<head><foreign>Passus septimus de visione vt supra</foreign></head>
<l> Treuthe herde telle her-of · and to peres he<note>Bx.7.1: <hi>he</hi>: Omitted in CrHmGO and inserted in L. The support of MWC and alpha establishes it for <hi>Bx</hi>, though it is omitted in <hi>AC</hi>.</note> sent</l>
<l> To taken his teme [·] and tulyen þe erthe</l>
<l> And purchaced hym a pardoun · <foreign>a pena & a culpa</foreign></l>
<l> For hym and for his heires · for euermore after</l>
<l> And bad hym holde hym at home · and eryen his leyes</l>
<l> And alle þat halpe hym to erie · to sette or to sowe</l>
<l> Or any other myster · þat myȝte pieres auaille</l>
<l> Pardoun with pieres plowman · treuthe hath ygraunted</l>
<l> ¶ Kynges and knyȝtes · þat kepen holycherche</l>
<l> And ryȝtfullych in reumes · reulen þe peple</l>
<l> Han pardoun thourgh purgatorie · to passe ful lyȝtly</l>
<l> With patriarkes and prophetes · in paradise to be felawes<note>Bx.7.12: <hi>felawes</hi>: The plural is supported by LMG and alpha.</note></l>
<l> ¶ Bisshopes yblessed · ȝif þei ben as þei shulden</l>
<l> Legistres of bothe lawes<note>Bx.7.14: <hi>bothe lawes</hi>: So alpha and WHmCr (beta2), supported by <hi>Ax</hi> <hi>Bisshopis þat blissen & boþe lawes kenne</hi> (K.8.13). However LM and beta4 (GOC) read <hi>bothe þe lawes</hi>, which could be right.</note> · þe lewed þere-with to preche</l>
<l> And in as moche as þei mowe · amende alle synful</l>
<l> Aren peres with þe apostles · þus<note>Bx.7.16: <hi>þus</hi>: LM and alpha, against <hi>þis</hi> in others.</note> pardoun Piers sheweth</l>
<l> And at þe day of dome · atte<note>Bx.7.17: <hi>atte</hi>: "at the", as in all beta mss. except M with <hi>at</hi>. R also has <hi>at</hi>, with F reading <hi>on</hi>. MR could be right. <hi>Ax</hi> reads instead <hi>at here deis</hi>.</note> heigh deyse to sytte</l>
<l> ¶ Marchauntz in þe margyne · hadden many ȝeres</l>
<l> Ac none <foreign>a pena<note>Bx.7.19: <hi>none <foreign>a pena</foreign></hi>: Beta is supported by <hi>Ax</hi>; alpha's <hi>no pena</hi> is shared with the X family of <hi>C</hi>; the P family has <hi>a pena</hi>.</note> & a culpa</foreign> · þe Pope nolde<note>Bx.7.19: <hi>nolde</hi>: Following the negative in the a-verse, <hi>Bx</hi> has a second negative in the b-verse, either <hi>nolde</hi> in beta or <hi>wald nauȝt</hi> (F <hi>wille not</hi>) in alpha. Many <hi>A</hi> mss. also have <hi>nolde</hi>. <hi>C</hi> mss. have <hi>wolde</hi> or <hi>nolde</hi> depending on whether they include or omit <hi>no</hi> in the a-verse.</note> hem graunte</l>
<l> For þei holde nouȝt her halida[y]<note>Bx.7.20: <hi>haliday</hi>: The distributive sg. of M and alpha is more likely to have given rise to the plural than vice versa. <hi>AC</hi> show similar variation.</note> · as holicherche techeth</l>
<l> And for þei swere by her soule · and<note>Bx.7.21: <hi>by her soule and</hi>: Replaced in alpha by <hi>ofte</hi>, but supported by <hi>AC</hi> and by alliteration.</note> so god moste<note>Bx.7.21: <hi>moste</hi>: Omitted by M and alpha, but supported by <hi>AC</hi>.</note> hem helpe</l>
<l> Aȝein clene conscience · her catel to selle</l>
<l> ¶ Ac vnder his secret seel · treuthe sent hem a lettre</l>
<l> That þey shulde bugge boldely · þat hem best liked<note>Bx.7.24: <hi>liked</hi>: The beta reading, against the present in alpha. <hi>Cx</hi> supports the past tense; <hi>A</hi> mss. are divided. In the context of present-tense verbs, the past tense is more likely to have given rise to the present.</note></l>
<l> And sithenes selle it aȝein · and saue þe wynny[n]ge<note>Bx.7.25: <hi>wynnynge</hi>: Beta's distributive sg. is shared with most <hi>A</hi> mss., while most <hi>C</hi> mss. have alpha's plural.</note></l>
<l> And amende <foreign>mesondieux</foreign> þere-[with]<note>Bx.7.26: <hi>þere-with</hi>: The alpha reading is supported by the <hi>AC</hi> versions. Beta's <hi>þere-myde</hi> is perhaps prompted by the alliteration. For similar variation in this situation, cf. <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.5.77</ref> and note, <ref>6.67</ref> (= RK.8.68), <ref>6.161</ref> (= K.7.145 and RK.8.155), <ref>15.144</ref>. There appears to be no settled pattern.</note> · and myseyse folke helpe</l>
