
Þat inparfitly hereBx.10.497: here: This line is obviously defective in R, which uniquely drops here. In the b-verse R's loss of eke may represent alpha, since F rewrites. Lines 497-501 are not in C. · knewe and eke lyued
¶ Ȝee men knowe clerkes · þat han cursedBx.10.498: þat han cursed: R alone has cursen. þe tyme
Þat euere þei couth or knewe more · þan credo in deum patrem
And pryncipaly herBx.10.500: her: So beta; alpha might equally be right with þe. pater noster · many a persone hath wisshed
¶ I se ensamples my-self · and so may many an other
Þat seruauntes þat seruen lordes · selden falle in arrerageBx.10.502: arrerage: Beta is supported by Cx. F regularly reads rerage; cf. esp. Bx.11.133, 135 (final position), 138, 14.117.
But þo þat kepen þe lordesBx.10.503: þe lordes: R has lordes; F has here. The line is not in C. catel · clerkes and reues
Riȝt so lewed men · & of litel knowyngBx.10.504: knowyng: Alpha reads kunnynge. Cx has vnderstondyng in a revised line (RK.11.299).
Selden falleBx.10.505: falle: So alpha, supported by Cx; beta reads falle þei. so foule · and so fer in synne
As clerkes of holikirkeBx.10.506: kirke: Beta2 and GR alter to chirche and lose alliteration. · þat kepen crystes tresore
Þe which is mannes soule to saue · as god seith in þe gospel
Ite vos in vineam meam