Passus septimus de visione vt supra
Treuthe herde telle her-of · and to peres heBx.7.1: he: Omitted in CrHmGO and inserted in L. The support of MWC and alpha establishes it for Bx, though it is omitted in AC. sent
For hym and for his heires · for euermore after
Pardoun with pieres plowman · treuthe hath ygraunted
With patriarkes and prophetes · in paradise to be felawesBx.7.12: felawes: The plural is supported by LMG and alpha.
Legistres of bothe lawesBx.7.14: bothe lawes: So alpha and WHmCr (beta2), supported by Ax Bisshopis þat blissen & boþe lawes kenne (K.8.13). However LM and beta4 (GOC) read bothe þe lawes, which could be right. · þe lewed þere-with to preche
Aren peres with þe apostles · þusBx.7.16: þus: LM and alpha, against þis in others. pardoun Piers sheweth
And at þe day of dome · atteBx.7.17: atte: "at the", as in all beta mss. except M with at. R also has at, with F reading on. MR could be right. Ax reads instead at here deis. heigh deyse to sytte
Ac none a penaBx.7.19: none a pena: Beta is supported by Ax; alpha's no pena is shared with the X family of C; the P family has a pena. & a culpa · þe Pope noldeBx.7.19: nolde: Following the negative in the a-verse, Bx has a second negative in the b-verse, either nolde in beta or wald nauȝt (F wille not) in alpha. Many A mss. also have nolde. C mss. have wolde or nolde depending on whether they include or omit no in the a-verse. hem graunte
For þei holde nouȝt her halida[y]Bx.7.20: haliday: The distributive sg. of M and alpha is more likely to have given rise to the plural than vice versa. AC show similar variation. · as holicherche techeth
That þey shulde bugge boldely · þat hem best likedBx.7.24: liked: The beta reading, against the present in alpha. Cx supports the past tense; A mss. are divided. In the context of present-tense verbs, the past tense is more likely to have given rise to the present.
And sithenes selle it aȝein · and saue þe wynny[n]geBx.7.25: wynnynge: Beta's distributive sg. is shared with most A mss., while most C mss. have alpha's plural.
And amende mesondieux þere-[with]Bx.7.26: þere-with: The alpha reading is supported by the AC versions. Beta's þere-myde is perhaps prompted by the alliteration. For similar variation in this situation, cf. Bx.5.77 and note, 6.67 (= RK.8.68), 6.161 (= K.7.145 and RK.8.155), 15.144. There appears to be no settled pattern. · and myseyse folke helpe
And wikked wayes · wiȝtlich hemBx.7.27: hem: Supported for Bx by LMHmO and alpha; dropped in others. Yet Ax has to; Cx rewrites. amende
And do bote to brugges [·] þat to-broke were
And sette scoleres to scole · or to sommeBx.7.31: somme: Omitted in alpha, but supported by Ax and required by alliteration. other craftes
Releue Religioun · and renten hem bettere
Bx.7.33: Alpha has a paraph.And I shal sende ȝow my-selue · seynt Michel myn archangel
And sende ȝowre sowles in safte · to my seyntes in ioye
¶ Þanne were Marchauntz mery · many weptenBx.7.37: Marchauntz mery · many wepten: Beta is supported by AC against alpha's manye marchauntz . þat wopen. for ioye
For þe sauter saueth hem nouȝte · such as taketh ȝiftes
And namelich of innocentz [·] þat none yuel neBx.7.41: ne: Supported by LWCrG and alpha against omission in others. kunneth
Super innocentem munera non accipiesBx.7.42: The Latin line, omitted by alpha, appears in A. The passage is revised in C.