<l> And wikked wayes · wiȝtlich hem<note>Bx.7.27: <hi>hem</hi>: Supported for <hi>Bx</hi> by LMHmO and alpha; dropped in others. Yet <hi>Ax</hi> has <hi>to</hi>; <hi>Cx</hi> rewrites.</note> amende</l>
<l> And do bote to brugges [·] þat to-broke were</l>
<l> Marien maydenes · or maken hem nonnes</l>
<l> Pore peple and prisounes · fynden hem here fode</l>
<l> And sette scoleres to scole · or to somme<note>Bx.7.31: <hi>somme</hi>: Omitted in alpha, but supported by <hi>Ax</hi> and required by alliteration.</note> other craftes</l>
<l> Releue Religioun · and renten hem bettere</l>
<l> <note>Bx.7.33: Alpha has a paraph.</note>And I shal sende ȝow my-selue · seynt Michel myn archangel</l>
<l> Þat no deuel shal ȝow dere · ne fere ȝow in ȝowre deying</l>
<l> And witen ȝow fro wanhope · if ȝe wil þus worche</l>
<l> And sende ȝowre sowles in safte · to my seyntes in ioye</l>
<l> ¶ Þanne were Marchauntz mery · many wepten<note>Bx.7.37: <hi>Marchauntz mery · many wepten</hi>: Beta is supported by <hi>AC</hi> against alpha's <hi>manye marchauntz . þat wopen</hi>.</note> for ioye</l>
<l> And preyseden Pieres þe plowman · þat purchaced þis bulle</l>
<l> [¶]<note>Bx.7.39: <hi></hi>: The spacing in LM indicates that a paraph was intended, as in WHmC.</note> Men of lawe lest pardoun hadde<note>Bx.7.39: <hi>hadde</hi>: The line ended here in alpha, with F filling out this line, and both RF independently supplying a b-verse for the next line.</note> [·] þat pleteden for Mede</l>
<l> For þe sauter saueth hem nouȝte · such as taketh ȝiftes</l>
<l> And namelich of innocentz [·] þat none yuel ne<note>Bx.7.41: <hi>ne</hi>: Supported by LWCrG and alpha against omission in others.</note> kunneth</l>
<l> <foreign>Super innocentem munera non accipies</foreign><note>Bx.7.42: The Latin line, omitted by alpha, appears in <hi>A</hi>. The passage is revised in <hi>C</hi>.</note></l>
<l> <note>Bx.7.43: The paraph in WHmC is perhaps prompted by the Latin line above, though R also begins a line group.</note>Pledoures shulde peynen hem · to plede for such an<note>Bx.7.43: <hi>an</hi>: "and". Cf. l. <ref>46</ref>.</note> helpe</l>
<l> Prynces and prelates · shulde paye for her trauaille</l>
<l> <foreign>A regibus & pryncipibus erit merces eorum</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ Ac many a iustice an iuroure · wolde for Iohan do more</l>
<l> Þan <foreign>pro dei pietate</foreign> · leue þow none other</l>
<l> <note>Bx.7.48: WHmC begin with a paraph, and R begins a new line group, as at l. <ref>43</ref>.</note>Ac he þat spendeth his speche [·] and spekeþ for þe pore</l>
<l> Þat is Innocent and nedy · and no man appeireth</l>
<l> Conforteth<note>Bx.7.50: <hi>Conforteth</hi>: Alpha begins <hi>And conforteth</hi>, but beta is supported by <hi>Ax</hi>.</note> hym in þat cas · with-oute coueytise of ȝiftes</l>
<l> And scheweth lawe for owre lordes loue · as he it hath lerned</l>
<l> Shal no deuel at his ded-day<note>Bx.7.52: <hi>ded-day</hi>: LCGR have this form, though the usual form is <hi>deþ-day</hi>. Cf. l. <ref>127</ref>.</note> · deren hym a myte</l>
<l> Þat he ne worth sauf and his sowle · þe sauter bereth witnesse</l>
<l> <foreign>Domine quis habitabit in tabernaculo tuo &c ·</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ Ac to bugge water ne wynde · ne witte ne fyre þe fierthe</l>
<l> Þise foure þe fader of heuene · made to þis folde in comune</l>
<l> Þise ben treuthes tresores · trewe folke to helpe</l>
<l> Þat neuere shal wax ne wanye · with-oute god hym-selue</l>
<l> ¶ Whan þei drawen on to deye<note>Bx.7.59: <hi>on to deye</hi>: LMWCrG have the verb; HmO and R have the noun <hi>deþ</hi>. F's <hi>to þe deþ</hi> is also the reading of <hi>Cx</hi>. <hi>Drawen to (þe) deþ</hi> is common (<title>MED</title> <hi>drauen</hi> 3b (a)), but note <title>Cleanness</title> 1329 <hi>drawes to dyȝe</hi>.</note> · and Indulgences wolde haue</l>
<l> H[is] pardoun is ful petit · at h[is]<note>Bx.7.60: <hi>His ... his</hi>: In the a-verse R shares the sg, with beta4, but only R has the sg. in the b-verse. However <hi>Cx</hi> has the sg. in both cases. (<hi>Ax</hi> also has a sg. pronoun, but the context is different, K.8.59.) The plural pronouns are obviously attracted to the pronouns of the surrounding lines, providing the motive for beta and F independently to rationalise.</note> partyng hennes</l>
<l> Þat any<note>Bx.7.61: <hi>any</hi>: Omitted only by R, but it is not in <hi>Cx</hi>. <hi>Ax</hi> supports the reading of all other mss.</note> Mede of mene men [·] for her motyng taketh</l>
<l> Ȝe<note>Bx.7.62: <hi>Ȝe</hi>: Beta is supported by <hi>Ax</hi> against alpha's <hi>Þe</hi>. (KD report R's <hi>Þe</hi> and <hi>þe</hi> in this line as <hi>Ȝe</hi> and <hi>ȝe</hi>.)</note> legistres and lawyeres · holdeth þis for treuthe</l>
<l> Þat ȝif þat I lye · Mathew is to blame</l>
<l> For he bad me make ȝow þis · and þis prouerbe me tolde</l>
<l> <foreign>Quodcumque vultis vt faciant vobis homines · facite eis</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ Alle lybbyng laboreres · þat lyuen with her hondes</l>
<l> Þat trewlich taken · and trewlich wynnen</l>
<l> And lyuen in loue and in lawe · for her lowe hert[e]<note>Bx.7.68: <hi>herte</hi>: Alpha's distributive sg. is supported by many <hi>A</hi> mss. There is no parallel in <hi>C</hi>. Cf. l. <ref>20</ref>, <ref>10.420</ref>.</note></l>
<l> Haueth þe same absolucioun · þat sent was to peres</l>
<l> ¶ Beggeres ne bidderes · ne beth nouȝte in þe bulle</l>
<l> But if þe suggestioun be soth · þat shapeth hem<note>Bx.7.71: <hi>hem</hi>: R's <hi>hym</hi> is also the reading of the X family of <hi>C</hi>; the P family and <hi>Ax</hi> support beta's plural.</note> to begge</l>
<l> For he þat beggeth or bit · but if he haue nede</l>
<l> He is fals with þe fende · and defraudeth þe nedy</l>
<l> And also he gileth<note>Bx.7.74: <hi>gileth</hi>: R's reading is supported by <hi>AC</hi>. The form is less common than <hi>bigileth</hi> (elsewhere only 20.125 in <hi>Bx</hi>, where HmO read <hi>bi</hi>-). We assume that beta and F alter to the commoner form, as on several other occasions in this passage.</note> þe gyuer [·] ageines his wil<note>Bx.7.74: <hi>wil</hi>: Quite possibly a miswriting for <hi>wille</hi>, as in all except LCrG, and as the word is always otherwise spelt in L. Cable (1988), 54, argues on metrical grounds that the difference is substantive.</note></l>
<l> For if he wist he were nouȝte nedy · he wolde ȝiue þat an other</l>
<l> Þat were more ned[ier]<note>Bx.7.76: <hi>nedier</hi>: For alpha's double comparative, cf. e.g. <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.11.165</ref> (passage in alpha only) and <ref>15.206</ref>. M here reads <hi>nediere</hi> with -<hi>ere</hi> erased.</note> þan he · so þe nediest shuld be hulpe</l>
<l> Catoun kenneth men<note>Bx.7.77: <hi>men</hi>: Beta2 and GO read <hi>me</hi>. The line is not in <hi>AC</hi>.</note> þus · and þe clerke of þe<note>Bx.7.77: <hi>þe</hi> (2): Established for <hi>Bx</hi> by LM and alpha, but omitted by beta1.</note> stories</l>
<l> <foreign>Cui des videto ·</foreign> is catounes techyng</l>
<l> And in þe stories he techeth · to bistowe þyn almes</l>
<l> <foreign>Sit elemosina<note>Bx.7.80: <hi><foreign>elemosina</foreign></hi>: LM and alpha against <hi>elemosina tua</hi> in others. See Alford (1992), 54. F follows with a line of its own. The passage to l. <ref>96</ref> is not in <hi>AC</hi>.</note> in manu tua donec studes cui des</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ Ac Gregori was<note>Bx.7.81: <hi>was</hi>: R has <hi>is</hi>; F rewrites.</note> a gode man · and bad vs gyuen alle</l>
<l> Þat asketh for his loue · þat vs alle leneth</l>
<l> <foreign>Non eligas cui miserearis · ne forte pretereas illum qui meretur accipere</foreign></l>