Prynces and prelates · shulde paye for her trauaille
ConfortethBx.7.50: Conforteth: Alpha begins And conforteth, but beta is supported by Ax. hym in þat cas · with-oute coueytise of ȝiftes
Þise foure þe fader of heuene · made to þis folde in comune
¶ Whan þei drawen on to deyeBx.7.59: on to deye: LMWCrG have the verb; HmO and R have the noun deþ. F's to þe deþ is also the reading of Cx. Drawen to (þe) deþ is common (MED drauen 3b (a)), but note Cleanness 1329 drawes to dyȝe. · and Indulgences wolde haue
H[is] pardoun is ful petit · at h[is]Bx.7.60: His ... his: In the a-verse R shares the sg, with beta4, but only R has the sg. in the b-verse. However Cx has the sg. in both cases. (Ax also has a sg. pronoun, but the context is different, K.8.59.) The plural pronouns are obviously attracted to the pronouns of the surrounding lines, providing the motive for beta and F independently to rationalise. partyng hennes
Þat anyBx.7.61: any: Omitted only by R, but it is not in Cx. Ax supports the reading of all other mss. Mede of mene men [·] for her motyng taketh
ȜeBx.7.62: Ȝe: Beta is supported by Ax against alpha's Þe. (KD report R's Þe and þe in this line as Ȝe and ȝe.) legistres and lawyeres · holdeth þis for treuthe
For he bad me make ȝow þis · and þis prouerbe me tolde
But if þe suggestioun be soth · þat shapeth hemBx.7.71: hem: R's hym is also the reading of the X family of C; the P family and Ax support beta's plural. to begge
For he þat beggeth or bit · but if he haue nede
And also he gilethBx.7.74: gileth: R's reading is supported by AC. The form is less common than bigileth (elsewhere only 20.125 in Bx, where HmO read bi-). We assume that beta and F alter to the commoner form, as on several other occasions in this passage. þe gyuer [·] ageines his wilBx.7.74: wil: Quite possibly a miswriting for wille, as in all except LCrG, and as the word is always otherwise spelt in L. Cable (1988), 54, argues on metrical grounds that the difference is substantive.
¶ Ac Gregori wasBx.7.81: was: R has is; F rewrites. a gode man · and bad vs gyuen alle
Quia incertum est pro quo deumBx.7.84: deum: This is clearly the Bx reading. M corrects deum to deo, in line with the reading of WHmG. For the quotation see Alford (1992), 54-5. magis placeas
For he þat ȝiuethBx.7.87: ȝiueth: KD (p. 145) explain alpha's ȝift as "variation through misreading of an -eth suspension". It might also be noted that MED yeven records syncopated forms ending -th and -t. ȝeldeth · and ȝarketh hym to reste
And he þat biddeth borweth · and bryngeth hym-self in dette
Quare non dedisti peccuniam meam ad mensam vt ego veniens [& cetera]Bx.7.91: veniens & cetera: So M. L ends veniens cum vsuris exigerem, but the variant readings suggest that scribes expanded an abbreviated quotation from Luke 19.23. Alford (1992), 55. ·
¶ For-þi biddeth nouȝt ȝe beggeres · but if ȝe haue gret nedeBx.7.92: gret nede: Established for Bx by LMR as well as beta2. The others omit the adjective.
¶ Late vsage be ȝowre solace · of seyntes lyues redyng
Þe boke banneth beggarie · and blameth hemBx.7.97: hem: Omitted by beta4. F rewrites. in þis manere
¶Bx.7.99: ¶: The paraph in LWHm (with a new line-group in M), though not alpha, is appropriate. For ȝeBx.7.99: ȝe: AC have third person in this passage (K.8.72-3, RK.9.167). Bennett (1972), 221, explains that the following lines "represent an attempt to return to the original theme from which 71-88 [Bx.7.75-97] (new in B) are a digression. The digression has involved the use of the 2nd person, which is retained up to 94, though the original 3rd person forms are kept in 93 [Bx.7.103]". Though all B mss. have second person here, except for F which alters to beggeres, the situation is more complicated than Bennett suggests, since scribes altered to bring the pronouns into line. See notes to ll. 100, 103, 104. lyue in no loue · ne no lawe holde