<l> <foreign>Quia incertum est pro quo deum<note>Bx.7.84: <hi><foreign>deum</foreign></hi>: This is clearly the <hi>Bx</hi> reading. M corrects <hi>deum</hi> to <hi>deo</hi>, in line with the reading of WHmG. For the quotation see Alford (1992), 54-5.</note> magis placeas</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ For wite ȝe neuere who is worthi · ac god wote who hath nede</l>
<l> In<note>Bx.7.86: <hi>In</hi>: R has <hi>Alle in</hi>, and F <hi>For in</hi>.</note> hym þat taketh is þe<note>Bx.7.86: <hi>þe</hi>: Omitted by alpha, perhaps correctly.</note> treccherye · if any tresoun walke</l>
<l> For he þat ȝiueth<note>Bx.7.87: <hi>ȝiueth</hi>: KD (p. 145) explain alpha's <hi>ȝift</hi> as "variation through misreading of an -<hi>eth</hi> suspension". It might also be noted that <title>MED</title> <hi>yeven</hi> records syncopated forms ending -<hi>th</hi> and -<hi>t</hi>.</note> ȝeldeth · and ȝarketh hym to reste</l>
<l> And he þat biddeth borweth · and bryngeth hym-self in dette</l>
<l> For<note>Bx.7.89: <hi>For</hi>: Alpha's <hi>Forthi</hi> perhaps anticipates <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.7.92</ref>.</note> beggeres borwen euermo · and her borgh is god almyȝti</l>
<l> To ȝelden hem þat ȝiueth hem · and ȝet vsure more</l>
<l> <foreign>Quare non dedisti peccuniam meam ad mensam vt ego veniens [& cetera]<note>Bx.7.91: <hi><foreign>veniens & cetera</foreign></hi>: So M. L ends <hi>veniens cum vsuris exigerem</hi>, but the variant readings suggest that scribes expanded an abbreviated quotation from Luke 19.23. Alford (1992), 55.</note> ·</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ For-þi biddeth nouȝt ȝe beggeres · but if ȝe haue gret nede<note>Bx.7.92: <hi>gret nede</hi>: Established for <hi>Bx</hi> by LMR as well as beta2. The others omit the adjective.</note></l>
<l> For who-so hath to buggen hym bred · þe boke bereth witnesse</l>
<l> He hath ynough þat hath bred ynough · þough he haue nouȝt elles</l>
<l> <foreign>Satis diues est qui non indiget pane</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ Late vsage be ȝowre solace · of seyntes lyues redyng</l>
<l> Þe boke banneth beggarie · and blameth hem<note>Bx.7.97: <hi>hem</hi>: Omitted by beta4. F rewrites.</note> in þis manere</l>
<l> <foreign>Iunior fui etenim senui · et non vidi iustum derelictum nec semen eius &c</foreign><note>Bx.7.98: <hi><foreign>semen eius &c</foreign></hi>: So LW; M ends with <hi>derelictum &c</hi>, R with <hi>iustum</hi>. CrHmCOF complete the verse from Psalm 36.25, <hi>... nec semen eius querens panem &c</hi>. Evidently scribes expanded a familiar quotation, as in l. <ref>91</ref>.</note></l>
<l><note>Bx.7.99: <hi></hi>: The paraph in LWHm (with a new line-group in M), though not alpha, is appropriate.</note> For ȝe<note>Bx.7.99: <hi>ȝe</hi>: <hi>AC</hi> have third person in this passage (K.8.72-3, RK.9.167). Bennett (1972), 221, explains that the following lines "represent an attempt to return to the original theme from which 71-88 [<ref><hi>Bx</hi>.7.75-97</ref>] (new in B) are a digression. The digression has involved the use of the 2nd person, which is retained up to 94, though the original 3rd person forms are kept in 93 [<ref><hi>Bx</hi>.7.103</ref>]". Though all <hi>B</hi> mss. have second person here, except for F which alters to <hi>beggeres</hi>, the situation is more complicated than Bennett suggests, since scribes altered to bring the pronouns into line. See notes to ll. <ref>100</ref>, <ref>103</ref>, <ref>104</ref>.</note> lyue in no loue · ne no lawe holde</l>
<l> Many of ȝow<note>Bx.7.100: <hi>of ȝow</hi>: As in the previous line, F alters, reading <hi>man</hi>, and consequently adopting sg. <hi>womman</hi> in the b-verse. See next note.</note> ne wedde nouȝt · þe wommen<note>Bx.7.100: <hi>wommen</hi>: The plural is supported by LMR as well as CrG. <hi>A</hi> mss. vary (K.8.73); <hi>Cx</hi> has the plural in a revised line (RK.9.168).</note> þat ȝe with delen</l>
<l> But as wilde bestis with wehe · worthen vppe and worchen</l>
<l> And bryngeth forth barnes · þat bastardes men calleth</l>
<l> Or þe bakke or some bone · he breketh in his<note>Bx.7.103: <hi>he ... his</hi>: Beta has sg. pronouns, but alpha has plural. <hi>A</hi> mss. have <hi>his bak</hi>, <hi>his bon</hi> and <hi>his ȝouþe</hi>, but rather oddly many have <hi>þei</hi> rather than <hi>he</hi> at the beginning of the b-verse. <hi>Cx</hi> brings the pronouns into line with the surrounding plurals.</note> ȝouthe</l>
<l> A<note>Bx.7.104: <hi>A</hi>: "And".</note> sitthe gon faiten with ȝoure<note>Bx.7.104: <hi>ȝoure</hi>: Beta represents <hi>Bx</hi>'s half-hearted attempt to put the passage into the second person; see note to l. <ref>99</ref>. O and alpha resolve the difficulty by altering back to third person, thus aligning with <hi>AC</hi>.</note> fauntes · for euermore after</l>
<l> Þere is moo mysshape peple · amonge<note>Bx.7.105: <hi>amonge</hi>: WMO and alpha have the form in -<hi>es</hi>. Either could be <hi>Bx</hi>. <hi>AC</hi> mss. also vary.</note> þise beggeres</l>
<l> Þan of alle maner men · þat on þis molde walketh</l>
<l> [Þo]<note>Bx.7.107: <hi>Þo</hi>: R only, but supported by <hi>AC</hi>. F adds <hi>For</hi>, while beta has <hi>And þei</hi>.</note> þat lyue þus here lyf · mowe lothe þe tyme</l>
<l> Þat euere he was man<note>Bx.7.108: <hi>he was man</hi>: Beta2 reads <hi>þei were men</hi>, but this is not supported by <hi>Ax</hi>.</note> wrouȝt · whan he shal hennes fare</l>
<l> ¶ Ac olde men & hore · þat helplees ben of strengthe</l>
<l> And women with childe · þat worche ne mowe</l>
<l> Blynde and bedered · and broken her membres</l>
<l> Þat taketh þis myschief<note>Bx.7.112: <hi>þis myschief</hi>: The sg. is established for <hi>Bx</hi> by agreement of LMR (F <hi>myssese</hi>) and <hi>Ax</hi>, though <hi>Cx</hi> has the plural.</note> mekelych · as meseles and othere</l>
<l> Han as pleyne pardoun [·] as þe plowman hym-self</l>
<l> For loue of her lowe hertis · owre lorde hath hem graunted</l>
<l> Here penaunce and here purgatorie · here [vp]on<note>Bx.7.115: <hi>vpon</hi>: In <hi>AC</hi> the b-verse reads <hi>vpon þis pur erþe</hi>. <hi>Bx</hi> has lost the alliterating adjective. R retains <hi>vpon</hi>, the alpha reading which F garbles, while beta reads <hi>on</hi>.</note> þis erthe</l>
<l> ¶ Pieres quod a prest þo · þi pardoun most I rede</l>
<l> For I [shal]<note>Bx.7.117: <hi>shal</hi>: Alpha's reading expressing necessity (cf. <hi>most</hi> in the line above) is more appropriate than the volition expressed by beta's <hi>wil</hi>. Most <hi>A</hi> mss. support alpha. <hi>Cx</hi> has <hi>can</hi> (RK.9.282).</note> construe eche clause · and kenne it þe on englich</l>
<l> ¶ And pieres at his preyere · þe pardoun vnfoldeth</l>
<l> And I bihynde hem bothe · bihelde al þe bulle</l>
<l> Al in two lynes it lay · and nouȝt a leef more</l>
<l> And was writen riȝt þus · in witnesse of treuthe</l>
<l> <foreign>Et qui bona egerunt ibunt in vitam eternam</foreign></l>
<l> <foreign>Qui vero mala in ignem eternum ·</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ Peter quod þe prest þo · I can no pardoun fynde</l>
<l> But dowel and haue wel · and god shal haue þi sowle</l>
<l> And do yuel and haue yuel · hope þow non other</l>
<l> Þat<note>Bx.7.127: <hi>Þat</hi>: LM and alpha, supported by <hi>Ax</hi>. Other beta mss. have <hi>But</hi>. Lines 127-52 are not in <hi>C</hi>.</note> after þi ded-day<note>Bx.7.127: <hi>ded-day</hi>: LCG have this form, though the usual form is <hi>deþ-day</hi>. Cf. note to l. <ref>52</ref> where R also has the form.</note> · þe deuel shal haue þi sowle</l>
<l> ¶ And pieres for pure tene · pulled it atweyne</l>
<l> And seyde <foreign>si ambulauero in medio vmbre mortis · non timebo mala quoniam tu mecum es</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ I shal cessen of my sowyng quod pieres · and swynk nouȝt so harde</l>
<l> Ne about my bely-ioye · so bisi be namore</l>