Many of ȝowBx.7.100: of ȝow: As in the previous line, F alters, reading man, and consequently adopting sg. womman in the b-verse. See next note. ne wedde nouȝt · þe wommenBx.7.100: wommen: The plural is supported by LMR as well as CrG. A mss. vary (K.8.73); Cx has the plural in a revised line (RK.9.168). þat ȝe with delen
Or þe bakke or some bone · he breketh in hisBx.7.103: he ... his: Beta has sg. pronouns, but alpha has plural. A mss. have his bak, his bon and his ȝouþe, but rather oddly many have þei rather than he at the beginning of the b-verse. Cx brings the pronouns into line with the surrounding plurals. ȝouthe
Þere is moo mysshape peple · amongeBx.7.105: amonge: WMO and alpha have the form in -es. Either could be Bx. AC mss. also vary. þise beggeres
[Þo]Bx.7.107: Þo: R only, but supported by AC. F adds For, while beta has And þei. þat lyue þus here lyf · mowe lothe þe tyme
Þat euere he was manBx.7.108: he was man: Beta2 reads þei were men, but this is not supported by Ax. wrouȝt · whan he shal hennes fare
Þat taketh þis myschiefBx.7.112: þis myschief: The sg. is established for Bx by agreement of LMR (F myssese) and Ax, though Cx has the plural. mekelych · as meseles and othere
Here penaunce and here purgatorie · here [vp]onBx.7.115: vpon: In AC the b-verse reads vpon þis pur erþe. Bx has lost the alliterating adjective. R retains vpon, the alpha reading which F garbles, while beta reads on. þis erthe
¶ Pieres quod a prest þo · þi pardoun most I rede
For I [shal]Bx.7.117: shal: Alpha's reading expressing necessity (cf. most in the line above) is more appropriate than the volition expressed by beta's wil. Most A mss. support alpha. Cx has can (RK.9.282). construe eche clause · and kenne it þe on englich
Al in two lynes it lay · and nouȝt a leef more
¶ Peter quod þe prest þo · I can no pardoun fynde
¶ And pieres for pure tene · pulled it atweyne
Þat loueth god lelly · his lyflode is ful esy
¶ And but if Luke lye · he lereth vs bi foulesBx.7.138: bi foules: "(instructs us) by birds"; so beta, anticipating ll. 142-3. Alpha's line means "Unless Luke lies or teaches us to be fools", which cannot be the sense intended. Schmidt accepts beta's he in place of alpha's or, and alpha's foles in place of beta's foules, and this indeed makes sense in reference to Luke's fool as the man who tells his soul to rest now he has laid up treasure for it: "Dixit autem illi Deus: Stulte, hac nocte animam tuam repetunt a te. ... Nolite solliciti esse animae quid manducetis" (Luke 12.20, 22, abbreviated in l. 140). See Schmidt (1995), 376-7. It is worth noting, however, that leren is followed by a to infin. in the closest parallel "alle he lered to be lele" (Bx.19.256). A is no help, with the variant readings by foules, by birdes, be folis, to ben foles. We retain copy-text.
Ne solliciti sitis · he seyth in þe gospel
Þe foules onBx.7.142: on: Choice is difficult. The LM reading is generally reliable for beta. R's of may represent alpha, but F has in as do the remainder of the beta mss. The situation is further complicated by the apparent corruption of Bx; the gospel has volatilia caeli (Matt. 6.26), which Ax translates as foulis in þe firmament (K.8.115), suggesting that on þe felde is a Bx error prompting scribes to improve. We follow copy-text. þe felde · who fynt hem mete atBx.7.142: at: Supported by LMWCOR against the repetition of in in CrHmF, even though A mss. have either in or a. wynter
¶ What quod þe prest to perkyn · peter as me þinketh
¶ Abstinence þe abbesseBx.7.146: þe abbesse: Lost in alpha but supported by Ax and necessary for the alliteration. quod pieres · myne abc me tauȝte
¶ Were þow a prest pieres quod he · þow miȝte preche where þow sholdestBx.7.148: sholdest: The beta reading. R's woldest is perhaps easier; F revises. Ax has þe likide.