<l> Of preyers and of penaunce<note>Bx.7.132: <hi>penaunce</hi>: For variation with and without <-s>, see note to <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.14.211</ref>.</note> · my plow shal ben her-after</l>
<l> And wepen whan I shulde slepe · þough whete bred me faille</l>
<l> ¶ Þe prophete his payn ete · in penaunce and in sorwe</l>
<l> By þat þe sauter seith · so dede other manye</l>
<l> Þat loueth god lelly · his lyflode is ful esy</l>
<l> <foreign>Fuerunt michi lacrime mee · panes die ac nocte</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ And but if Luke lye · he lereth vs bi foules<note>Bx.7.138: <hi>bi foules</hi>: "(instructs us) by birds"; so beta, anticipating ll. <ref>142-3</ref>. Alpha's line means "Unless Luke lies or teaches us to be fools", which cannot be the sense intended. Schmidt accepts beta's <hi>he</hi> in place of alpha's <hi>or</hi>, and alpha's <hi>foles</hi> in place of beta's <hi>foules</hi>, and this indeed makes sense in reference to Luke's fool as the man who tells his soul to rest now he has laid up treasure for it: "Dixit autem illi Deus: Stulte, hac nocte animam tuam repetunt a te. ... Nolite solliciti esse animae quid manducetis" (Luke 12.20, 22, abbreviated in l. <ref>140</ref>). See Schmidt (1995), 376-7. It is worth noting, however, that <hi>leren</hi> is followed by a <hi>to</hi> infin. in the closest parallel "alle he lered to be lele" (<ref><hi>Bx</hi>.19.256</ref>). <hi>A</hi> is no help, with the variant readings <hi>by foules</hi>, <hi>by birdes</hi>, <hi>be folis</hi>, <hi>to ben foles</hi>. We retain copy-text.</note></l>
<l> We shulde nouȝt be to bisy · aboute þe worldes blisse</l>
<l> <foreign>Ne solliciti sitis</foreign> · he seyth in þe gospel</l>
<l> And sheweth vs bi ensamples · vs-selue to wisse</l>
<l> Þe foules on<note>Bx.7.142: <hi>on</hi>: Choice is difficult. The LM reading is generally reliable for beta. R's <hi>of</hi> may represent alpha, but F has <hi>in</hi> as do the remainder of the beta mss. The situation is further complicated by the apparent corruption of <hi>Bx</hi>; the gospel has <hi>volatilia caeli</hi> (Matt. 6.26), which <hi>Ax</hi> translates as <hi>foulis in þe firmament</hi> (K.8.115), suggesting that <hi>on þe felde</hi> is a <hi>Bx</hi> error prompting scribes to improve. We follow copy-text.</note> þe felde · who fynt hem mete at<note>Bx.7.142: <hi>at</hi>: Supported by LMWCOR against the repetition of <hi>in</hi> in CrHmF, even though <hi>A</hi> mss. have either <hi>in</hi> or <hi>a</hi>.</note> wynter</l>
<l> Haue þei no gernere to go to · but god fynt hem alle</l>
<l> ¶ What quod þe prest to perkyn · peter as me þinketh</l>
<l> Þow art lettred a litel · who lerned þe on boke</l>
<l> ¶ Abstinence þe abbesse<note>Bx.7.146: <hi>þe abbesse</hi>: Lost in alpha but supported by <hi>Ax</hi> and necessary for the alliteration.</note> quod pieres · myne abc me tauȝte</l>
<l> And conscience come afterward · and kenned me moche more</l>
<l> ¶ Were þow a prest pieres quod he · þow miȝte preche where þow sholdest<note>Bx.7.148: <hi>sholdest</hi>: The beta reading. R's <hi>woldest</hi> is perhaps easier; F revises. <hi>Ax</hi> has <hi>þe likide</hi>.</note></l>
<l> As deuynour in<note>Bx.7.149: <hi>in</hi>: G and alpha have <hi>of</hi>, perhaps rightly. Cf. <hi>of diuinite Maistres</hi> (<ref><hi>Bx</hi>.15.396</ref>). There is no parallel in <hi>Ax</hi>.</note> deuynyte · with <foreign>dixit insipiens</foreign> to þi teme</l>
<l> ¶ Lewed lorel quod Pieres · litel lokestow on þe<note>Bx.7.150: <hi>þe</hi>: Supported by <hi>Ax</hi>. R's <hi>þi</hi> is perhaps prompted by <hi>þi</hi> in the same position in the line above.</note> bible</l>
<l> On<note>Bx.7.151: <hi>On</hi>: Beta is supported by <hi>Ax</hi> against R's <hi>And</hi> (F rewrites).</note> salomones sawes · selden þow biholdest</l>
<l> <foreign>Ecce<note>Bx.7.152: <hi><foreign>Ecce</foreign></hi>: The reading of all <hi>A</hi> and most <hi>B</hi> mss. OF "correct" to <hi>Eice</hi> (KD mistranscribe MR as <hi>Eice</hi>). For this line from Prov. 22.10, "Eiice ['eject'] derisores ...", see Alford (1992), 57.</note> derisores et iurgia cum eis ne crescant &c</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ Þe prest and perkyn · apposeden eyther other</l>
<l> And I þorw here wordes awoke · and waited aboute</l>
<l> And seighe þe sonne in þe south [·] sitte þat tyme</l>
<l> Metelees and monelees · on Maluerne hulles</l>
<l> Musyng on þis meteles · [a]<note>Bx.7.157: <hi>a</hi>: "on": Since <hi>AC</hi> read <hi>a myle wey</hi>, we conjecture that R's <hi>a my wey</hi>, supported by M's <hi>on my way</hi>, represents the corrupt <hi>Bx</hi>, understood as <hi>and my waye</hi> by most scribes, and characteristically expanded by F to <hi>as y my way</hi>.</note> my waye ich ȝede</l>
<l> Many tyme þis meteles · hath maked me to studye</l>
<l> Of þat I seigh slepyng · if it so be myȝte</l>
<l> And also for peres þe plowman · ful pensyf in herte</l>
<l> And which a pardoun peres hadde · alle þe peple to conforte</l>
<l> And how þe prest impugned it [·] with two propre wordes</l>
<l> Ac I haue no sauoure in songewarie · for I se it ofte faille</l>
<l> Catoun and canonistres · conseilleth vs to leue</l>
<l> To sette sadnesse in songewarie · for <foreign>sompnia ne cures</foreign></l>
<l> ¶ Ac for þe boke bible<note>Bx.7.166: <hi>þe boke bible</hi>: This rather odd expression, altered by HmCGOF, is confirmed by <hi>Cx</hi> and paralleled by <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.10.93</ref>, though <hi>Ax</hi> reads <hi>þe bible</hi>.</note> · bereth witnesse</l>
<l> How danyel deuyned · þe dremes<note>Bx.7.167: <hi>dremes</hi>: Some <hi>A</hi> mss. have the sg. as in WHmR. The X family of <hi>C</hi> has the plural, the P family has <hi>dremels</hi> (as in l. <ref>169</ref>).</note> of a kynge</l>
<l> Þat was nabugodonosor · nempned of clerkis</l>
<l> Daniel seyde sire Kynge · þi dremeles<note>Bx.7.169: <hi>dremeles</hi>: "dream-vision" (sg. or pl.). A word only recorded in Langland. As in <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.13.14</ref> (where F is absent), CrHmCF corrupt to <hi>dremes</hi>.</note> bitokneth</l>
<l> Þat vnkouth knyȝtes shul come · þi kyngdom to cleue<note>Bx.7.170: <hi>cleue</hi>: LMGO against easier <hi>cleyme</hi> in beta2 and C, and hence the beta reading. Alpha has <hi>reue</hi>, but the sense of <hi>cleue</hi> is continued in <hi>departed</hi> in the next line, and confirmed by Daniel 5.28, "divisum est regnum tuum". Yet all <hi>A</hi> mss. except one have <hi>cleyme</hi>. Probably the comparative difficulty of <hi>cleue</hi> (<title>MED</title> <hi>cleven</hi> v.(2), 4, "break up, dismember") led scribes to alter it. The line is not in <hi>C</hi>.</note></l>
<l> Amonges lowere lordes · þi londe shal be departed</l>
<l> And as danyel deuyned [·] in dede it felle after</l>
<l> Þe kynge lese his lordship · and lower men it hadde</l>
<l> ¶ And ioseph mette merueillously · how þe mone and þe sonne</l>
<l> And þe elleuene sterres · hailsed hym alle</l>
<l> <note>Bx.7.176: W and Alpha here have a paraph.</note>Þanne Iacob iugged · iosephes sweuene</l>
<l> <foreign>Beau filtz</foreign> quod his fader · for defaute we shullen</l>
<l> I my-self and my sones · seche þe for nede</l>
<l> ¶ It bifel as his fader seyde · in pharaoes tyme</l>
<l> Þat ioseph was iustice · egipte to loken</l>
<l> It bifel as his fader tolde · his frendes þere hym souȝte<note>Bx.7.181: <hi>þere hym souȝte</hi>: R has the order <hi>hym þere souȝte</hi>, and F has <hi>sowtyn þere</hi>. In <hi>Cx</hi> the equivalent b-verse is <hi>hym for nede souhte</hi> (RK.9.316).</note></l>
<l> And al þis maketh me · on þis meteles to þynke</l>
<l> ¶ And how þe prest preued · no pardoun to dowel</l>
<l> And demed þat dowel · indulgences<note>Bx.7.184: <hi>indulgences</hi>: CR's <hi>indulgence</hi> may also be plural. See note to <ref><hi>Bx</hi>.3.23</ref> and variants in l. <ref>209</ref>.</note> passed</l>