¶ Lewed lorel quod Pieres · litel lokestow on þeBx.7.150: þe: Supported by Ax. R's þi is perhaps prompted by þi in the same position in the line above. bible
OnBx.7.151: On: Beta is supported by Ax against R's And (F rewrites). salomones sawes · selden þow biholdest
EcceBx.7.152: Ecce: The reading of all A and most B mss. OF "correct" to Eice (KD mistranscribe MR as Eice). For this line from Prov. 22.10, "Eiice ['eject'] derisores ...", see Alford (1992), 57. derisores et iurgia cum eis ne crescant &c
Metelees and monelees · on Maluerne hulles
Musyng on þis meteles · [a]Bx.7.157: a: "on": Since AC read a myle wey, we conjecture that R's a my wey, supported by M's on my way, represents the corrupt Bx, understood as and my waye by most scribes, and characteristically expanded by F to as y my way. my waye ich ȝede
And also for peres þe plowman · ful pensyf in herte
Catoun and canonistres · conseilleth vs to leue
Þat was nabugodonosor · nempned of clerkis
Þat vnkouth knyȝtes shul come · þi kyngdom to cleueBx.7.170: cleue: LMGO against easier cleyme in beta2 and C, and hence the beta reading. Alpha has reue, but the sense of cleue is continued in departed in the next line, and confirmed by Daniel 5.28, "divisum est regnum tuum". Yet all A mss. except one have cleyme. Probably the comparative difficulty of cleue (MED cleven v.(2), 4, "break up, dismember") led scribes to alter it. The line is not in C.
And as danyel deuyned [·] in dede it felle after
Bx.7.176: W and Alpha here have a paraph.Þanne Iacob iugged · iosephes sweuene
Þat ioseph was iustice · egipte to loken
It bifel as his fader tolde · his frendes þere hym souȝteBx.7.181: þere hym souȝte: R has the order hym þere souȝte, and F has sowtyn þere. In Cx the equivalent b-verse is hym for nede souhte (RK.9.316).
¶Bx.7.188-96: ¶: O omits the paragraph. Now hath þe pope powere ·Bx.7.188: RM punctuate the line after pardoun, reflecting uncertainty over the very heavy b-verse which F abbreviates. pardoun to graunte þe peple
And so I leue lelly · lordes forbode ellis
[It]Bx.7.196: It: Alpha's resumed subject is perhaps more likely to have been lost than added. A and C also vary, though It is supported by the X family of C. is nouȝt so syker for þe soule · certis as is dowel
¶ For-þi I rede ȝow renkesBx.7.197: renkes: Alpha has no difficulty with the seven other instances of renk. · þat riche ben on þis erthe
And namelich ȝe maistres · mayres and iugges
Þat han þe welthe of þis worlde · andBx.7.201: and: Alpha supported by AC over and for in LMWHmCr. wyse men ben holden
At þe dredeful dome · whan ded shullen riseBx.7.208: rise: LW and alpha, against arise in others. Most C mss. have the former, most A mss. the latter.
And comen alle bifor cryst · acountisBx.7.204: acountis: Alpha begins the b-verse with and, but this is not supported by AC. to ȝelde
And how þow dedestBx.7.206: dedest: Beta's past tense is supported by AC against alpha's present. day bi day · þe dome wil reherce
A pokeBx.7.207: poke: For R's form pouhȝ see MED pough(e, but both forms derive from OE pohha. R's less common form is paralleled among A mss. by V powhe, and among C mss. by X pouhe. ful of pardoun þere · ne prouinciales lettres
Theigh ȝe be founde in þe fraternete · of alle þe fourefyueBx.7.208: foure / fyue: Ax supports beta and F with foure, but R has fyue. Here and twice elsewhere (RK.8.191, 9.344, 15.80) Cx refers to the five mendicant orders (the usual four plus the crutched friars). Probably R represents a revision, with F reverting to the more usual number of orders. ordres
And haue indulgences double-folde · butBx.7.209: but: Alpha is supported by AC against beta's but if. dowel ȝow help
I sette ȝowre patentes and ȝowre pardou[n]Bx.7.210: pardoun: The sg. is supported by Cx; L's plural is the result of a later correction. F omits the line. [·] at one pies hele
And Marie his moder · be owre mene bitwene
Suche werkes to werche · whileBx.7.214: while: Beta is supported by Ax and the P family of C. The X family, however, has þe while as alpha. we ben here
At þe day of dome · we dede as he hiȝte