<l> Biennales and triennales · and bisschopes lettres</l>
<l> And how dowel at þe day of dome · is dignelich vnderfongen</l>
<l> And passeth al þe pardoun · of seynt petres cherche</l>
<l><note>Bx.7.188-96: <hi></hi>: O omits the paragraph.</note> Now hath þe pope powere ·<note>Bx.7.188: RM punctuate the line after <hi>pardoun</hi>, reflecting uncertainty over the very heavy b-verse which F abbreviates.</note> pardoun to graunte þe peple</l>
<l> With-outen eny penaunce · to passen in-to heuene</l>
<l> Þis is owre bileue · as lettered men vs techeth</l>
<l> <foreign>Quodcumque ligaueris super terram · erit ligatum et in celis &c ·</foreign></l>
<l> And so I leue lelly · lordes forbode ellis</l>
<l> Þat pardoun and penaunce · and preyeres don saue</l>
<l> Soules þat haue synned · seuene sithes dedly</l>
<l> Ac to trust to þise triennales · trewly me þinketh</l>
<l> [It]<note>Bx.7.196: <hi>It</hi>: Alpha's resumed subject is perhaps more likely to have been lost than added. <hi>A</hi> and <hi>C</hi> also vary, though <hi>It</hi> is supported by the X family of <hi>C</hi>.</note> is nouȝt so syker for þe soule · certis as is dowel</l>
<l> ¶ For-þi I rede ȝow renkes<note>Bx.7.197: <hi>renkes</hi>: Alpha has no difficulty with the seven other instances of <hi>renk</hi>.</note> · þat riche ben on þis erthe</l>
<l> Vppon trust of ȝowre tresoure · triennales to haue</l>
<l> Be ȝe neuere þe balder · to breke þe x hestes</l>
<l> And namelich ȝe maistres · mayres and iugges</l>
<l> Þat han þe welthe of þis worlde · and<note>Bx.7.201: <hi>and</hi>: Alpha supported by <hi>AC</hi> over <hi>and for</hi> in LMWHmCr.</note> wyse men ben holden</l>
<l> To purchace ȝow pardoun · and þe popis bulles</l>
<l> At þe dredeful dome · whan ded shullen rise<note>Bx.7.208: <hi>rise</hi>: LW and alpha, against <hi>arise</hi> in others. Most <hi>C</hi> mss. have the former, most <hi>A</hi> mss. the latter.</note></l>
<l> And comen alle bifor cryst · acountis<note>Bx.7.204: <hi>acountis</hi>: Alpha begins the b-verse with <hi>and</hi>, but this is not supported by <hi>AC</hi>.</note> to ȝelde</l>
<l> How þow laddest þi lyf here · and his lawes keptest</l>
<l> And how þow dedest<note>Bx.7.206: <hi>dedest</hi>: Beta's past tense is supported by <hi>AC</hi> against alpha's present.</note> day bi day · þe dome wil reherce</l>
<l> A poke<note>Bx.7.207: <hi>poke</hi>: For R's form <hi>pouhȝ</hi> see <title>MED</title> <hi>pough(e</hi>, but both forms derive from OE <hi>pohha</hi>. R's less common form is paralleled among <hi>A</hi> mss. by V <hi>powhe</hi>, and among <hi>C</hi> mss. by X <hi>pouhe</hi>.</note> ful of pardoun þere · ne prouinciales lettres</l>
<l> Theigh ȝe be founde in þe fraternete · of alle þe <app><rdg>foure</rdg><rdg>fyue</rdg></app><note>Bx.7.208: <hi>foure / fyue</hi>: <hi>Ax</hi> supports beta and F with <hi>foure</hi>, but R has <hi>fyue</hi>. Here and twice elsewhere (RK.8.191, 9.344, 15.80) <hi>Cx</hi> refers to the five mendicant orders (the usual four plus the crutched friars). Probably R represents a revision, with F reverting to the more usual number of orders.</note> ordres</l>
<l> And haue indulgences double-folde · but<note>Bx.7.209: <hi>but</hi>: Alpha is supported by <hi>AC</hi> against beta's <hi>but if</hi>.</note> dowel ȝow help</l>
<l> I sette ȝowre patentes and ȝowre pardou[n]<note>Bx.7.210: <hi>pardoun</hi>: The sg. is supported by <hi>Cx</hi>; L's plural is the result of a later correction. F omits the line.</note> [·] at one pies hele</l>
<l> ¶ For-þi I conseille alle cristene · to crye god mercy</l>
<l> And Marie his moder · be owre mene bitwene</l>
<l> Þat god gyue vs grace here · ar we gone hennes</l>
<l> Suche werkes to werche · while<note>Bx.7.214: <hi>while</hi>: Beta is supported by <hi>Ax</hi> and the P family of <hi>C</hi>. The X family, however, has <hi>þe while</hi> as alpha.</note> we ben here</l>
<l> Þat after owre deth-day · dowel reherce</l>
<l> At þe day of dome · we dede as he hiȝte</l>